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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Hybrid Thermochemical Processing: Fermentation Of Pyrolysis-Derived Bio-Oil, Laura R. Jarboe, Zhiyou Wen, Dong Won Choi, Robert C. Brown Jan 2011

Hybrid Thermochemical Processing: Fermentation Of Pyrolysis-Derived Bio-Oil, Laura R. Jarboe, Zhiyou Wen, Dong Won Choi, Robert C. Brown

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Thermochemical processing of biomass by fast pyrolysis provides a nonenzymatic route for depolymerization of biomass into sugars that can be used for the biological production of fuels and chemicals. Fermentative utilization of this bio-oil faces two formidable challenges. First is the fact that most bio-oil-associated sugars are present in the anhydrous form. Metabolic engineering has enabled utilization of the main anhydrosugar, levoglucosan, in workhorse biocatalysts. The second challenge is the fact that bio-oil is rich in microbial inhibitors. Collection of bio-oil in distinct fractions, detoxification of bio-oil prior to fermentation, and increased robustness of the biocatalyst have all proven effective ...


Assessing The Use Of Piceid (Resveratrol-Glucoside)-Accumulating Transgenic Alfalfa Against Colon Cancer, Brian Donald Kineman Jan 2007

Assessing The Use Of Piceid (Resveratrol-Glucoside)-Accumulating Transgenic Alfalfa Against Colon Cancer, Brian Donald Kineman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Biotechnological approaches have been applied to introduce resveratrol-synthase (RS ) (aka. Stilbene synthase ) into novel crops such as apple, kiwi, tomato and wheat. As with natural sources of resveratrol, genetically-modified plants, which constitutively express RS, accumulate resveratrol primarily in the form of piceid (RG). The chemopreventive activity of a RG-accumulating transgenic alfalfa (variety Regen SY) against colon cancer was assessed in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) rodent model of carcinogenesis. Our initial studies revealed that the transgenic alfalfa (TA) at 20% in the diet by weight had no affect on the number, size or multiplicity of ACF in ...


Thermal Tolerance Of Acid Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Enterica In Ground Beef , Manpreet Singh Jan 2006

Thermal Tolerance Of Acid Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Enterica In Ground Beef , Manpreet Singh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

D-values of acid adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were determined in meat serum and ground beef stored at 4 and -20°C as an indicator of thermal tolerance. Pathogens were acid adapted by growing in Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSB+1%G). Five-strain cocktail of both bacteria were grown and inoculated meat serum was heated to 58, 62, and 65°C, while inoculated ground beef was heated to 62 and 65°C on day 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 (4°C), and on day 1, 30, 60, 90, and 120 (-20°C). Higher (P<0.05) D-values were observed for acid adapted E. coli O157:H7 in meat serum at 58, 62, and 65°C; and for acid adapted Salmonella at 58 and 62°C, but no difference (P>0 ...


Evaluation Of Extruded-Expelled Low-Fat Soybean Flour In Flour Blends And The Effects On Bread And Dough Development , Toshiba Lynne Traynham Jan 2006

Evaluation Of Extruded-Expelled Low-Fat Soybean Flour In Flour Blends And The Effects On Bread And Dough Development , Toshiba Lynne Traynham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research detailed in this document focuses on the performance of a partially defatted soybean flour called low-fat soybean flour (LSF). This soybean flour type has not received widespread application as a food ingredient. This has resulted from a lack of information available on the performance of LSF in a variety of food systems. Based upon its compositional and functional properties, LSF has shown potential for use in a flour blend. Past studies have focused on the usage of flour blends containing wheat flour partially replaced by an oilseed or legume flour. Wheat-soy flour blends have mostly been studied for ...


Starch Biogenesis: Relationship Between Starch Structures And Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes , Li Li Jan 2006

Starch Biogenesis: Relationship Between Starch Structures And Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes , Li Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to gain understanding on starch biogenesis by studying starch granule formation and development. The objectives of this research were to modify the structure of cyanobacteria glycogen by replacing the endogenous glycogen synthase gene with a plant starch synthase and to study starch granule formation by creating a plant starch biosynthetic system in a cyanobacterium, and to investigate the development of starch granules in maize endosperm during maturation of the maize kernel;A potato starch synthase III (PSSIII) was expressed in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutants without glycogen synthase I (M1) or glycogen synthase II ...


Antimicrobial Action Of Selected Plant-Derived Compounds Against Listeria Monocytogenes , Natalia A. Weinsetel Jan 2006

Antimicrobial Action Of Selected Plant-Derived Compounds Against Listeria Monocytogenes , Natalia A. Weinsetel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a disease that can be fatal to immunocompromised individuals. Due to the number of outbreaks, recalls, and deaths linked to the consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, the United States government issued a directive for the control of L. monocytogenes in the production of RTE meats including the use of a post-lethality treatment and/or the addition of a growth inhibitor. Several methods to inhibit pathogenic bacteria in RTE foods are currently utilized. One method actively being studied involves the use of natural plant products as food antimicrobials. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of plant-derived ...


Comparison Of Soy-Flour Hydrolysates For Wood Adhesive Systems , John F. Schmitz Jr. Jan 2006

Comparison Of Soy-Flour Hydrolysates For Wood Adhesive Systems , John F. Schmitz Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soy-protein-based adhesives have not been used extensively in wood products since the 1960's because of poor performance, stability, and water-resistance issues compared to petroleum-based adhesives. The early soy-protein adhesives were made from defatted flours and were dispersed in alkaline solutions to denature proteins and make more polar amino acid groups available for adhesion bonding. Recent research has focused on soy flour adhesives due to increased phenol prices and environmental concerns related to the use and exposure to formaldehyde. Soy protein isolates can be modified in highly caustic alkaline solutions to reduce viscosity and improve adhesive properties, but the price ...


Frying Performance Of Soybean Oils With Reduced Linolenate Content And Methods To Monitor Deteriorative Changes , Jose Arnaldo Gerde Jan 2006

Frying Performance Of Soybean Oils With Reduced Linolenate Content And Methods To Monitor Deteriorative Changes , Jose Arnaldo Gerde

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The performance during frying of three expeller-pressed physically refined soybean oils with different contents of linolenic acid (ULL, 1.5%; LL, 2.6%; control, 5.2%) was tested. French fries were fried in a commercial-like setting for 6 hr/day during 23 consecutive days. There were no significant differences in color or in polar material content. The amount of conjugated dienoic acids was higher in the control than in both ULL and LL oils throughout the frying process. Free fatty acid levels were not different among the oils until day 14, after which ULL was higher than the control for ...


Methanobactin: A Potential Novel Biopreservative For Use Against The Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes , Clinton Lewis Johnson Jan 2006

Methanobactin: A Potential Novel Biopreservative For Use Against The Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes , Clinton Lewis Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, pathogenic foodborne bacterium, typically associated with post-processing contamination of ready-to-eat meats. Control of this pathogen has been a research topic for years, with more recent work investigating the use of novel naturally-produced antimicrobials. Methanobactin is a novel, chromopeptide recently isolated from the methanotroph, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Its recent characterization has placed it in a new class of compounds now known as chalkophores, which are analogous to iron-binding siderophores. While it is thought to possibly serve multiple physiological roles involving copper metabolism in this bacterium, nothing is known regarding its potential as an antimicrobial. Our research ...


Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min Jan 2006

Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the elements that make differences in the oxidative stability of meats from different animal species and (2) to determine the major catalysts of lipid peroxidation in meat and meat products. The most important difference in the susceptibility of meat from different animal species to lipid peroxidation was the balance between anti- and pro-oxidative factors in meat. Raw and cooked ground beef were the most susceptible to lipid peroxidation, followed by chicken thigh meat, pork, and chicken breast meat. The high storage stability of chicken breast meat was attributed to a very ...


Dietary Functional Ingredients And Quality Of Irradiated Turkey Breast Meat , Haijie Yan Jan 2005

Dietary Functional Ingredients And Quality Of Irradiated Turkey Breast Meat , Haijie Yan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Four hundreds and eighty male turkeys (12-week-old, raised on a corn-soybean basal diet) were randomly fed 8 experimental diets supplemented with none (Control, Con), 200 IU/kg vitamin E (VE), 0.3 ppm Se (Se), 2.5%CLA (CLA), 200 IU/kg vitamin E+0.3 ppm Se (VE+Se), 200 IU/kg vitamin E+2.5%CLA (VE+CLA), 2.5%CLA+0.3ppm Se (Se+CLA), or 200 IU/kg vitamin E+0.3ppm Se+2.5%CLA (VE+Se+CLA). At 15 week breast meat was sampled and irradiated.;Irradiation increased (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation and Hunter color a* value. Dietary Vitamin E, Se, CLA alone and their combinations decreased (p < 0.05) lipid oxidation in meat caused by both irradiation and storage. Production of off-odor in turkey breast meat caused by storage and ionizing irradiation was reduced by treatment VE+Se, VE+CLA, and VE+Se+CLA.;Treatment VE+Se, VE+CLA, Se+CLA, and VE+Se+CLA reduced lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated turkey breast meat samples by 24%, 29%, 26%, and 40%, respectively after 7 days of storage under aerobic conditions. Dietary vitamin E and Se decreased the internal color a* value of vacuum packaged irradiated meats at day 0 and 7. Treatments VE+Se, VE+CLA, and VE+Se+CLA reduced the difference in sulfur-containing compounds between irradiated and non-irradiated meat, aerobic packaging was more effective in reducing sulfur-containing compounds in irradiated meat than vacuum packaging. Therefore, dietary treatments plus packaging methods are effective in reducing the quality defects induced by irradiation.;Raw and cooked samples from 32 treatments, 8 dietary treatments *2 irradiation doses* 2 package (aerobic and vacuum), were tested by eight trained panelists for turkey aroma and irradiation off-aroma. Irradiation off-aroma in turkey breast was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) by treatments containing vitamin E. Meat samples from four dietary treatments containing CLA had higher turkey aroma scores while two treatments containing vitamin E (VE and VE+Se) had lower scores.;Consumer acceptance tests on five selected treatments showed that consumers disliked the aroma of irradiated raw meat. Consumer preferred the appearance of cooked irradiated meat to non-irradiated meat.


New Soy Protein Ingredients Production And Characterization , Nicolas Alejo Deak Jan 2004

New Soy Protein Ingredients Production And Characterization , Nicolas Alejo Deak

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This body of research focuses on three major areas related to soy protein ingredients. The first area is the use of genetically modified high-sucrose/low-stachyose soybeans (HS/LS) in a new simplified procedure to prepare soy protein concentrate; secondly, fractionating soy protein into ingredients enriched in either glycinin or beta-conglycinin; and lastly, processing effects on soy protein isolate functionality;Soy protein fractionation was significantly improved by increasing protein yields and reducing processing costs. In the three-step or Wu fractionation procedure, significant advances were made by identifying the optimum SO 2 concentration to be 5 mM, the optimum NaCl concentration to ...


Effect Of Probiotic Bacteria On The Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) Content And Quality Of Yogurt , Sa Xu Jan 2004

Effect Of Probiotic Bacteria On The Conjugated Linoleic Acid (Cla) Content And Quality Of Yogurt , Sa Xu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is present primarily in dairy products with many positive nutritional benefits. The predominant CLA isomers, cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA, function as an anticarcinogen and body fat reducer, respectively. Other health benefits include roles as an immune system modulator, anti-atherosclerosis and antidiabetic agent. Linoleic acid isomerase activity in probiotic bacteria contributes to CLA formation. Free linoleic acid is the primary substrate for linoleic acid isomerase and the biohydrogenation pathway of rumen bacteria. There is strong interest to increase the content of CLA in yogurt and other cultured dairy products using probiotic bacteria and unique ...


Effect Of Randomization On The Oxidative Stability Of Corn Oil , Yongzhi Jiang Jan 2004

Effect Of Randomization On The Oxidative Stability Of Corn Oil , Yongzhi Jiang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The oxidative stability of natural and randomized corn oil was studied at high temperature (80 or 100°C) by using an OSI (oxidative stability instrument) and at low temperature (28, 40 or 50°C) by using peroxide values determined by the ferrous iron oxidation test. Randomized corn oil without purification oxidized 1 to 5 times faster than did natural corn oil, depending on the particular lot of corn oil. After alumina-column purification, which removed the tocopherols and other polar compounds, there was no difference in the oxidation rates of the randomized and natural corn oil. These findings suggest that alteration ...


Fatty Acid Composition Of Oils, Their Oxidative, Flavor And Heat Stabilities And The Resultant Quality In Foods , Caiping Su Jan 2003

Fatty Acid Composition Of Oils, Their Oxidative, Flavor And Heat Stabilities And The Resultant Quality In Foods , Caiping Su

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soybean oil (SBO) is an oxidatively unstable oil, largely because of the high concentration of linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3). The unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (18:1), 18:2, and 18:3 in SBO oxidize in a ratio of 1:10.3:21.6. To improve oxidative and flavor stability, the SBO may be hydrogenated to reduce the concentration of PUFA (and increase the saturated FA); however, trans fatty acids (t FA) are formed and saturated fatty acids are increased during this process. There are health concerns over the consumption of a diet high in ...


Role Of Starch Structure In Texture Of Winter Squash (Cucurbita Maxima D) Fruit And Starch Functional Properties , David Graham Stevenson Jan 2003

Role Of Starch Structure In Texture Of Winter Squash (Cucurbita Maxima D) Fruit And Starch Functional Properties , David Graham Stevenson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Starch structural and functional properties of 13 winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima D.) cultivars were investigated at harvest and after 5 or 10 weeks storage at 12°C. Texture profile analysis was carried out on winter squash fruit steamed at 6 different cooking times from 0 to 20 minutes, and for all three storage times. Buttercup squash cultivars had very high proportion of dry matter as starch (50--60%), whereas Halloween squash often accumulate no starch. Squash starches were B-type, with long amylopectin branch chain-lengths, low amylopectin polydispersity, gelatinization temperature of 60--65°C, and narrow range of gelatinization temperatures. Starch pastes had ...


The Effect Of Various Protein Ingredients Utilized As A Lean Meat Replacement In A Model Emulsion System And Frankfurters , Jay Benjamin Wenther Jan 2003

The Effect Of Various Protein Ingredients Utilized As A Lean Meat Replacement In A Model Emulsion System And Frankfurters , Jay Benjamin Wenther

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effects of various protein ingredients (whey protein concentrate, beef gelling plasma, pork skin collagen, chicken skin collagen, and turkey skin collagen) utilized as a lean meat replacement in a model emulsion system and frankfurters were measured. The treatments consisted of a 1:3 ratio (1 percent protein ingredient and 3 percent water) and a 2:6 ratio (2 percent protein ingredient and 6 percent water) hydration ratio of the treatment ingredient to replace 4 or 8 percent of the lean in the formulation, respectively. The parameters measured included yield, thermal emulsion stability, color (CIE L*, a*, b*), pH, proximate ...


Biological Methods For Detoxification Of Corn Stover And Corn Starch Pyrolysis Liquors , Mohammad A. Khiyami Jan 2003

Biological Methods For Detoxification Of Corn Stover And Corn Starch Pyrolysis Liquors , Mohammad A. Khiyami

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Biological methods were developed to detoxify corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquors produced at 400--500°C. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic suspended cells and biofilms were employed for the detoxification process. The continuous of detoxification process was monitored by measuring the change in dissolved oxygen and pH. Total phenolic assay, change in UV absorbance spectra, GC-MS analysis and bioassay were performed to determine the detoxification. Pseudomonas putida and Streptomyces setonii biofilms, developed on Plastic Composite Supports (PCS) fixed to agitator shaft of benchtop computer controlled bioreactor, detoxified 10 and 25% (v/v) diluted corn stover and corn starch pyrolysis liquor (Des ...


Characterization Of Soyasaponin Metabolism By Human Gut Microorganisms And Bioavailability In Humans , Jiang Hu Jan 2003

Characterization Of Soyasaponin Metabolism By Human Gut Microorganisms And Bioavailability In Humans , Jiang Hu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soyasaponins have demonstrated health-promoting properties including plasma cholesterol-lowering, anti-carcinogenic and hepato-protective. Significant amounts of soyasaponins are found in soybeans and soy products. The role of soyasaponins in promoting improved health status has led to a need in understanding their bioavailability and metabolism in humans.;Metabolism of soyasaponin I (3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]-olean-12-en-3beta,22beta,24-triol ) by human gut microflora was investigated to elucidate the metabolism of dietary soyasaponins in human intestine. In a static in vitro fecal fermentation model, disappearance of soyasaponin I displayed an apparent first-order kinetics over 48 h. Two soyasaponin degradation phenotypes were observed among the subjects: rapid degraders ...


Effects Of Processing On Soybean Glycinin, β-Conglycinin, Isoflavones, And Saponins , David Alan Rickert Jan 2003

Effects Of Processing On Soybean Glycinin, β-Conglycinin, Isoflavones, And Saponins , David Alan Rickert

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Processing effects on soy storage proteins, glycinin and beta-conglycinin, as well as isoflavones and group B soyasaponins, protein-associated phytochemicals, were evaluated. It was hypothesized that the physicochemical characteristics of these molecules, such as protein native state, hydrophobicity, or ionization, would affect their partitioning during processing and, for the proteins, affect functional properties.;A pilot-scale soy protein fractionation process, yielding glycinin, beta-conglycinin, and an intermediate fraction comprised of a mixture of these proteins, was scaled up from 15 kg to 50 kg of defatted soy white flake starting material in order to produce larger quantities of protein products. The scaled-up process ...


Development And Characterization Of Corn Lines With New Starch Properties , Yulin Ji Jan 2002

Development And Characterization Of Corn Lines With New Starch Properties , Yulin Ji

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this research were to evaluate functions and structures of starches from exotic x adapted inbred lines and exotic breeding crosses (exotic populations x adapted lines), and to establish relationships between the fine structure and functional properties of the starches. A secondary objective was to confirm the advancement of selected functional traits into the next generation of corn.;A small-scale corn-starch extraction procedure optimized in this research was used to extract starch from corn kernels. Starches from several developmental lines with unusual thermal properties as measured on a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC, gelatinization onset temperature (ToG) < 60°C or range of gelatinization (RG) > 14°C ...


Flavor And Oxidative Stability Of Walnuts Partially Defatted Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide , Tammy Dawn Crowe Jan 2001

Flavor And Oxidative Stability Of Walnuts Partially Defatted Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide , Tammy Dawn Crowe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

During the past several years, walnuts have gained popularity because of their good taste, high n-3 fatty acid content, and reported hypocholesterolemic effects. Two negative components of walnut consumption are the relatively high fat content of this commodity (~70%), and the lack of oxidative stability caused by the high level of fat and its polyunsaturated nature. The objectives of this study were to: (1) use supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2) extraction to decrease the total lipid content of walnuts, thus improving dietary fat content, and (2) determine the effects of SC-CO2 lipid extraction on the oxidative stability, flavor and textural ...


Structures, Properties, And Biogenesis Of Starch And Cyanobacterial Glycogen , Sang-Ho Yoo Jan 2001

Structures, Properties, And Biogenesis Of Starch And Cyanobacterial Glycogen , Sang-Ho Yoo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Structures and properties of starches isolated from waxy, amylose-reduced (Kanto 107), and normal hard-red-winter wheat (Centura and a commercial product) grains were characterized. The absence of amylose (AM) in waxy wheat starch did not affect crystalline pattern (A-type), granule size and morphology, and gelatinization temperature, but increased the degree of crystallinity and changed pasting properties. Differences in pasting temperatures and peak viscosities between waxy and normal wheat starches were substantially greater than the differences between maize starch counterparts.;The weight-average molecular weight (MW) of the wheat amylopectin (AP) displayed a negative correlation with AM content, whereas the proportion of extralong ...


Characterization And Utilization Of Extruded-Expelled Soybean Flours , Adrianna Ashley Heywood Jan 2001

Characterization And Utilization Of Extruded-Expelled Soybean Flours , Adrianna Ashley Heywood

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Extruded-expelled (EE) soy flours with a wide range of protein dispersibility indexes (PDI), and residual oil (RO) levels as well as EE soy flours originating from various value-enhanced soybean varieties were investigated for their functional properties and utilization potential in food systems. Functional properties investigated included protein solubility, emulsification capacity, activity and stability, foaming capacity and stability and water-holding and fat-binding capacities. Food systems investigated included a batter system and meat system. Results from the investigation focused on functional properties of low-fat soy flour (LFSF) with a wide range of PDI and RO levels showed, in general, LFSF with PDI ...


Characterization Of Biopolymers: Starch And Soy Protein , Yongxia Song Jan 2000

Characterization Of Biopolymers: Starch And Soy Protein , Yongxia Song

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two biopolymers in food system, starch and protein, were studied in structures and properties. Four different types of barley starches were isolated from barley seeds. Bimodal size distributions and A-type x-ray diffraction pattern of all four barley starches were confirmed. Barley starches displayed similar onset gelatinization temperature ranging from 55.0 to 56.5°C. Apparent and absolute amylose contents, molecular size distributions of amylose and amylopectin, amylopectin branch-chian-length distributions, and Naegeli dextrin structures of the starches were analyzed. Results showed that amylose contents (9.1% to 44.7%) and total phosphorus contents (0.022% to 0.068%) varied among ...


Identifying And Using Value-Added Traits In Gem Accessions (Latin American Maize) To Improve Corn-Belt Dent Corn , Suvrat Kumar Singh Jan 2000

Identifying And Using Value-Added Traits In Gem Accessions (Latin American Maize) To Improve Corn-Belt Dent Corn , Suvrat Kumar Singh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to identify exotic germplasm used in the U.S. Germplasm Enhancement of Maize Project (GEM) for its potential to enhance value-added traits in Corn-Belt dent corn. GEM is the US successor to the Latin American Maize Project (LAMP) which was launched in 1987 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service;LAMP evaluated 12,000 accessions grown in 70 countries in the United States and Latin America. Screening was done on the basis of yield potential and agronomic characteristics. Two hundred sixty-eight of these accessions were selected as potential source of high ...


The Modification And Use Of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil In The Production Of A Ripened Swiss Cheese-Like Product With Good Flavor Quality, Liangping Yu Jan 1999

The Modification And Use Of High-Oleic Sunflower Oil In The Production Of A Ripened Swiss Cheese-Like Product With Good Flavor Quality, Liangping Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Milk fat is considered hypercholesterolemic because it contains cholesterol and a large proportion of saturated fatty acids. The use of vegetable oil to substitute for milk fat in cheesemaking has been proposed to improve the nutritional value of the cheese. However, the quality of vegetable-oil cheese has not been as good as that of traditional cheese. The objectives of this study were to modify vegetable oils to resemble milk fat for use in cheese production and to produce high quality, nutritious Swiss cheese from modified vegetable oils and skim milk;High-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was chemically modified by incorporating shortchain ...


Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effects On Quantitative And Qualitative Characteristics Of Pork , Rebecca Lynn Thiel Jan 1999

Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Effects On Quantitative And Qualitative Characteristics Of Pork , Rebecca Lynn Thiel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a group of geometric and positional isomers of linoleic acid. CLA has been shown to improve animal performance, and composition, be anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, and improve immune function. To test the hypothesis that dietary CLA would improve performance and quality characteristics of pork, forty crossbred pigs (8 replications) were fed diets containing 0, .12, .25, .50 or 1.0% CLA by weight of the diet from 26.3 to 114 kg. Average daily gain (P < .05) and gain/feed (P < .05) were improved. Fat depth at the 10th rib decreased as the amount of CLA in the diet increased (P < .05). Ultrasound showed an increase in muscling, but no differences in loin eye area were observed on carcasses. Belly hardness (firmness) increased linearly with an increase of dietary CLA supplementation both lean side up (P < .01) and lean side down (P < .05). CLA as a percentage of total lipids increased (P < .01) in both subcutaneous fat and lean tissue. Day one postmortem loin chops exhibited no differences between controls and CLA supplemented chops for pH, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force, and a significant linear increase (P < .05) occurred in Hunter a* (redness) as the amount of CLA in the diet increased. A trained sensory panel found that day one controls exhibited more initial juiciness (P < .05) than did the. 12% dietary CLA supplemented loin chops. No other sensory panel differences were detected. No differences were determined between 1.0% CLA treatments and controls for Hunter color, sensory panel scores, and cook loss or drip loss of loin chops held for 7, 14, 28 or 56 days of fresh storage. A preliminary study of 70/30 fresh pork patties held for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days of fresh storage as measured by Hunter L*, a*, and b* values suggested that CLA supplementation up to .50% enhanced/maintained patty color. Immune response and blood chemistry parameters were measured at 52, 68, 91, and 114 kg live weight. Immune response was not compromised and blood chemistry parameters indicated no pathological conditions as a result of dietary CLA supplementation.


Physicochemical Properties Of Selected Root And Tuber Starches And Characterization Of Extruded, Chemically Modified Corn Starches , Andrew Edward Mcpherson Jan 1999

Physicochemical Properties Of Selected Root And Tuber Starches And Characterization Of Extruded, Chemically Modified Corn Starches , Andrew Edward Mcpherson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The physicochemical properties of normal potato, waxy potato, yam and sweet potato starches were examined and compared. Normal potato and waxy potato starches displayed the B-type x-ray diffraction pattern, whereas yam and sweet potato displayed the CA- and C-type, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns of Naegeli dextrins of normal potato and waxy potato remained the B-type, but those of yam and sweet potato changed to the A-type. 31P-NMR showed the phosphorus contents of the starches to be primarily phosphate monoesters with no detectable phospholipid in any of the four starches. Normal potato and waxy potato starches displayed lower proportions (13 and ...


Lipid Oxidation And Production Of Off-Odor In Irradiated Meat , Cheorun Jo Jan 1999

Lipid Oxidation And Production Of Off-Odor In Irradiated Meat , Cheorun Jo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Emulsion-type raw and cooked pork sausage with different fat content or fatty acids was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile production during storage. Lipid oxidation increased with the increase of fat content or irradiation dose in both raw and cooked pork products. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxide content than non-irradiated, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in raw irradiated pork batters were 7alpha- and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol. Hunter a- and b-values of both raw and cooked pork products in aerobic packaging decreased with irradiation regardless of fat content. In vacuum packaging ...