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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Does Heat Stress Alter The Pig’S Response To Dietary Fat Source, As It Relates To Apparent Or True Total Track Digestibility?, Trey A. Kellner, Lance H. Baumgard, Ken J. Prusa, John F. Patience Jan 2016

Does Heat Stress Alter The Pig’S Response To Dietary Fat Source, As It Relates To Apparent Or True Total Track Digestibility?, Trey A. Kellner, Lance H. Baumgard, Ken J. Prusa, John F. Patience

Animal Industry Report

Heat stress affects a plethora of pork production variables, in part stemming from a reduction of feed intake. The experimental objective was to investigate the effect of heat stress on the pig’s response to dietary fat in terms of growth performance and digestibility over a 35 d finishing period. A total of 96 barrows were randomly allotted to 1 of 9 treatments arranged as a 3 × 3 factorial with the main effects of environment [thermonetural (TN), pair-fed thermoneutral (PFTN), or heat stress (HS)] and diet [a corn-soybean meal based diet with 0% added fat (CNTR), or the CNTRL with ...


Lactational Performance Of Holstein Dairy Cows Fed Two Levels Of Full-Fat Corn Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, Eric D. Testroet, Vaishnavi Manimanna Sankarlal, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2016

Lactational Performance Of Holstein Dairy Cows Fed Two Levels Of Full-Fat Corn Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, Eric D. Testroet, Vaishnavi Manimanna Sankarlal, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

The lactational performance of 30 healthy multiparous Holstein dairy cows was tested when cows were fed 0, 10, and 20% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) that contained 13.6% fat on a dry matter (DM) basis. Cows fed 10% DDGS on a DM basis experienced a reduction in milk fat percentage of 0.5 percentage points, but did not perform differently in other measures than did cows not fed DDGS. When cows were fed 20% DDGS on a DM basis, every common measure of feed utilization was impacted negatively.


Effects Of Blast Chilling On Fresh Pork Quality In Chops From The Longissimus Dorsi, Aaron M. Blakely, Edward M. Steadham, Kenneth J. Prusa, Christine A. Fedler, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan Jan 2015

Effects Of Blast Chilling On Fresh Pork Quality In Chops From The Longissimus Dorsi, Aaron M. Blakely, Edward M. Steadham, Kenneth J. Prusa, Christine A. Fedler, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Industry Report

Carcasses (n=40) with defined fat free lean and carcass weight were selected 45 minutes postmortem. Carcasses were split, and sides subjected to conventional or blast chilling regimens. Sides that were blast chilled had Longissimus dorsi (LD) chops with slower pH decline, greater cook loss and greater Warner-Bratzler Shear force than chops from conventionally chilled sides. These results demonstrate that current blast chilling practices have the potential to negatively impact pork tenderness.


Effects Of Blast Chilling On Fresh Pork Quality In Cuts From The Psoas Major, Semimembranosus, And Triceps Brachii, Aaron M. Blakely, Edward M. Steadham, Kenneth J. Prusa, Christine A. Fedler, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan Jan 2015

Effects Of Blast Chilling On Fresh Pork Quality In Cuts From The Psoas Major, Semimembranosus, And Triceps Brachii, Aaron M. Blakely, Edward M. Steadham, Kenneth J. Prusa, Christine A. Fedler, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Industry Report

Carcasses (n=40) with defined fat free lean and carcass weight were selected 45 minutes postmortem. Carcasses were split and sides subjected to conventional chill (CC) or blast chilling (BC) regimens. The Psoas Major (PM) from BC sides had increased purge loss, but was juicier, more tender and less chewy than the PM from CC sides. The Semimembranosus (SM) from BC sides had higher 30 hour pH, darker color scores, and had a lower Hunter a value than the SM from CC sides. No treatment effect was found in the Triceps Brachii.


Prediction Of Loin, Belly And Jowl Iv Based On Diet Composition Verses Daily Fatty Acid Intake, Trey A. Kellner, Kenneth J. Prusa, John F. Patience Jan 2015

Prediction Of Loin, Belly And Jowl Iv Based On Diet Composition Verses Daily Fatty Acid Intake, Trey A. Kellner, Kenneth J. Prusa, John F. Patience

Animal Industry Report

Iodine value product (IVP) is commonly used to predict carcass fat iodine value (CIV). However, when higher fat diets are employed, IVP tends to emphasize the quantity of fat in the diet more than the composition of that fat. The objective of this experiment was to compare the effectiveness in predicting CIV by IVP versus individual fatty acid content in the diet or their daily intake. Forty-two gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337 × C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.8 ± 0.38 kg were allotted based on sex and weight across 7 treatments: a control diet with ...


Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) And Techno Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Algal Biomass And Biodiesel Production From Pyrolytic Substrate, Xuefei Zhao, Zhiyou Wen, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2014

Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) And Techno Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Algal Biomass And Biodiesel Production From Pyrolytic Substrate, Xuefei Zhao, Zhiyou Wen, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Hybrid processing of cellulosic biomass, composed of thermochemical-based pyrolysis of biomass into fermentative substrates followed by biochemical-based algal fermentation into lipid-rich biomass was developed. The hybrid process has proven an effective way for producing biofuel from lignocellulosic biomass. In this work, life cycle assessment and techno economic analysis were performed for algal fermentation of the acetic-acid rich stage fraction of bio-oil under different scales and fermentation conditions. These results will provide guidance for choosing optimal algal fermentation parameters. Moreover, with more biodiesel produced, increased environmental and economic benefits per gallon of biodiesel can be expected.


Flow Rate And Duty Cycle Effects In Lysis Of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Using High-Energy Pulsed Focused Ultrasound, Grant Riesberg, Timothy A. Bigelow, Dan Joseph Stessman, Martin H. Spalding Ii, Linxing Yao, Tong Wang, Jin Xu Jun 2014

Flow Rate And Duty Cycle Effects In Lysis Of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Using High-Energy Pulsed Focused Ultrasound, Grant Riesberg, Timothy A. Bigelow, Dan Joseph Stessman, Martin H. Spalding Ii, Linxing Yao, Tong Wang, Jin Xu

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

To consider microalgae lipid biofuel as a viable energy source, it is a necessity to maximize algal cell lysis, lipid harvest, and thus biofuel production versus the energy used to lyse the cells. Previous techniques have been to use energy consumptive ultrasound waves in the 10-40 kHz range in a stationary exposure environment. This study evaluated the potential of using 1.1 MHz ultrasound pulses in a new flow through type chamber on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism for cell breakage. The ultrasound was generated using a spherically focused transducer with a focal length of 6.34 cm and ...


Comparative Evaluation Of Light-Emitting Diode (Led) Vs. Fluorescent (Fl) Lighting In Commercial Aviary Hen Houses, Hongqian Long, Yang Zhao, Tong Wang, Hongwei Xin, Zhonghua Ning Jun 2014

Comparative Evaluation Of Light-Emitting Diode (Led) Vs. Fluorescent (Fl) Lighting In Commercial Aviary Hen Houses, Hongqian Long, Yang Zhao, Tong Wang, Hongwei Xin, Zhonghua Ning

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

In this ongoing study, indoor environment, production performance, egg quality, and some welfare aspects of laying hens in two commercial aviary houses installed with light-emitting diode (LED) lights are compared with those in two aviary houses of similar hen age with fluorescent (FL) lights. To date the study (covering 18 – 44 weeks of hen age) shows the following preliminary results. The daily mean temperature and relative humidity (RH) in all houses were generally maintained within 20-25°C and 50-80%, respectively. The holders of LED and FL light bulbs had similar temperatures, approximately 40°C. There were no significant differences in ...


Sustainable Production Of Bioenergy From Agricultural And Food Waste, Stéphanie Jung Jan 2014

Sustainable Production Of Bioenergy From Agricultural And Food Waste, Stéphanie Jung

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

This project will determine the potential of pre- and post-consumer waste collected from ISU Dining for bioethanol production. The investigator will gather data about the quantity and composition of these wastes and how much energy could be produced.


Sensory Characteristics Of Loins From Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake And Fed Diets Differing In Energy, Emily K. Arkfield, Emily Hamman, Jordy E. Berger, Roger Johnson, Jennifer Young, Christine A. Fedler, Kenneth J. Prusa, John F. Patience, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan Jan 2014

Sensory Characteristics Of Loins From Pigs Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake And Fed Diets Differing In Energy, Emily K. Arkfield, Emily Hamman, Jordy E. Berger, Roger Johnson, Jennifer Young, Christine A. Fedler, Kenneth J. Prusa, John F. Patience, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan

Animal Industry Report

The goal of this experiment was to determine the impact of high and low energy diets on sensory traits of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Diet had little effect on sensory quality of loins. Line did have an impact on sensory rated juiciness of loins. Loins from animals of the LRFI line had greater juiciness than those of the HRFI line. This difference is most likely not numerically large enough to be detected by the untrained consumer.


Quality Of Milk From Lactating Dairy Cattle Fed Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, Eric D. Testroet, Gerui Li, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2014

Quality Of Milk From Lactating Dairy Cattle Fed Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles, Eric D. Testroet, Gerui Li, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

Healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows (n=24) were fed total mixed rations containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The objective of this study was to examine the effect of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on production parameters and flavor and oxidative stability of milk. Cows were assigned to two groups and fed one of three treatment diets (0% DDGS, 10% DDGS, 25% DDGS by dry matter (DM)) as a total mixed ration. Each group was fed all three of the diets after a wash-out period of 7 days. Milk yield was unaffected by both the 0% and 10 ...


The Impact Of Divergent Selection For Residual Feed Intake On Meat Quality Traits Of Loins From Pigs On High Or Low Energy Diets, Emily Arkfield, Emily Hamman, Jordy E. Berger, Roger Johnson, Jennifer Young, Christine A. Fedler, Kenneth J. Prusa, John F. Patience, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan Jan 2014

The Impact Of Divergent Selection For Residual Feed Intake On Meat Quality Traits Of Loins From Pigs On High Or Low Energy Diets, Emily Arkfield, Emily Hamman, Jordy E. Berger, Roger Johnson, Jennifer Young, Christine A. Fedler, Kenneth J. Prusa, John F. Patience, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan

Animal Industry Report

The goal of this experiment was to determine the impact of low and high energy diets on the meat quality of animals selected for divergent residual feed intake (RFI). Low RFI (efficient) and high RFI (less efficient) pigs were fed either a high energy, low fiber (HELF) or low energy, high fiber (LEHF) diet. Diet had little impact on meat quality. Selection for low RFI animals resulted in loins with greater water holding capacity and sensory juiciness. High RFI animals have loins with greater percent lipid, color and marbling scores, and a* values (are more red in color). It is ...


Microstructure And Antimicrobial Functionality Of Nano-Enhanced Protein-Based Biopolymers, Dattatreya M. Kadam, Chao Wang, Sheng Wang, David A. Grewell, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Chenxu Yu Jan 2014

Microstructure And Antimicrobial Functionality Of Nano-Enhanced Protein-Based Biopolymers, Dattatreya M. Kadam, Chao Wang, Sheng Wang, David A. Grewell, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Chenxu Yu

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Whey protein isolates (WPI) and corn zein protein (CZP) films, embedded with porous silica-coated titanium nano-enhancers (TiO2@@SiO2), were prepared and exhibited enhanced antimicrobial functionality. Protein solutions at 5% WPI and 13.5% CZP were amended with 1.5% w/w of TiO2@@SiO2 nano-enhancers and subjected to sonication at 0, 16, 80, and 160 µm amplitude prior to casting into films. The effects of sonication on nano-enhancer distribution and the structure and morphology of the resulting films were elucidated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface structure of the films was altered by the presence of nano-enhancers. The nano-enhanced ...


Ozonation-Based Decolorization Of Food Dyes For Recovery Of Fruit Leather Wastes, Wenda Zhu, Wenda Zhu, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, H. Duygu Ozsoy, Johannes Van Leeuwen Aug 2013

Ozonation-Based Decolorization Of Food Dyes For Recovery Of Fruit Leather Wastes, Wenda Zhu, Wenda Zhu, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, H. Duygu Ozsoy, Johannes Van Leeuwen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Commercial manufacture of fruit leathers (FL) usually results in a portion of the product that is out of specification. The disposition of this material poses special challenges in the food industry. Because the material remains edible and contains valuable ingredients (fruit pulp, sugars, acidulates, etc.), an ideal solution would be to recover this material for product rework. A key practical obstacle to such recovery is that compositing of differently colored wastes results in an unsalable gray product. Therefore, a safe and scalable method for decolorization of FL prior to product rework is needed. This research introduces a novel approach utilizing ...


Free Chlorine Loss During Spray Of Membrane-Less Acidic Electrolyzed Water (Mlaew) And Its Antimicrobial Effect On Airborne Bacteria From Poultry House, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Deling Zhao, Weichao Zheng, Wei Tian, He Ma, Kai Liu, Hui Hu, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir, Wei Wang Jul 2013

Free Chlorine Loss During Spray Of Membrane-Less Acidic Electrolyzed Water (Mlaew) And Its Antimicrobial Effect On Airborne Bacteria From Poultry House, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Deling Zhao, Weichao Zheng, Wei Tian, He Ma, Kai Liu, Hui Hu, Tong Wang, Michelle L. Soupir, Wei Wang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Spray-application of membrane-less acidic electrolyzed water (MLAEW) is a novel technique for disinfection in livestock houses. This study investigated the loss of free chlorine (FC, the major germicidal component in MLAEW) over distance during spray, as affected by air temperature and initial FC concentration. The antimicrobial effect of MLAEW on airborne bacteria from an aviary laying-hen house was examined. MLAEW was prepared with two FC concentrations (app. 15 and 60 mg L-1), and was sprayed at three air temperatures (18, 25, 32°C). The original MLAEW solution and MLAEW aerosols collected at 0, 25, and 50 cm from the spray ...


Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy James Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. Mcclelland Feb 2013

Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy James Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. Mcclelland

Ames Laboratory Publications

Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch ...


Understanding Health Claims On Food Products, Emily Lasley, Ruth E. Litchfield Feb 2013

Understanding Health Claims On Food Products, Emily Lasley, Ruth E. Litchfield

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Some health claims are approved by the Food and Drug Administration; others are endorsements by associations, organizations, or companies. Using the Nutrition Facts label will help you make informed decisions.


Survivor's Guide To Healthy Web Surfing And Phone Apps, Jody Gatewood, Ruth E. Litchfield Jan 2013

Survivor's Guide To Healthy Web Surfing And Phone Apps, Jody Gatewood, Ruth E. Litchfield

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Evaluate phone apps and online sites that offer health information by using this helpful guide. Find suggested sites and know what to look for as you evaluate the reliability of information you find.


Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Dietary Supplements..., Ruth E. Litchfield Jan 2013

Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Dietary Supplements..., Ruth E. Litchfield

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Several things you should know about dietary supplements, since they are not regulated by FDA for efficacy or safety.


Development Of An Online Food Safety Training For Employees Of University Farms And School Gardens, Angela M. Shaw, Catherine Strohbehn, Linda L. Naeve Jan 2013

Development Of An Online Food Safety Training For Employees Of University Farms And School Gardens, Angela M. Shaw, Catherine Strohbehn, Linda L. Naeve

Leopold Center Completed Grant Reports

With a rise in the number of publicly accessed fruit and vegetable growing venues, there is a need for food safety training for staff of these schools and research facilities. This project created a variety of media options to educate workers about proper ways to handle fruit and vegetables to ensure food safety.


Cover Cropping And Strip Tillage To Improve Crop Performance And Food Safety In Muskmelon Production, Ajay Nair, Angela M. Shaw, Vincent Lawson Jan 2013

Cover Cropping And Strip Tillage To Improve Crop Performance And Food Safety In Muskmelon Production, Ajay Nair, Angela M. Shaw, Vincent Lawson

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

There is a growing interest among growers to utilize production techniques that reduce soil erosion, minimize nutrient leaching, suppress weed emergence, and build soil quality and organic matter. Cover crops are now being widely used by both conventional and organic growers to accomplish these tasks and also to maintain high soil fertility. Cover crops have a profound impact on soil quality by adding to the soil organic matter pool, enhancing soil structure and fertility, improving soil water holding capacity, reducing the loss of nutrients and sediments in surface run-off, and suppressing weed populations. Additional benefits from cover crops include reduction ...


Whole Grains, Lindsay R. Macnab, Sarah L. Francis, Ruth E. Litchfield Dec 2012

Whole Grains, Lindsay R. Macnab, Sarah L. Francis, Ruth E. Litchfield

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Including whole grains in your diet provides many health benefits, including reducing your risk for diabetes, heart disease and certain cancers. The information in this publication will help you understand your whole grain choices so you can select and enjoy a variety of healthy foods.


Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids..., Ruth E. Litchfield, Karin Westberg, Lyndsey Metcalf Oct 2012

Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids..., Ruth E. Litchfield, Karin Westberg, Lyndsey Metcalf

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Did you know thirst is NOT a good indicator of hydration. Find out about recommended fluid intake, and more.


How Much Are You Eating?, Ruth E. Litchfield, Naomi Ikeshima Oct 2012

How Much Are You Eating?, Ruth E. Litchfield, Naomi Ikeshima

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Manage the food portions you put on your plate and you'll be better able to manage your weight. Find helpful tips to quickly choose food portions compatible with your age, gender, and activity level.

Also see how to personalize MyPlate recommendations with your needed daily amounts of grains, protein, vegetables, fruits, and dairy.


Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Training Diets, Ruth E. Litchfield, Karin Westberg, Emily Lasley Oct 2012

Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Training Diets, Ruth E. Litchfield, Karin Westberg, Emily Lasley

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Did you know low-carbohydrate diets decrease athletes' ability to perform. Find out more about what to eat when competing.


Myplate Lunch Bag Ideas, Catherine Strohbehn, Ruth E. Litchfield Sep 2012

Myplate Lunch Bag Ideas, Catherine Strohbehn, Ruth E. Litchfield

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Find great menu ideas to pack your child's lunch bag with MyPlate healthy foods. You'll find kid-friendly foods for fruits, veggies, protein, grains, and dairy. Also, find preparation and packing tips to keep foods at a safe temperature.


Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Pickles, Sarah L. Francis, Holly R. Van Heel Aug 2012

Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Pickles, Sarah L. Francis, Holly R. Van Heel

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Put up safe, tasty pickles with these detailed instructions. Also includes trouble-shooting advice.


Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Vegetables, Sarah L. Francis, Holly R. Van Heel May 2012

Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Vegetables, Sarah L. Francis, Holly R. Van Heel

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Preserve healthy, nutritious vegetables safely using the detailed directions in this publication. Includes typical canning problems and their solutions.


Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Meat, Poultry, Wild Game And Fish, Sarah L. Francis, Cindy S. Baumgartner, Nancy C. Clark, Renee J. Sweers, Holly R. Van Heel, Jill R. Weber Feb 2012

Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Meat, Poultry, Wild Game And Fish, Sarah L. Francis, Cindy S. Baumgartner, Nancy C. Clark, Renee J. Sweers, Holly R. Van Heel, Jill R. Weber

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

A jar of home preserved meat is a delicious and convenient way to start a quick and easy meal. Canning meat, poultry, wild game, and fish must be done correctly to assure that food is safe to eat. Find guidelines and recipes to follow to achieve the best product.


Permeability Of Rosmarinic Acid In Prunella Vulgaris And Ursolic Acid In Salvia Officinalis Extracts Across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers, Zhiyi Qiang, Zhong Ye, Catherine C. Hauck, Patricia A. Murphy, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Manju B. Reddy, Suzanne Hendrich Oct 2011

Permeability Of Rosmarinic Acid In Prunella Vulgaris And Ursolic Acid In Salvia Officinalis Extracts Across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers, Zhiyi Qiang, Zhong Ye, Catherine C. Hauck, Patricia A. Murphy, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Manju B. Reddy, Suzanne Hendrich

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

Ethnopharmacological relevance
Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general.

Aim of the study
To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers.

Materials and methods
The permeabilities and phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal ...