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Food Science

Fermentation

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Enhancing Chocolate Flavour Quality – Effects Of Technological Modifications During Fermentation Of Ghanaian Cocoa Beans, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd) Oct 2010

Enhancing Chocolate Flavour Quality – Effects Of Technological Modifications During Fermentation Of Ghanaian Cocoa Beans, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd)

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Spontaneous Fermentation And Amylase Rich Flour (Arf) On The Nutritive Value, Functional And Viscoelastic Properties Of Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Maize, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Philip Roger Aidoo, Randy Adjonu Apr 2010

Effect Of Spontaneous Fermentation And Amylase Rich Flour (Arf) On The Nutritive Value, Functional And Viscoelastic Properties Of Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Maize, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Philip Roger Aidoo, Randy Adjonu

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Studied were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of spontaneous fermentation and Amylase Rich Flours (ARF) on some nutritive value, functional and viscoelastic properties of cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. A 2x3x3 factorial design, with fermentation medium, fermentation time and ARF level was performed. The blends were fermented for the specific times and analysed for their titratable acidity, pH, water absorption capacity, viscoelastic properties, texture, protein and mineral content. Fermentation and ARF addition influenced titratable acidity, pH, water absorption, viscoelastic properties and texture of the cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. Addition of ARF decreased the viscoelastic properties, texture and pH of all the blends ...


Process Characteristics And Microbiology Of Fura Produced In Ghana, James Owusu-Kwarteng, Kwaku Tano-Debra, Fortune Akabanda, Richard Glover Jan 2010

Process Characteristics And Microbiology Of Fura Produced In Ghana, James Owusu-Kwarteng, Kwaku Tano-Debra, Fortune Akabanda, Richard Glover

James Owusu-Kwarteng

Majority of traditional cereal-based foods consumed in Africa are processed by spontaneous fermentation and are important as weaning foods for infants and as dietary staples for adults. Detailed knowledge of traditional processing is a prerequisite for investigating ways to improve both the nutritional and microbiological qualities of the corresponding product. In this study, the traditional processing of millet into fura, a popular millet-based dumpling consumed throughout West Africa, particularly Nigeria, Burkina-Faso and Ghana was investigated in a range of production units in northern Ghana. Microbiology of the processing was also investigated. Processing steps included soaking or steeping the grains, washing ...


Viscoelastic Properties And Pasting Characteristics Of Fermented Maize: Influence Of The Addition Of Malted Cereals, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Randy Adjonu, Justice Asomaning Dec 2009

Viscoelastic Properties And Pasting Characteristics Of Fermented Maize: Influence Of The Addition Of Malted Cereals, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Randy Adjonu, Justice Asomaning

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Investigations were conducted on the viscoelastic properties and pasting characteristics of fermented maize with malted cereals and their suitability for infant feeding. A 3x3x2 factorial experimental design with malting time, cereal malt concentration and cereal type was used. Maize, millet, and sorghum malts were added to fermented maize to reducing its bulk density. Samples were analysed for their viscoelastic properties and pasting characteristics using Brabender Viscoamylograph. Sorghum malt in comparison to millet and maize malts was not effective in terms of lowering the hot and cold paste viscosities of the fermented maize. Maize and millet malts liquefied the dough considerably ...


Acidification And Starch Behaviour During Co-Fermentation Of Cassava And Soybean Into Gari., Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Edem John Kongor, George Annor, Randy Adjonu Dec 2009

Acidification And Starch Behaviour During Co-Fermentation Of Cassava And Soybean Into Gari., Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Edem John Kongor, George Annor, Randy Adjonu

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using Brabender Viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy-fortification upto 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8%-60.4% within the 48 ...


Influence Of Spontaneous Fermentation On Some Quality Characteristics Of Maize-Based Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Foods, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Agnes Simpson Budu, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Justice Asomaning Jan 2007

Influence Of Spontaneous Fermentation On Some Quality Characteristics Of Maize-Based Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Foods, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Agnes Simpson Budu, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Justice Asomaning

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as well as broadening the food processing techniques in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the influence of spontaneous fermentation on the functional, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of maize-based cowpeafortified nixtamalized foods. A 3x3x2 factorial experiment with fermentation time (0, 24, 48 h), cowpea (0, 10 and 20%) and alkaline treatment (nixtamalized and nonnixtamalized maize ...


Effects Of Cowpea Fortification, Dehydration Method And Storage Time On Some Quality Characteristics Of Maize-Based Traditional Weaning Foods., Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Esther Sakyi-Dawson Jun 2004

Effects Of Cowpea Fortification, Dehydration Method And Storage Time On Some Quality Characteristics Of Maize-Based Traditional Weaning Foods., Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Esther Sakyi-Dawson

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Fortification of cereal-based traditional foods with legume protein can improve their nutritional value. It is, however, important to find out the extent to which the addition of cowpea affects the desirable quality characteristics of traditional weaning foods prepared from fermented maize and also to assess the effect of dehydration method and storage time on the chemical, physico-chemical and functional properties of the products. A 3 x 2 x 4 factorial experiment with cowpea level, drying method and storage time as the respective variables was done. The traditional weaning food was prepared by steeping maize in water for 24 hours, mixed ...


Microstructure Of Idli, Enamuthu Joseph, Shelly G. Crites, Barry G. Swanson Jan 1993

Microstructure Of Idli, Enamuthu Joseph, Shelly G. Crites, Barry G. Swanson

Food Structure

The microstructure of idli prepared from seeds of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and rice, and Indian black gram seeds ( Vigna mungo) and rice in the ratio 1:2 was examined . Intact starch granules and protein bodies were observed in the unfermented idli batter. Starch granules disappeared as fermentation time increased to 18 hours and 36 hours. The surface of idli prepared from 36-hour fermented batter was cohesive , dense and sponge- or foam-like. The microstructure of idli prepared from common beans and rice was similar to the microstructure of idli prepared from Indian black gram and rice. Common beans can be ...


Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies Of The Cellular Changes In Raw, Fermented And Dried Cocoa Beans, A. S. Lopez, P. S. Dimick, R. M. Walsh Jan 1987

Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies Of The Cellular Changes In Raw, Fermented And Dried Cocoa Beans, A. S. Lopez, P. S. Dimick, R. M. Walsh

Food Structure

Cocoa beans are submitted to a curing process of fermentation and drying to develop flavor precursors . The beans must have reached maturity; otherwise, no amount of processing can produce the desired flavor . Early work with cacao cell cultures showed that only when the cells have "matured" co uld a chocolate or cocoa flavor result from further processing. Fermentation is therefore required because unfermented beans may develop little chocolate flavor when roasted . likewise , the outcome of excessive fermentation may also result in unwanted flavor . Thus , the first major post - harvesting phase t o have an impact on flavor development is that ...


Microstructural Changes In Winged Bean And Soybean During Fermentation Into Miso, K. Saio, H. Suzuki, T. Kobayashi, M. Namikawa Jan 1984

Microstructural Changes In Winged Bean And Soybean During Fermentation Into Miso, K. Saio, H. Suzuki, T. Kobayashi, M. Namikawa

Food Structure

Miso was prepared from winged bean, being substituted for soybean. Microstructural changes of winged bean miso at various stages of the manufacturing processes were studied by means of light and transmission electron microscopies. Soybean was also studied for comparison.

After steaming , winged bean and soybean cells were shrunken and intracellular spaces enlarged and cell wall structure was degraded, showing layered structures and aggregated lumps in intraspaces between cell walls during fermentation into misc . At the end of the fermentation , the PAS reaction with cell walls almost disappeared. Surprisingly the thick cel l walls of winged bean degraded as completely as ...


Improved Fermentation Process For Producing Methane From Cheese Whey, Abdulraman Y. Awad May 1982

Improved Fermentation Process For Producing Methane From Cheese Whey, Abdulraman Y. Awad

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two methods of single-stage fermentation were used to produce methane from whey. The first method involved batch fermentation in which the pH was automatically controlled at 7.0. In addition to pH control, the second method was characterized by introducing the substrate continuously into the fermenter along with dilution water to keep the organic acids at a non-toxic level.

The first method did not improve the production of methane compared to the batch fermentation in which a pH control system was not used (41). However, the second method showed that the concentration of organic acids has a major effect on ...


Investigations On The Great Northern Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.): Protein Functionality, Antinutrients, Flatus Factors, Fermentation, And Carbohydrates, Shridhar K. Sathe May 1981

Investigations On The Great Northern Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.): Protein Functionality, Antinutrients, Flatus Factors, Fermentation, And Carbohydrates, Shridhar K. Sathe

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Protein content of the Great Northern beans was 26.10 percent on a dry weight basis. The apparent isoelectric pH of the NaCl extractable proteins was about 4.4. Among the several solubilizing agents, Na2CO3, K2S04, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and NaOH at the respective concentrations of 0.5, 5.0, 5.0 (all w/v), and 0.02 N were the best protein solubilizing agents, solubilizing 93.6 grams Lowry protein per 100 grams Kjeldahl protein. AIbumins and globulins accounted for 21.18 and 73.40 percent, respectively, of the total bean proteins. The bean proteins were fractionated and ...


Influence Of Pre-Fermentation Inoculations With Leuconostoc Mesenteroides And Lactobacillus Plantarum On Physico-Chemical Properties Of Fresh And Dehydrated Sauerkraut, William T. Nabors May 1968

Influence Of Pre-Fermentation Inoculations With Leuconostoc Mesenteroides And Lactobacillus Plantarum On Physico-Chemical Properties Of Fresh And Dehydrated Sauerkraut, William T. Nabors

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effect Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum has on the physical and chemical properties of fresh and dehydrated sauerkraut was tested. Sauerkraut inoculated with L . plantarum was slower in fermenting and significantly lower in acidity and higher in pH. Dehydration of sauerkraut by freeze-conventional hot-air and micro-wave processes produced a significant loss in volatile components, ascorbic acid , lactic acid and an increase in pH. Each of the dehydration processes caused browning of the sauerkraut . These changes were less with freeze-drying and increased with conventional hot-air drying and microwave drying. Gas-liquid chromatography confirms the loss of volatile components and the production ...


The Effect Of Variation In Mashing Procedures Upon The Alcoholic Fermentation Of Corn , Frank Benjamin Folckemer Jan 1943

The Effect Of Variation In Mashing Procedures Upon The Alcoholic Fermentation Of Corn , Frank Benjamin Folckemer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Fermentative Utilization Of Cassava , Julian Banzon Jan 1940

Fermentative Utilization Of Cassava , Julian Banzon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Factors Affecting Germicidal Properties Of Sulphur Dioxide In Wet-Starch-Process Waters , John Elwood Killinger Jan 1938

Factors Affecting Germicidal Properties Of Sulphur Dioxide In Wet-Starch-Process Waters , John Elwood Killinger

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.