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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mechanisms That Limit Oxidative Phosphorylation During High-Intensity Muscle Contractions In Vivo, Miles F. Bartlett Oct 2019

Mechanisms That Limit Oxidative Phosphorylation During High-Intensity Muscle Contractions In Vivo, Miles F. Bartlett

Doctoral Dissertations

Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity plays a critical role in human health and disease. Although current models of oxidative phosphorylation sufficiently describe skeletal muscle energetics during moderate-intensity contractions, much is still unknown about the mechanisms that control and limit oxidative phosphorylation during high-intensity contractions. In particular, the oxygen cost of force generation is augmented during exercise at workloads above the lactate threshold. Presently, it is unclear whether this augmentation in muscle oxygen consumption is driven by increased rates of oxidative ATP synthesis (ATPOX) or by decreases in the efficiency of ATPOX due to mitochondrial uncoupling. To address this gap ...


Tropomyosin-Based Effects Of Acidosis On Thin-Filament Regulation During Muscle Fatigue, Brent Scott Jul 2019

Tropomyosin-Based Effects Of Acidosis On Thin-Filament Regulation During Muscle Fatigue, Brent Scott

Masters Theses

Skeletal muscle fatigue is defined as a loss in the force/velocity generating capacity of a muscle. A portion of the loss in function is attributable to effects of acidosis (i.e. low pH) on the regulatory proteins, troponin and tropomyosin (Tm), which regulate the binding of myosin and actin in a calcium (Ca++) dependent manner. However, the relative role of troponin and Tm on myosin-actin function during acidosis is not clear, nor are the mechanisms underlying these effects. PURPOSE: To determine the role of Tm in the acidosis-induced depression of muscle function using isolated muscle proteins in an in ...


Volumetric Muscle Loss: The Role Of Physical Activity And Autologous Repair On Force Recovery And Signaling Pathways, Richard Perry May 2019

Volumetric Muscle Loss: The Role Of Physical Activity And Autologous Repair On Force Recovery And Signaling Pathways, Richard Perry

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss affects both military and civilian persons. The hallmark of this injury is incomplete muscle regeneration, excessive fibrosis, and chronic inflammatory signaling resulting in permanent functional loss. Since permanent functional loss drastically reduces quality of life, many studies have been conducted to improve force recovery. Current scientific literature considers a repair strategy of either devitalized scaffolds infused with growth factors or viable tissue plus activating factors to be the more promising interventions for optimal force recovery. PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to incorporate autologous repair and physical activity and observe the effects of muscle force recovery ...


Effects Of Resistance Training Frequency On Muscle Function Adaptations Using A Multiple-Joint Eccentric Training Model, Joshua Crane May 2019

Effects Of Resistance Training Frequency On Muscle Function Adaptations Using A Multiple-Joint Eccentric Training Model, Joshua Crane

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Eccentric resistance training has been shown to be beneficial for improving multiple performance and health metrics. However, recommendations on eccentric training frequency have not been established. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of volume-matched resistance training frequency comparing one versus three training days per week of isokinetic multiple-joint eccentric training on strength and lower body function adaptations during a 4-week training period. METHODS: Thirty recreationally-trained men and women were randomly assigned to either a high frequency (HF), three times per week, or low frequency (LF), once per week, training group for four weeks. A motor-driven isokinetic eccentric dynamometer was used for ...


The Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue During The Progression Of Cancer Cachexia, Brandon N. Vanderveen Apr 2019

The Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue During The Progression Of Cancer Cachexia, Brandon N. Vanderveen

Theses and Dissertations

Cachexia is the unintentional loss of body weight secondary to chronic disease and is prevalent is roughly 50% of cancer patients. The loss of body weight and skeletal muscle mass is reduced functional capacity associated with reduced life quality. The etiology of cachexia is multimodal and complex; however, cachexia has been linked to several systemic (e.g. chronic inflammation, hypogonadism, anemia, insulin resistance) and behavioral (e.g. anorexia, inactivity) changes that can compound to accelerate muscle mass and body weight loss. While several inflammatory cytokines are associated with cachexia’s disease progression, our laboratory has established that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is ...


Effect Of Trb3 On Skeletal Muscle Mass Regulation And Exercise-Induced Adaptation, Ran Hee Choi Apr 2019

Effect Of Trb3 On Skeletal Muscle Mass Regulation And Exercise-Induced Adaptation, Ran Hee Choi

Theses and Dissertations

Skeletal muscle, which composes over 40% of body mass, is responsible for daily locomotion and energy metabolism. It is a malleable tissue that can adapt its structure and function in response to internal and external environmental stimuli. Changing muscle mass and energy substrate utilization is a common skeletal muscle adaptation in response to various pathological conditions, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Failure to maintain skeletal muscle mass and function has been correlated with increasing morbidity and mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Hence, maintenance of skeletal muscle integrity is a recommended strategy in achieving better quality of ...