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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Implications Of Rice Cultivar Selection To Optimize Returns From Crop Insurance, David Ethan Branscum May 2019

Implications Of Rice Cultivar Selection To Optimize Returns From Crop Insurance, David Ethan Branscum

Theses and Dissertations

Rice production differs from most other field crops by distinct differences in yields across cultivars and rice producers being paid for yield after post-harvest milling. Using eleven years (2003-2013) of Arkansas harvest data from performance trials in six different locations, hybrids have 19% higher paddy yields and head rice yield rate 1.7% lower than conventional cultivars. Given the 2014 Farm Bill’s emphasis on crop insurance as a risk management tool for producers, these variations in yield among cultivars have significant implications for rice producers. Comparing national level, crop insurance data on corn, soybeans and rice indicates rice producers ...


Methane Emissions From Rice Production On A Silt-Loam Soil In Arkansas, Joshua Jeffry Humphreys Aug 2018

Methane Emissions From Rice Production On A Silt-Loam Soil In Arkansas, Joshua Jeffry Humphreys

Theses and Dissertations

Methane (CH4) emissions from rice (Oryza sativa L.) production are a source of concern in the environmental and agricultural communities. New and/or revised agronomic methodologies will be needed to identify production practice combinations that reduce CH4 emissions without decreasing yields. The objective of this multi-year study was to evaluate the effects of water management (i.e., full-season flood and mid-season drain) (2015), cultivar (i.e., pure-line cultivar ‘LaKast’ and the RiceTec hybrid “XP753”) (2015), soil organic matter (SOM) concentration (2016), and tillage [conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT)] and urea-based fertilizers [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT)-coated urea and ...


How To Be The Perfect Asian Wife!, Sophia Hill Apr 2018

How To Be The Perfect Asian Wife!, Sophia Hill

Art and Art History Honors Projects

“How to be the Perfect Asian Wife” critiques exploitative power systems that assault female bodies of color in intersectional ways. This work explores strategies of healing and resistance through inserting one’s own narrative of flourishing rather than surviving, while reflecting violent realities. Three large drawings mimic pervasive advertisement language and presentation reflecting the oppressive strategies used to contain women of color. Created with charcoal, watercolor, and ink, these 'advertisements' contrast with an interactive rice bag filled with comics of my everyday experiences. These documentations compel viewers to reflect on their own participation in systems of power.


Development And Characterization Of Rice Genotypes For Water Use Efficiency And Drought Resistance, Anuj Kumar Dec 2017

Development And Characterization Of Rice Genotypes For Water Use Efficiency And Drought Resistance, Anuj Kumar

Theses and Dissertations

Rice, the second largest staple food crop, uses 30% of global fresh water to complete its life cycle worldwide. Water deficits worldwide have become a serious problem affecting rice growth and ultimately grain yield. To solve the water problem globally, improvement of water use efficiency (WUE) and other drought resistance (DR) traits in rice genotypes would be a useful strategy using advanced genomics tools. In this study, our objectives were to 1) analyze phenotypes of the USDA rice mini-core collection (URMC) for WUE and DR related traits, 2) correlate drought response phenes for physiological traits and grain yield in the ...


Development Of A One Pass Microwave Heating Technology For Rice Drying And Decontamination, Deandrae Lynette Smith May 2017

Development Of A One Pass Microwave Heating Technology For Rice Drying And Decontamination, Deandrae Lynette Smith

Theses and Dissertations

An industrial microwave (MW) system operating at 915 MHz frequency was used to dry high moisture content (MC) (23% to 24% wet basis) medium-grain rough rice samples (cv. Jupiter). The rice beds were contained in a modified tray that accommodated up to 9 kg of rice separated by thin fiberglass mesh in 3 kg increments. Each layer of rice was fitted with fiber optic sensors connected to a real time data logger during MW treatments. It was determined that drying rice to a MC of 14% to 16% was feasible with the application of MW specific energy at 600 kJ ...


Development And Testing Of Gluten-Free Pasta Based On Rice, Quinoa And Amaranth Flours, Sarah Makdoud, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2017

Development And Testing Of Gluten-Free Pasta Based On Rice, Quinoa And Amaranth Flours, Sarah Makdoud, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The goal of this study was to make high quality gluten-free pasta using amaranth, quinoa and rice flours, water and eggs using extrusion processing, and to compare these with gluten-free pasta already commercialized. The difficulty was to reproduce the texture provided by the gluten network without using gluten. To do that, an experimental design was created in order to make samples with different quantities of each grain, egg whites and water. Samples were manufactured and various tests (e.g., color analysis, water activity, cooking loss, texture, etc.) were carried out in order to find the best formulation, namely the formulation ...


Microbes In Rough Rice – Prevalence, Growth Kinetics And Links To Dry Matter Loss, Supriya Thote Aug 2016

Microbes In Rough Rice – Prevalence, Growth Kinetics And Links To Dry Matter Loss, Supriya Thote

Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of microorganisms on freshly-harvested long-grain hybrid, long-grain pureline, and medium-grain rice has not been elucidated. The first objective of this two-part study was to determine the relative prevalence of microbes on freshly-harvested, high moisture content rice of different types and cultivars. The total and surface aerobic plate counts (APC) and mold counts were determined in terms of log10 colony forming units per gram of rice (log10 CFU/g) for six rice cultivars over two years. In 2013, among harvested samples of all the studied rice cultivars, the long-grain hybrid cultivars had the lowest APC levels (M = 8.10 ...


Effects Of Delayed Drying And Storage Conditions On Milling, Color, And Viscosity Properties Of Rice, Kathryn Nicole Haydon May 2016

Effects Of Delayed Drying And Storage Conditions On Milling, Color, And Viscosity Properties Of Rice, Kathryn Nicole Haydon

Theses and Dissertations

Head rice yields (HRYs), kernel discoloration, and functional properties are three hallmarks of rice quality, and can be impacted after harvest by storage conditions. This study evaluated impacts on rice quality due to controlled storage at moisture contents (MCs), temperatures, and storage durations that may be incurred during Mid-South rice farming practices. Three hybrid, long-grain cultivars, harvested in Arkansas in 2014 and 2015, were stored in rough rice form at 4 MCs (12.5%, 16%, 19%, and 21%), and 5 temperatures (10°C, 15°C, 20°C, 27°C, and 40°C), for 16 weeks, with samples taken every 2 ...


A Simulation Platform For Accurate Prediction Of In-Bin Drying And Storage Of Rough Rice, Houmin Zhong Dec 2015

A Simulation Platform For Accurate Prediction Of In-Bin Drying And Storage Of Rough Rice, Houmin Zhong

Theses and Dissertations

Natural air (NA), in-bin drying and storage of rough rice generally maintains high grain quality, but the associated slow movement and occasional stagnation of the drying front during the process may result in problems of rice quality reduction, mold growth, and mycotoxin development, especially for rough rice in the top layers of the bin. Using modeling techniques to simulate in-bin rough rice drying in typically-encountered field scenarios may provide a tool for rapidly predicting the grain condition as drying progresses. The objectives for this study were to (1) investigate accurate models for predicting equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of rough rice ...


Effect Of Germination And Parboiling On Milling, Physicochemical, And Textural Properties Of Medium- And Long-Grain Rough Rice, Ashley Han May 2015

Effect Of Germination And Parboiling On Milling, Physicochemical, And Textural Properties Of Medium- And Long-Grain Rough Rice, Ashley Han

Theses and Dissertations

Germinated brown rice is commonly consumed in Asia for its enhanced nutritional properties such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and softer cooked texture. However germination decreases milling yield and alters some physicochemical properties, and most germinated rice studies evaluated medium-grain and aromatic rice cultivars. This study compared the effects of germination duration and parboiling on milling, physicochemical, and textural properties of a medium- (Jupiter) and a long-grain (Wells) rice cultivars. Rough rice was soaked in water at 25°C for 12 hr, and then incubated at 30-34°C for varying germination durations, or combined with parboiling at 120°C for 20 ...


Milling And Functional Properties Of Co-Mingled Rice Cultivars, Nikhil N. Basutkar May 2014

Milling And Functional Properties Of Co-Mingled Rice Cultivars, Nikhil N. Basutkar

Theses and Dissertations

Differences have been observed in the milling and functional properties of different rice cultivars, particularly between hybrid and pureline cultivars. Co-mingling of rice cultivars commonly occurs during harvest, storage and drying operations. Thus, there is a need to study the effect of co-mingling on the milling and functional properties of rice cultivars. Two long-grain, hybrid (H) cultivars CL XL745 and CL XL729 and two long-grain, pureline (P) cultivars CL 151 and Wells were used to prepare CL XL745/CL 151 (H/P), CL XL745/CL XL729 (H/H) and Wells/CL 151 (P/P) co-mingles, mixed in various proportions. Milled ...


The Effects Of Salinity On Pythium Disease Of Rice And Soybean, Terea Jeanette Stetina Dec 2013

The Effects Of Salinity On Pythium Disease Of Rice And Soybean, Terea Jeanette Stetina

Theses and Dissertations

Increasing salinity is an important factor limiting agricultural productivity worldwide. In addition to direct effects on growth and yield, diseases also may be affected. This study characterized the effects of soil salinity on seedling disease of soybean and rice caused by Pythium spp. Controlled environment experiments on soybean used two cultivars which differed in chloride tolerance and soil treated with a CaCl2 solution to create a range of electrical conductivity (EC) levels. For soybean, soil was either not infested or infested with Pythium sylvaticum or P. aphanidermatum (pathogenic to soybean), or P. oligandrum (not pathogenic to soybean). Twenty-one days ...


A Comparison Of Milled Rice Fissuring Kinetics Of Hybrid And Pureline Cultivars, Semehar Haile Tesfaye Dec 2013

A Comparison Of Milled Rice Fissuring Kinetics Of Hybrid And Pureline Cultivars, Semehar Haile Tesfaye

Theses and Dissertations

Over the past decade, the use of hybrid rice cultivars has greatly increased, and this has led to questions about the processing behavior of hybrid cultivars. This study compares the milled rice fissuring kinetics of hybrid and pureline cultivars. Also, this study elucidates the effects of kernel type (long-grain vs. medium-grain rice cultivars), surface lipid content (SLC), and kernel thickness on fissuring rates.

Three hybrid (CL XL745, CL XL729 and XL753) and five pureline (Wells, CL151, Cheniere, Jupiter and CL261) cultivar lots were procured. Jupiter and CL261 are medium-grain cultivars, whereas the rest are long-grain cultivars. Two experiments were conducted ...


Challenges In Testing Genetically Modified Crops For Potential Increases In Endogenous Allergen Expression For Safety, Rakhi Panda, H. Ariyarathna, Plaimein Amnuaycheewa, Afua O. Tetteh, S. N. Pramod, Steve Taylor, B. K. Ballmer-Weber, Richard E. Goodman Feb 2013

Challenges In Testing Genetically Modified Crops For Potential Increases In Endogenous Allergen Expression For Safety, Rakhi Panda, H. Ariyarathna, Plaimein Amnuaycheewa, Afua O. Tetteh, S. N. Pramod, Steve Taylor, B. K. Ballmer-Weber, Richard E. Goodman

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens ...


Textural And Sensory Qualities Of Muffins Prepared With Fermented Rice Bran, Breeanna Williams, Navam Hettiarachchy, Srinivas J. Rayaprolu Jan 2013

Textural And Sensory Qualities Of Muffins Prepared With Fermented Rice Bran, Breeanna Williams, Navam Hettiarachchy, Srinivas J. Rayaprolu

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Rice is one of the most popular cereal grains in the world. Rice bran, a by-product of the rice milling process, contains an abundance of nutrients including protein, fiber, vitamin B complex, vitamin E, and other nutraceuticals. However, rice bran is underutilized in the food industry. In this project muffins were prepared with varying concentrations (2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, 15.0%, 20.0%, and 25.0%) of 60 mesh (250 µm) fermented rice bran (60 mFRB) and 80 mesh (180 µm) fermented rice bran (80 mFRB). A cappuccino muffin formulation was used as flavor for all ...


Characterisation Of Starch Traits And Genes In Australian Rice Germplasm, Ardashir Kharabian Masouleh Jan 2013

Characterisation Of Starch Traits And Genes In Australian Rice Germplasm, Ardashir Kharabian Masouleh

Theses

The physio-chemical properties of starch influence the nutritional value and the functional properties of starch containing foods. In this thesis, a population of 233 breeding lines of rice was analysed for variation in 17 rice starch synthesis genes, encoding seven classes of enzymes such as AGPases, GBSSs, SSs, Bes, DBEs, SPHOL and GPT1. This approach employed next-generation sequencing technology followed by a comprehensive association study of 110 functional SNP. SNP loci were analysed for associations with rice pasting and cooking quality. In total, The GBSSI and SSIIa had major influence on starch properties and the other genes had minor associations.


Single-Pass Drying Of Rough Rice Using Glass Transition Principles, George Owira Ondier Aug 2012

Single-Pass Drying Of Rough Rice Using Glass Transition Principles, George Owira Ondier

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research was to study the drying characteristics, milling quality, and functional properties of rough rice subjected to single-pass drying while controlling kernel material states. Drying experiments were conducted at 60, 70, and 80C and relative humidities ranging from 13 to 83%. High drying air relative humidities (greater than 63%) maintained both the kernel surface and core in a rubbery state during drying, whereas low drying air relative humidities caused rapid transitioning of the surface layers from a rubbery to a glassy state. Long-grain pureline cultivar, Wells, medium-grain pureline cultivar, Jupiter, and long-grain hybrid cultivar, CL XL729 ...


Development And Utilization Of Resistant Starch In Cooked Rice Grains And Breads, Michaael Reed Jan 2012

Development And Utilization Of Resistant Starch In Cooked Rice Grains And Breads, Michaael Reed

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of two separate studies. The first is titled "Effects of Cooking Methods and Starch Structure on Starch Hydrolysis Rates of Rice", and the second one is "Application of a Novel Resistant Starch in Bread: Composition, Structure and Sensory Analysis". With concerns over diabetes, there is a need to find methods of cooking rice to reduce the rate of glucose release after ingesting. Comparing between steamed, stir-fried and pilaf rice, stir-fried rice displayed the slowest starch-hydrolysis rate and the largest resistant starch (RS) content followed by pilaf rice and steamed rice. RS in food is not readily hydrolyzed ...


Milling Characteristics Of High And Low Quality Rice, Alexandria Huck, Sarah Lanning, Terry Siebenmorgen Jan 2012

Milling Characteristics Of High And Low Quality Rice, Alexandria Huck, Sarah Lanning, Terry Siebenmorgen

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Harvest moisture contents (HMCs) have been proven to play a role in rice quality, especially affecting head rice yield (HRY) due to fissuring or immature kernels. Differences in milling characteristics between samples having high and low level milling quality were studied in this experiment. Two hybrid, long-grain cultivars (CL XL729 and CL XL745) and two pureline, long-grain cultivars (CL 181 and Wells) were harvested at near optimal and low HMCs, representing high and low milling quality, respectively. Lots were dried to approximately 12.5 ± 0.5% and milled in triplicate for durations of 10, 20, 30, and 40 s. Results ...


Antioxidant And Antihypertensive Activities Of Rice Bran Peptides, Janika Hull, Arvind Kannan, Navam S. Hettiarachchy Jan 2011

Antioxidant And Antihypertensive Activities Of Rice Bran Peptides, Janika Hull, Arvind Kannan, Navam S. Hettiarachchy

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Protein isolates and peptide fractions from food sources (cereal grains), have been shown to exert bioactive properties including antiobesity, anticancer, antiangiogenic, etc. One such food source is rice bran, which is an underutilized co-product of rough rice milling. It contains 90% of the nutrients and nutraceuticals of value to health, including high quality protein. The high quality protein is a potential source to generate peptides that can reduce hypertension and oxidative stress, both being important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to extract peptide hydrolysates from heat stabilized defatted rice bran by enzymatic hydrolysis, evaluate ...


Properties Of Gluten-Free Pasta Prepared From Rice And Different Starches, Alexandria W. Mertz, Ya-Jane Wang Jan 2011

Properties Of Gluten-Free Pasta Prepared From Rice And Different Starches, Alexandria W. Mertz, Ya-Jane Wang

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Rice is one of the few cereal products that does not contain gluten. However, the absence of gluten poses problems in the structure of and cooking quality of rice pasta. The objective of this project was to investigate the addition of starch on the physicochemical properties and cooking quality of rice-based pasta. Rice-based pasta was prepared from parboiled long-grain rice flour with the addition of 25% cooked starch from different sources. The color and pasting properties of the ground pasta flour were measured by a chroma meter and a Rapid Visco Analyser, respectively. The pasta was cooked to the optimum ...


Levels, Enterotoxigenicity, Growth And Physical Characterisitcs Of B. Cereus From U.S Retail Rice, Chandrakant R. Ankolekar Jan 2009

Levels, Enterotoxigenicity, Growth And Physical Characterisitcs Of B. Cereus From U.S Retail Rice, Chandrakant R. Ankolekar

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitously found foodborne pathogen that is frequently associated with two types of illness: emesis and diarrhea. Two heat labile enterotoxins have been associated with the diarrheal syndrome whereas a heat stable acid stable peptide toxin has been associated with the emetic syndrome. In the U.S, B. cereus is responsible for 1-2% of the total outbreaks from bacteria. Although there are reports of isolation and characterization of this pathogen from various food stuffs all around the world, there are no reports on the levels, toxin producing ability, or growth characteristics from U.S retail rice. Considering ...


Application Of Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Product Characteristics Of Extruded Rice-Cowpea-Groundnut Blends, Emmanuel Asare, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa Jul 2004

Application Of Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Product Characteristics Of Extruded Rice-Cowpea-Groundnut Blends, Emmanuel Asare, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3 was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave ...


Quality Of Regular And Parboiled Rice In Long-Term Storage, L. Coons, M. B. Halling, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2004

Quality Of Regular And Parboiled Rice In Long-Term Storage, L. Coons, M. B. Halling, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

There is interest in storing food for long periods of time for such uses as disaster relief efforts, military rations and space travel. Rice hermetically sealed in cans and treated to remove oxygen is available in the retail market, but further work is needed to determine the effects of long-term storage on quality. The objective of this research was to investigate the quality of regular and parboiled white rice packaged for long-term storage in cans treated to reduce oxygen levels and held at ambient temperature for up to 30 years. Eighteen samples of white rice (11 regular, 7 parboiled) packaged ...


Quality Of White Rice Retail Packaged In No. 10 Cans For Long-Term Storage, M. B. Halling, N. D. Van Noy, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2003

Quality Of White Rice Retail Packaged In No. 10 Cans For Long-Term Storage, M. B. Halling, N. D. Van Noy, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

Dry foods, such as white rice, are available for retail sale packaged in No. 10 cans for long-term storage in case of natural disasters or other emergencies. Little information is available regarding the quality of such products that are packaged for prolonged storage using hermetically sealed containers and oxygen absorbers. The objective of this research was to evaluate and compare the quality of several different brands of white rice products packaged for long-term storage, available at the retail level. Ten brands of rice products (7 long-grain white rice, 2 parboiled white rice, 1 instant white rice) packaged in No. 10 ...


Vietnam’S Rice Economy: Developments And Prospects, Kenneth B. Young, Eric J. Wailes, Gail L. Cramer, Nguyen Tri Khiem Apr 2002

Vietnam’S Rice Economy: Developments And Prospects, Kenneth B. Young, Eric J. Wailes, Gail L. Cramer, Nguyen Tri Khiem

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

Vietnam shifted rapidly from being a net rice importer prior to 1987 to become the second largest world rice exporter by 1995. Net rice exports have leveled off at about 3.8 million metric tons from 1997 to 1999. The world rice price has dropped dramatically in 2000 to barely cover the rice production cost in Vietnam, and net rice exports are expected to fall to 3.4 million mt because of the poor import demand in 2000. This report reviews the policy adjustments that led to the rapid growth in rice production and evaluates the prospects for Vietnam to ...


Golden Rice: A Case Study In Intellectual Property Management And International Capacity Building, Stanley P. Kowalski, R. David Kryder Mar 2002

Golden Rice: A Case Study In Intellectual Property Management And International Capacity Building, Stanley P. Kowalski, R. David Kryder

Law Faculty Scholarship

In order for agricultural biotechnology (agri-biotech) to play a larger role in the development of sustainable agricultural systems, intellectual property (IP) rights management must be addressed. These issues are not limited to developing countries. With increased globalization, the management of agri-biotech IP rights affects both developing and industrialized countries. In industrialized countries, for example, IP rights risk management entails protection of inventions via strong patent portfolios. For developing countries, IP rights risk management includes the acquisition of rights requisite for the use of inventions essential to the basic welfare of the population. Strategies are needed to bridge these disparate IP ...


The Influence Of Storing High Moisture-Content Rough Rice On Milling Quality, Julita M. Manski, Terry Siebenmorgen Jan 2002

The Influence Of Storing High Moisture-Content Rough Rice On Milling Quality, Julita M. Manski, Terry Siebenmorgen

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

The objective of this research was to determine the influence on drying characteristics of storing high-moisture content (MC) rough rice under various conditions and durations before drying. Two cultivars of rice, 'Bengal', a medium-grain cultivar, and 'Cypress', a long-grain cultivar, were used. The MC of 'Bengal' was 24.8%1 and that of 'Cypress' was 20.4% at harvest. Immediately after harvest, drying runs were performed with samples of both cultivars under two drying air conditions: one at 51.7°C (125°F) and 25% relative humidity (RH), and the other at 60°C (140°F) and 17% RH. Storage ...


Rice, Utah State University Extension Jan 2002

Rice, Utah State University Extension

All Archived Publications

No abstract provided.


Correlating Fissure Occurrence To Rice Quality For Various Drying And Tempering Treatments, Monica J. Jimenez, Terry J. Siebenmorgen, A. G. Cnossen Jan 2001

Correlating Fissure Occurrence To Rice Quality For Various Drying And Tempering Treatments, Monica J. Jimenez, Terry J. Siebenmorgen, A. G. Cnossen

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

When a rice kernel fissures, it can break in subsequent food processing operations and lose its commercial value. Head rice yield (HRY) is a measure of the percent of kernels that remain whole (at least three-fourths of original length) after rice has been milled. Our experiment was designed to test the effect of a rapid state transition during drying and tempering processes using cultivars Bengal and Cypress. ‘Bengal’ is a medium-size kernel and ‘Cypress’ is a longsize, thinner grained cultivar. Immediately after drying, the rice samples were separated into four sub-samples and tempered for 0, 80, 160, or 240 minutes ...