Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 149

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Psychological Responses To High-Intensity Interval Training Exercise: A Comparison Of Ungraded Running And Graded Walking, Abby Fleming Mar 2019

Psychological Responses To High-Intensity Interval Training Exercise: A Comparison Of Ungraded Running And Graded Walking, Abby Fleming

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effects of ungraded running and graded walking as modalities of HIIT on enjoyment, perceived exertion, and affect. 29 healthy males and females (aged 23.3 ± 5.1) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants completed six visits to the laboratory: the first was a medical screening to ensure safety of the participants. For the second and third visits, participants completed two maximal treadmill exercise tests, one running and one walking. On the fourth visit, the speed needed for the run HIIT (running speed: 6.9 ± 1.2mph) and the grade needed for the walk HIIT (walking ...


Associations Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness And Muscular Strength With Arterial Stiffness In Older Adults, Emma Elizabeth Albin Jan 2019

Associations Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness And Muscular Strength With Arterial Stiffness In Older Adults, Emma Elizabeth Albin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: To evaluate the independent and combined associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular strength (MS) with arterial stiffness (AS) in older adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 427 older adults aged ≥65 years (mean age 72). CRF was assessed by time (seconds) to complete a 400-m walk test and MS by overall grip strength (maximum out of 3 trials on each hand, averaged; Jamar Plus+ 12-064). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used to assess AS (AtCor, Sphygmocor Xcel). High AS was defined as a PWV of 10 m/s or greater, as it has been established as a ...


Effects Of Preseason Concussion Education On Self-Reported Likelihood And Confidence In Concussion Reporting, Dana Edward Cash Jan 2019

Effects Of Preseason Concussion Education On Self-Reported Likelihood And Confidence In Concussion Reporting, Dana Edward Cash

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Around three million concussions happen in the United States from sport and recreational activity alone, and it is estimated 50% of concussions go undiagnosed. Collegiate athletes have been found to not report their symptoms of concussion mainly because they felt their symptoms were not severe enough and they did not think there were any long-term consequences from continuing to play. This study attempts to find if preseason concussion education for collegiate hockey players and club athletes changes their perceptions about concussions, and if these changes are maintained after returning to sport/competition. This study used three identical surveys over three ...


Effects Of Boxing On Force Characteristics In The Upper Extremities In People With Parkinson’S Disease Compared To Healthy Younger And Healthy Older Adults, Olivia Meyer Jan 2019

Effects Of Boxing On Force Characteristics In The Upper Extremities In People With Parkinson’S Disease Compared To Healthy Younger And Healthy Older Adults, Olivia Meyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to the nature of Parkinson’s disease (PD), force output characteristics of the muscles may become impaired in people with PD. Forced exercise and power-based resistance training exercise are trending modalities used to target the physiological effects of PD on muscle activity as an alternative to pharmaceutical and surgical treatments. Movements performed in boxing incorporate high-ballistic motions similar to those utilized in power-training. The objective of this is study is to determine the effects of an acute session of boxing on muscle activity in the upper extremities of persons with PD compared to healthy older adults and healthy younger ...


Associations Of Muscular Strength And Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Bone Mineral Density In Older Adults, Hyunsoo Kim Jan 2019

Associations Of Muscular Strength And Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Bone Mineral Density In Older Adults, Hyunsoo Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: To evaluate the independent and combined associations of muscular strength (MS) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with bone mineral density (BMD) in older adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 353 older adults (189 women and 164 men) aged 65 years or older (mean ages 72 and 71 in women and men, respectively). MS was assessed by grip strength (average of the highest force values after three trials on each hand, Jamar+ digital hand dynamometer, Patterson Medical) and CRF was assessed by the 400-meter walk test (minutes to complete 400-meter walking). Whole-body BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic ...


Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortical Hemodynamics, Cognitive Inhibition, And Affective Responses To Exercise Among Children: Implications For Pediatric Exercise Prescription, Matthew A. Ladwig Jan 2019

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortical Hemodynamics, Cognitive Inhibition, And Affective Responses To Exercise Among Children: Implications For Pediatric Exercise Prescription, Matthew A. Ladwig

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Preliminary evidence suggests that children may report decreasing pleasure throughout incremental exercise tests. This pattern of affective responses might be related to the deviation of incremental and prolonged patterns of exercise from the innate propensity of children for intermittent movement. Furthermore, the self-regulation of affective responses during exercise may require cognitive strategies underpinned by cortical networks still under development during childhood. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine (1) whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortical (dlPFC) activity is associated with affective responses during an incremental cycling exercise test, and (2) whether theoretically relevant covariates moderate affective responses and dlPFC activation ...


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Is Modified By The Timing Of The Successful Identification Of Directional Cues, Mitchell Lewis Stephenson Jan 2019

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Is Modified By The Timing Of The Successful Identification Of Directional Cues, Mitchell Lewis Stephenson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite our best efforts, anterior cruciate ligament injury rates remain high in many athletic populations. Over the past two decades, investigations have sought to identify the potential role cognition may play in the functional injury mechanism. Across the body of literature, there is a general consensus that rapid, reactive environments found in team sports increase injury risk. But the precise biomechanical change in lower extremity control has been inconsistently identified across multiple investigations. We previously identified that an important, often uncontrolled component of rapid reactive movements is the timing of the directional cue to which the athlete responds. Reductions in ...


Methods And Evaluation Of A Health Coach Training Practicum Experience For Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Change, Kathryn Kathryn Deshaw Jan 2019

Methods And Evaluation Of A Health Coach Training Practicum Experience For Healthy Lifestyle Behavior Change, Kathryn Kathryn Deshaw

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The promotion of healthy lifestyle behaviors is a high public health priority due to the strong links to chronic disease and the associated impacts on health and quality of life. Motivational interviewing-based health coaching is a popular behavior change strategy to work toward encouraging healthy-decision making and provide accountability in making progress toward health goals and outcomes. A key priority in the field of health coaching is proper training to ensure proficient health coaches to engage with clients, participants, or patients for healthy lifestyle change. The purposes of this dissertation were to: 1) develop and implement an effective semester-based course ...


Evaluating The Effects Of External Load, Incline And Walking Speed On Iliotibial Band Strain In Wildland Firefighters, Laura Stacy Jan 2019

Evaluating The Effects Of External Load, Incline And Walking Speed On Iliotibial Band Strain In Wildland Firefighters, Laura Stacy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wildland firefighters (WFF) and military personnel encounter extreme environments and working conditions as part of their occupation. High rates of overuse knee injury have been recorded in both populations, with Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS) being the highest reported overuse injury within the military. However, occupational demands that could contribute to such rates of ITBS have not been evaluated. PURPOSE: To evaluate if the effects of slow walking speed, external load carriage and incline increase strain and strain impulse of the ITB as a predictor of ITBS risk and to update the current ITB model to include the active components of ...


Biomechanical Effects Of Shod Vs. Unshod Deadlift In Males, Jacob La Marche Jan 2019

Biomechanical Effects Of Shod Vs. Unshod Deadlift In Males, Jacob La Marche

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are many forms of resistance training, with the barbell squat, bench press, and deadlift being three of the most popular exercises. The squat and bench press have been examined extensively, while the deadlift has not. The purpose of this study was to examine participants performing the barbell deadlift while wearing their normal lifting shoes and while barefoot. Thirty male participants aged 18-30 and with at least one year of deadlift experience were recruited for this study. An eight camera system and a force platform was used to measure three-dimensional movements and ground reaction forces during 80% one repetition maximum ...


Human Body Motions Optimization For Able-Bodied Individuals And Prosthesis Users During Activities Of Daily Living Using A Personalized Robot-Human Model, Dimitrios Menychtas Nov 2018

Human Body Motions Optimization For Able-Bodied Individuals And Prosthesis Users During Activities Of Daily Living Using A Personalized Robot-Human Model, Dimitrios Menychtas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current clinical practice regarding upper body prosthesis prescription and training is lacking a standarized, quantitative method to evaluate the impact of the prosthetic device. The amputee care team typically uses prior experiences to provide prescription and training customized for each individual. As a result, it is quite challenging to determine the right type and fit of a prosthesis and provide appropriate training to properly utilize it early in the process. It is also very difficult to anticipate expected and undesired compensatory motions due to reduced degrees of freedom of a prosthesis user. In an effort to address this, a tool ...


Design And Testing Of A Passive Prosthetic Ankle Foot Optimized To Mimic An Able-Bodied Gait, Millicent Schlafly Jun 2018

Design And Testing Of A Passive Prosthetic Ankle Foot Optimized To Mimic An Able-Bodied Gait, Millicent Schlafly

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently there are nearly 2 million people living with limb loss in the United States [1]. Many of these individuals are either transtibial (below knee) or transfemoral (above knee) amputees and require an ankle-foot prosthesis for basic mobility. While there are an abundance of options available for individuals who require an ankle-foot prosthesis, these options fail to mimic an intact ankle when it comes to key evaluation criteria such as range of motion, push-off force, and roll over shape. The roll over shape is created by plotting the center of pressure during a step in a shank-based coordinate system. To ...


Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott Mar 2018

Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease affecting nearly 1% of the world’s population with symptoms such as inflammation, pain, and reduced strength [1]. Physicians and scientists work to develop pharmaceuticals and medical devices aimed at decreasing the symptoms associated with RA to better the lives of those affected. One of the most recent developments is the addition of thermal therapy gloves to the array of upper limb orthoses available to patients with RA. It was hypothesized that this study will show that orthoses in the form of thermal therapy gloves are beneficial to the patients by reducing symptoms ...


Developing Motion Platform Dynamics For Studying Biomechanical Responses During Exercise For Human Spaceflight Applications, Kaitlin Lostroscio Mar 2018

Developing Motion Platform Dynamics For Studying Biomechanical Responses During Exercise For Human Spaceflight Applications, Kaitlin Lostroscio

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In future human spaceflight missions, with prolonged exposure to microgravity, resistive and aerobic exercises will be countermeasures for bone loss, muscle loss, and decreased aerobic capacity. Two of the exercises of interest are squats and rowing. The cyclic forces produced during these exercises are at relatively low frequencies which are likely to excite structural resonances of space vehicles. Vibration Isolation Systems (VIS) are being designed to be paired with future exploration exercise devices in order to prevent these cyclic exercise forces from impacting the space vehicle. The VIS may be configured such that a platform supports the human and exercise ...


Femur/Femoral Neck Load Estimation During Stair Navigation, Chen Deng Jan 2018

Femur/Femoral Neck Load Estimation During Stair Navigation, Chen Deng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Project 1:

Femoral neck is of particular concern in the hip fractures and aging. A better understanding of the hip loading environment is helpful for the hip fracture prevention, rehabilitation, and the design of osteogenic exercises. This study was to compare the femoral neck stresses between young and older adults during stair ascent and descent, and to identify the contribution of muscle and reaction forces to the stress. Motion analysis and inverse dynamics method, musculoskeletal and elliptical femoral neck cross-section models were used to estimate stress on the femoral neck. During stair ascent, a significantly increased tension at the superior ...


The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan Jan 2018

The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The occurrence of low back pain in society is a widespread and costly problem, while running is an accessible and common form of physical exercise. The intervertebral disc is a commonly studied location of interest within the low back, however limited research has been performed attempting to assess the risks or benefits associated with running on the health of the intervertebral disc, with zero research which estimates in-vivo loading on the intervertebral disc during running. Meanwhile, the available literature is not in agreement on whether running poses more of a risk or a benefit to intervertebral disc health, with some ...


Physical Activity And Sarcopenia In Older Adults, Nathan Frederick Meier Jan 2018

Physical Activity And Sarcopenia In Older Adults, Nathan Frederick Meier

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aging process is typically associated with loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. At a certain threshold, low levels of muscle mass, strength, and function are considered a disease called sarcopenia, which is associated with increased risk of falls, loss of independence, mobility issues, and mortality. Evidence suggests some of the risk factors for sarcopenia, such as sedentary lifestyle, low physical activity, bedrest, chronic disease, certain drug treatments, malnutrition, anabolic resistance, intermuscular adipose tissue infiltration, and decreased neuromuscular activation, are modifiable. Also, both the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia call for prescription of physical activity. Therefore, the overall interest ...


Impact Of Acute Heat Treatment On Autophagy And Insulin Signaling In C2c12 Myotubes, Corey Michael Summers Jan 2018

Impact Of Acute Heat Treatment On Autophagy And Insulin Signaling In C2c12 Myotubes, Corey Michael Summers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes is reduced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. It is known that exercise and caloric restriction can improve skeletal muscle insulin resistance, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely elucidated. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is thought to be a major contributor to the metabolic benefits observed after exercise training and caloric restriction. Activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle can have a wide range of effects, one of which is the initiation of macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy). Autophagy is the bulk degradation system of the cell ...


The Effect Of Dehydration And Rehydration With A High Potassium Beverage On Muscular Strength In Collegiate Males, Mitchell Zaplatosch Jan 2018

The Effect Of Dehydration And Rehydration With A High Potassium Beverage On Muscular Strength In Collegiate Males, Mitchell Zaplatosch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Dehydration has been shown to impact both health and aerobic exercise performance, with less research examining the impact of dehydration on muscular strength. Rapid weight loss via dehydration is a common practice in several weight class sports dealing with muscular strength and power. Exercisers may also unintentionally begin a resistance training session in a dehydrated state as a result of hot environmental conditions or failure to restore fluid balance following previous activity, possibly inhibiting performance. Most rehydration strategies have focused on the inclusion of sodium in a beverage to restore plasma volume, while less have considered the role of ...


Utility Of The Handgrip And Vertical Jump Assessments As Fitness Indicators In Physical Education, Jessica Ann Velthoff Jan 2018

Utility Of The Handgrip And Vertical Jump Assessments As Fitness Indicators In Physical Education, Jessica Ann Velthoff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As research continues to provide evidence supporting musculoskeletal fitness as a strong indicator of an individual’s overall health, proposals for further evidence substantiating select indicator’s powerful link with youth health outcomes have been made. The vertical jump, a measure of lower body power, and handgrip strength, a measure of upper body musculoskeletal strength, have both been acknowledged as being strong measures of one’s health, and recommended for potential use in school fitness testing. FitnessGram®, the default fitness testing battery in United States (US) schools, is currently working to include these two measures to provide a more ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee Jan 2018

Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine lameness is an economic drain on producers and is a welfare issue. There are many causes of lameness; however, most causes involve the hoof. One of the supporting structures of the hoof is the interface between the hard epidermal layer and the sensitive dermal layer and is referred to as the lamina. Lamina consist of leaflets of tissue that interdigitate with one another to allow for constant renewal and remodeling of these hoof attachments. Systemic or traumatic insults can compromise the integrity of the lamina and may result in reduced ambulatory capabilities of the animal, pain, and a myriad ...


Online Communities Of Practice As A Strategy For Staff Involvement In Switch, Rebecca Harken Jan 2018

Online Communities Of Practice As A Strategy For Staff Involvement In Switch, Rebecca Harken

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAP) target physical activity behaviors through the recommended “whole-of-school” approach which recommends staff from all areas of school should be involved in health promotion. The component of Staff Involvement is highly effective at improving student health behaviors; however, descriptive research in this area is limited. One program that focuses on supporting school staff to lead school wellness programing is SWITCH. It is recommended that school staff should be given opportunities for professional development that are ongoing and collaborative, and online communities of practice (CoP) have been shown to support staff in this way. Therefore, the ...


Estimation Of Physical Activity Using Accelerometry In Adult Populations: Using The Sensewear Armband And The Act24 As Comparison Tools For The Estimation Of Energy Expenditure And Physical Activity Intensity By The Sojourn Method, Matthew Stewart Jan 2018

Estimation Of Physical Activity Using Accelerometry In Adult Populations: Using The Sensewear Armband And The Act24 As Comparison Tools For The Estimation Of Energy Expenditure And Physical Activity Intensity By The Sojourn Method, Matthew Stewart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Accurate assessments of physical activity are essential for advancing many lines of physical activity research. Numerous physical activity assessment techniques have been developed, but continual refinement and evaluation of these techniques is important to further improve accuracy and precision. A machine-learning technique known as the Sojourn method has demonstrated promise for improving the accuracy of accelerometer-based physical activity monitors, such as the widely used Actigraph. However, fewer studies have validated this method under free-living conditions. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of the Sojourn method for estimating energy expenditure and time spent at various intensities ...


The Effects Of Predisposition And Direction On Ankle Sprain Risk Predictive Factors During Jump Landing, Caleb R. Radley Jan 2018

The Effects Of Predisposition And Direction On Ankle Sprain Risk Predictive Factors During Jump Landing, Caleb R. Radley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ankle sprains are regarded as one of the most common lower extremity injury in sports. Previous research studying ankle sprain risk factors has examined the role of anticipation on dynamic movements such as cutting and jump landing. However, no previous research has examined the role of predisposition on ankle sprain risk during jump landing. As a result, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of jump direction and predisposition on ankle sprain risk predictive factors during jump landing. Seventeen participants participated in a jump-land-jump task in which the direction of the second jump was indicated before the ...


Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry, Tyagi Ramakrishnan Nov 2017

Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry, Tyagi Ramakrishnan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human gait is a complex process that involves the coordination of the central nervous and muscular systems. A disruption to the either system results in the impairment of a person’s ability to walk. Impairments can be caused by neurological disorders such as stroke and physical conditions like amputation. There is not a standardized method to quantitatively assess the gait asymmetry of affected subjects. The purpose of this research is to understand the fundamental aspects of asymmetrical effects on the human body and improve rehabilitation techniques and devices. This research takes an interdisciplinary approach to address the limitations with current ...


A Program Evaluation Of A Worksite Wellness Initiative For Weight Loss, Nicholas Martinez Jul 2017

A Program Evaluation Of A Worksite Wellness Initiative For Weight Loss, Nicholas Martinez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of ACME’s worksite weight loss initiative and collect evidence relative to the efficacy of the program. An anonymous online survey was administered to participants of the weight loss initiative. The survey was designed to gather information relative to the research questions, which explored the initiative’s barriers to participation, alignment of initiative with the goals of participants, utilization of initiative resources, overall strengths, weaknesses, and areas of improvement for the weight loss initiative, as well as the respondents’ general profile for the six dimensions of wellness. Reporting of ...


Functional Trade-Offs In Feeding Performance In Salamanders Of The Family Salamandridae, Charlotte M. Stinson Jun 2017

Functional Trade-Offs In Feeding Performance In Salamanders Of The Family Salamandridae, Charlotte M. Stinson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Performance is an organism’s ability to accomplish a particular task or behavior, and morphology can have a major impact on the performance of an organism. Salamanders are ecologically diverse and can feed using a variety of behaviors depending on the environment in which feeding occurs. Feeding is accomplished through the use of the hyobranchial apparatus, which lies along the oropharynx, and this structure can have competing roles; in aquatic environments the apparatus is used for suction feeding and works to depress the floor of the mouth, but during terrestrial feeding this structure projects the tongue forward out of the ...


The Interaction Of Scale And Temperature In Elastically Powered Movements, Jeffrey P. Olberding Jun 2017

The Interaction Of Scale And Temperature In Elastically Powered Movements, Jeffrey P. Olberding

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

For many animals, rapid movements place high power demands on underlying muscles. Storage of muscle energy in elastic structures and the subsequent rapid release of that energy can effectively amplify muscle power. Elastic recoil can also confer thermal robustness to performance in behaviors occurring at variable temperatures. Muscle contractile performance tends to decrease at lower temperatures, but elastic recoil is less affected by temperature. Here I examine the impacts of temperature and scale in systems using elastic recoil and I explore possible interactive effects on movement performance.

I explored the role that muscle contractile properties play in the differences in ...


The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight Jun 2017

The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the investigation and development of an effective prosthetic training and rehabilitation platform with the use of virtual reality to facilitate an effective process to return amputees to the highest level of independence and functioning possible.

It has been reported that approximately 10 million people live with a limb loss worldwide, with around 30% being an upper-extremity amputee. The sudden loss of a hand or arm causes the loss of fine, coordinated movements, reduced joint range of motion (ROM), proprioceptive feedback and aesthetic appearance, all which can be improved with the use of a prosthesis and proper ...


Tiered Vs. Traditional Daily Undulating Periodization For Improving Powerlifting Performance In Trained Males, Andres Vargas Mar 2017

Tiered Vs. Traditional Daily Undulating Periodization For Improving Powerlifting Performance In Trained Males, Andres Vargas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Daily undulating periodization represents an increasingly popular trend in exercise science with which a traditional model has been established. Tiered daily undulating periodization pairs the DUP approach with a tiered training system which allows volume and intensity to be more evenly distributed throughout a given graining cycle. The concept of tiered daily undulating periodization is a novel form of periodization and has not been investigated. As such, a comparison of traditional and tiered daily undulating periodization has yet to be examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of traditional and tiered daily undulating periodization models ...