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An Environmental Approach To Food Safety Assessment Using Artisan Cheese And Fresh Produce As Model Systems, Marie Limoges Jan 2019

An Environmental Approach To Food Safety Assessment Using Artisan Cheese And Fresh Produce As Model Systems, Marie Limoges

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation examined recently issued regulatory standards using cheese and produce as model systems. FDA's 2015 Domestic and Imported Cheese and Cheese Products Compliance Program Guidelines (CPG) E. coli standards on cheese safety, and the extent to which these standards affect domestic and imported cheese commerce, was assessed. Results from FDA's Domestic and Imported Cheese Compliance Program for samples collected between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2006 were analyzed. Of 3,007 cheese samples tested for non-toxigenic E. coli, 76% (2,300) of samples exceeded 10/g, FDA's target for regulatory activity. In cheese samples containing ...


Concentration Of Listeria Monocytogenes In Skim Milk And Soft Cheese Through Microplate Immunocapture, Steven A. Rogers, Melissa Calicchia, Rosalee S. Hellberg Sep 2018

Concentration Of Listeria Monocytogenes In Skim Milk And Soft Cheese Through Microplate Immunocapture, Steven A. Rogers, Melissa Calicchia, Rosalee S. Hellberg

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Microplate immunocapture is an inexpensive method for the concentration of foodborne pathogens using an antibody-coated microplate. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of microplate immunocapture as an alternative to traditional enrichment for concentrating Listeria monocytogenes to levels detectable with selective plating or real-time PCR. L. monocytogenes isolates serologically characterized as Type 1 (1/2a) and Type 4 (untypeable) were grown overnight and diluted to 100 to 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. The isolates were used to optimize microplate immunocapture in tryptic soy broth with 0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE), skim milk, and queso fresco ...


Growth Characteristics Of Lactobacillus Wasatchensis And Its Detection And Enumeration Using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isaac Brockbank Bowen Aug 2018

Growth Characteristics Of Lactobacillus Wasatchensis And Its Detection And Enumeration Using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isaac Brockbank Bowen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There are numerous challenges encountered during the manufacturing and storage of cheese by both the large-scale and artesian producers. One such challenge has been the formation of late gassy defect, which occurs when gas is produced by certain lactic acid bacteria found in the cheese block during storage and aging over a three month time period. Negative consequences of late gas production are slits and cracks in the cheese block and puffy cheese packaging, which cause significant financial losses for manufacturers along with poor consumer acceptance.

Lactobacillus wasatchensis is one such lactic acid bacterium shown to produce gas during cheese ...


Study Of Rheological, Chemical, And Microbiological Properties Of Chami, A Traditional Emirati Soft Chees, Aysha Othman Abdullah Al Katheeri Apr 2018

Study Of Rheological, Chemical, And Microbiological Properties Of Chami, A Traditional Emirati Soft Chees, Aysha Othman Abdullah Al Katheeri

Theses

In this work, ten Emirati Chami cheese samples were collected and analyzed to determine their chemical composition, texture, rheology, and microbiological properties. Chami cheeses showed large variations in moisture (60.9–84.1%), protein (7.5–14.6%), fat (0.5–7.8%), and ash (3.4–8.0%) contents as well as in pH (3.6–4.4), and water activity (0.977–0.999%). The variation in fat content of samples suggested that extra fat was added; this added fat was either butter or vegetable oil as indicated by the fatty acid composition. The different samples showed peaks ...


Analysis Of Surface Crystals On Soft Washed Rind Cheeses Using Polarized Light Microscopy And Their Effect On The Sensory Perception Of Grittiness, Patrick Polowsky Jan 2018

Analysis Of Surface Crystals On Soft Washed Rind Cheeses Using Polarized Light Microscopy And Their Effect On The Sensory Perception Of Grittiness, Patrick Polowsky

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

With the rising popularity of artisanal cheese in the United States, the soft washed rind category has emerged as a fast-growing segment of the marketplace. There is much anecdotal evidence to suggest a common sensorial defect in soft washed rind cheese is a gritty/sandy texture attributed to crystal growth on the rind of these cheeses

A preliminary study was undertaken to develop a set of criteria to visually identify crystals found on soft washed rind cheeses. Single crystal identities were presumptively determined using polarized light microscopy (PLM), and cross-checked using powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD). Two distinct crystal groupings were ...


Genomic Characterization Of Dairy Associated Leuconostoc Species And Diversity Of Leuconostocs In Undefined Mixed Mesophilic Starter Cultures, Cyril A. Frantzen, Witold Kot, Thomas B. Pedersen, Ylva M. Ardö, Jeff R. Broadbent, Horst Neve, Lars H. Hansen, Fabio Dal Bello, Hilde M. Østlie, Hans P. Kleppen, Finn K. Vogensen, Helge Holo Feb 2017

Genomic Characterization Of Dairy Associated Leuconostoc Species And Diversity Of Leuconostocs In Undefined Mixed Mesophilic Starter Cultures, Cyril A. Frantzen, Witold Kot, Thomas B. Pedersen, Ylva M. Ardö, Jeff R. Broadbent, Horst Neve, Lars H. Hansen, Fabio Dal Bello, Hilde M. Østlie, Hans P. Kleppen, Finn K. Vogensen, Helge Holo

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Undefined mesophilic mixed (DL-type) starter cultures are composed of predominantly Lactococcus lactis subspecies and 1–10% Leuconostoc spp. The composition of the Leuconostoc population in the starter culture ultimately affects the characteristics and the quality of the final product. The scientific basis for the taxonomy of dairy relevant leuconostocs can be traced back 50 years, and no documentation on the genomic diversity of leuconostocs in starter cultures exists. We present data on the Leuconostoc population in five DL-type starter cultures commonly used by the dairy industry. The analyses were performed using traditional cultivation methods, and further augmented by next-generation DNA ...


Development Of A Rapid Detection And Quantification Method For Yeasts And Molds In Dairy Products, Brandon Nguyen Jan 2017

Development Of A Rapid Detection And Quantification Method For Yeasts And Molds In Dairy Products, Brandon Nguyen

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

A rapid quantitative PCR (qPCR) method was developed for the detection and quantification of fungi that are potentially present in dairy commodities. Genes of interest that were considered and used in the method development were the following: 18S rRNA, actin, beta-tubulin, and elongation factor 1-alpha. The following organisms were screened in this method development: Galactomyces candidus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium verrocosum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. The developed method has a standard curve based on the organism, Galactomyces candidus, and the primers based on the elongation factor 1-alpha gene. Using this yeast and primers, this method can detect fungal ...


Development And Implementation Of Methods To Study Crystallization In Cheese, Gil Fils Tansman Jan 2017

Development And Implementation Of Methods To Study Crystallization In Cheese, Gil Fils Tansman

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Dissolved compounds and ions, including mineral elements and products of microbial metabolism, are present in many cheeses in relatively high concentrations. These dissolved substances may precipitate from the aqueous phase of cheese to form sparingly soluble crystals that can impart a crunchy, gritty, or sandy texture on the cheese. In the present work, optical and diffractometric methods were optimized for use with cheese samples to identify crystal phases in several cheese varieties. These techniques, which included powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), single crystal X-ray diffractometry (SCXRD), and petrographic microscopy (PM) have traditionally been used on geological specimens that are quite different ...


Growth And Gas Formation By Lactobacillus Wasatchensis, A Novel Obligatory Heterofermentative Nonstarter Lactic Acid Bacterium, In Cheddar-Style Cheese Made Using A Streptococcus Thermophilus Starter, Western Dairy Center, Utah State University, Fatih Ortakci, Jeff R. Broadbent, Craig J. Oberg, Donald J. Mcmahon Nov 2015

Growth And Gas Formation By Lactobacillus Wasatchensis, A Novel Obligatory Heterofermentative Nonstarter Lactic Acid Bacterium, In Cheddar-Style Cheese Made Using A Streptococcus Thermophilus Starter, Western Dairy Center, Utah State University, Fatih Ortakci, Jeff R. Broadbent, Craig J. Oberg, Donald J. Mcmahon

Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

A novel slow-growing, obligatory heterofermentative, nonstarter lactic acid bacterium (NSLAB) Lactobacillus wasatchensis WDC04 was studied for growth and gas production in Cheddar-style cheese made using Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter culture. Cheesemaking trials were conducted using St. thermophilus alone or in combination with Lb. wasatchensis deliberately added to cheese milk at a level of ~104 cfu/ml. Resulting cheeses were ripened at 6 or 12°C. At d 1, starter streptococcal numbers were similar in both cheeses (~109 cfu/g) and fast-growing NSLAB lactobacilli counts were below detectable levels (<102 cfu/g). As expected, Lactobacillus wasatchensis counts were ...


Consumer Evaluation: The Link Between Body Mass Index, Reward Sensitivity, Product Liking And Emotion, Malori Comer Jun 2015

Consumer Evaluation: The Link Between Body Mass Index, Reward Sensitivity, Product Liking And Emotion, Malori Comer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate consumer acceptance of cheeses varying in fat and sodium levels, (2) to determine if sensitivity to reward and body mass index has an effect on product liking based on fat or salt content, (3) to evaluate the use of FaceReader technology during consumer evaluation and, (4) to determine if consumer’s self-selected, conscious emotions matched with the expressed, subconscious emotions acquired by FaceReader.

Consumer acceptance testing (n=108) was conducted on two medium cheddar cheeses with varying fat levels and two low-moisture part-skim mozzarella cheeses varying in sodium levels. Attributes were ...


Knockanore Irish Farmhouse Cheese, Eamonn Lonergan Jan 2014

Knockanore Irish Farmhouse Cheese, Eamonn Lonergan

Pamphlets

No abstract provided.


Development Of Methods For Assessing The Effect Of Moisture And Aging On Sliceability Of Cheese, Jess Perrie May 2012

Development Of Methods For Assessing The Effect Of Moisture And Aging On Sliceability Of Cheese, Jess Perrie

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Sliceability is a cheese’s ability to cut cleanly into thin slices, resist breakage or fracture at slices edges, and undergo a high level of bending before breaking. Intuitively, sliceability depends on the chemistry, microstructural, and rheological properties of the casein network. Currently there is no reported scientific research investigating evaluation methods of cheese slice quality, as well as properties that influence a cheese’s ability to slice.

In this study, a method for slice quality evaluation was developed on purchased cheese and performed on commercial cheeses and experimental cheeses manufactured at three different moisture contents (40.6%, 37.0 ...


Investigating The Strategies To Improve The Quality Of Low-Fat Mozzarella And Cheddar Cheeses, Ranjeeta Wadhwani May 2011

Investigating The Strategies To Improve The Quality Of Low-Fat Mozzarella And Cheddar Cheeses, Ranjeeta Wadhwani

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Low-fat cheese faces great challenges associated with its texture being hard and rubbery, desirable flavors being missing, color being undesirably intense and translucent appearing, and melting being improper. In an effort of improving the quality of low-fat cheeses, several strategies have been tried to accomplish three major objectives, 1) improving the melting and baking properties of low-fat Mozzarella cheese, 2) improving the color of low-fat Cheddar cheese, and 3) investigating the feasibilities of enriching low-fat Cheddar cheese with dietary fibers.

For objective 1, 4 batches of low-fat Mozzarella cheese with target fat of 6.0%, 4.5%, 3.0%, and ...


Comparative Performance Of Fluorometry And High Performance Liquid Chromatography In The Detection Of Alfatoxin M1 In Two Commercial Cheeses, Gustavo Pena May 2010

Comparative Performance Of Fluorometry And High Performance Liquid Chromatography In The Detection Of Alfatoxin M1 In Two Commercial Cheeses, Gustavo Pena

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is frequently found in milk and dairy products. It is a metabolite formed in cows from aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), contained in animal feeds. In cheese production AFM1 distributes between curds and whey. In this study, cows were fed 64 µg/AFB1/d for the high treatment, and 5 µg/AFB1/d for the low treatment, to obtain milk contaminated with AFM1 over the 0.5 µg/L and under 0.05 µg/L restrictions, respectively. Cheese was manufactured with milk contaminated with AFM1 at 0.8 and 0.03 ìg/kg by the higher and lower treatment ...


The Effect Of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Streptococcus Thermophilus Mr1c On Functionality In High Moisture Cheddar-Type Cheese, Tyler J. Singleton May 2007

The Effect Of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Streptococcus Thermophilus Mr1c On Functionality In High Moisture Cheddar-Type Cheese, Tyler J. Singleton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Differences in texture at any particular stage of ripening depend upon differences in the basic structure and the extent to which the basic structure is modified by physical parameters. Thus, very young cheeses of the same variety differ in texture because of variations in pH and in salt, moisture, and fat content. How well a cheese melts and shreds depend on its texture and physical parameters. Streptococcus thermophilus MR1C produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS) that is tightly associated with the bacterial cell wall. Addition of S. thermophilus MR1C to the cheese make will increase the moisture of the cheese 2-3% and ...


The Effect Of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Cultures On The Moisture Retention And Functional Properties Of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese, David B. Perry May 2000

The Effect Of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Cultures On The Moisture Retention And Functional Properties Of Low Fat Mozzarella Cheese, David B. Perry

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Low fat Mozzarella cheese was made using exopolysaccharide-producing starter cultures consisting of single strains of Streptococcus thermophilus MR-1C and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus MR-1R with or without the addition of mesophilic exopolysaccharide-producing adjunct mixed culture consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris. A control cheese was made using a non-exopolysaccharide-producing starter culture consisting of S. thermophilus TA061 and Lactobacillus helveticusLH100. Cheeses were analyzed for moisture, melt, fat, and protein. Cheeses made with the addition of the mesophilic exopolysaccharide-producing adjunct culture showed significant differences in moisture, but not in melting properties when compared to cheeses made ...


Predicting The Cutting Time Of Cottage Cheese Using Backscatter Measurements, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Frederick A. Payne, Sue E. Nokes Jul 1999

Predicting The Cutting Time Of Cottage Cheese Using Backscatter Measurements, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Frederick A. Payne, Sue E. Nokes

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

An automated system for monitoring culture growth and determining coagulum cutting time is needed for cottage cheese manufacturing. A light backscatter measurement system was designed and installed in a local cottage cheese manufacturing plant. A cutting time prediction algorithm was developed using parameters generated from the backscatter profile. The cutting time prediction algorithm, Tcut = Tmax + β2 S, used two time-based parameters generated from the backscatter profile (Tmax and S) and one operator selected parameter, β2, to predict the coagulum cutting time, Tcut. The standard error of prediction for the algorithm was 6.4 min and ...


Influence Of Carbohydrate Starvation On The Culturability And Amino Acid Utilization Of Lactococcus Lactis, Mark R. Stuart May 1999

Influence Of Carbohydrate Starvation On The Culturability And Amino Acid Utilization Of Lactococcus Lactis, Mark R. Stuart

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lactococci are widely used in the cheese industry as a starter culture. Starter cultures face carbohydrate starvation due to the absence of a fermentable carbohydrate in the cheese curd after pressing. Starvation leads to a decreased ability to synthesize ATP, generate a proton motive force, and accumulate nutrients necessary to maintain viability. The aim of this work was to investigate the culturability of lactococci grown with and without lactose in a chemically defined medium, and to define the metabolic changes that occur during carbohydrate starvation.

Lactose metabolism provided energy for logarithmic phase growth and greater cell density in L. lactis ...


Tryptophan Catabolism By Lactobacillus Spp. : Biochemistry And Implications On Flavor Development In Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese, Sanjay Gummalla May 1998

Tryptophan Catabolism By Lactobacillus Spp. : Biochemistry And Implications On Flavor Development In Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese, Sanjay Gummalla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Amino acids derived from the degradation of casein in cheese serve as precursors for the generation of key flavor compounds. Microbial degradation of tryptophan (Trp) is thought to promote formation of aromatic compounds that impart putrid fecal or unclean flavors in cheese, but pathways for their production have not been established. This study investigated tryptophan catabolism by Lactobacillus casei LC301 and LC202 and Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 and LH212 cheese flavor adjuncts in carbohydrate starvation (pH 6.5, 30 or 37°C, no sugar) and cheese-like conditions (pH 5.2, 4% NaCl, 15°C, no sugar). Enzyme assays of cell-free extracts ...


Proceedings From The 34th Marschall Italian And Specialty Cheese Seminar, Various Authors Sep 1997

Proceedings From The 34th Marschall Italian And Specialty Cheese Seminar, Various Authors

Cheese Industry Conference

No abstract provided.


Proceedings From The 33rd Annual Italian And Specialty Cheese Seminar, Various Authors Sep 1996

Proceedings From The 33rd Annual Italian And Specialty Cheese Seminar, Various Authors

Cheese Industry Conference

No abstract provided.


Proceedings From The 32nd Marschall Italian And Specialty Cheese Seminar, Various Authors Sep 1995

Proceedings From The 32nd Marschall Italian And Specialty Cheese Seminar, Various Authors

Cheese Industry Conference

No abstract provided.


Proceedings From The 31st Annual Italian And Specialty Cheese Seminar, Various Authors Sep 1994

Proceedings From The 31st Annual Italian And Specialty Cheese Seminar, Various Authors

Cheese Industry Conference

The impact of mixer temperature and mixer screw speeds on fat recovery, protein recovery, and yield of Mozzarella cheese was determined. In the first trial three different cheese temperatures were achieved: 130·F (54.C); 140•F (60.C); and 150.F (66·q. In the mixer temperature trial, a screw speed of 12 rpm (revolutions per minute) was used at all mixer temperatures. In the second trial, three different mixer screw speeds were used for stretching: 5 rpm, slow; 12 rpm, medium (ca. 50o/o of mixer full speed); 19 rpm, fast. Three vats of cheese were made per ...


Consumption Of Iron-Fortified Cheese And Lipid Peroxidation In Females, Gene J. Giunti May 1994

Consumption Of Iron-Fortified Cheese And Lipid Peroxidation In Females, Gene J. Giunti

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Dairy products are important sources of calcium and other nutrients but are a poor source of dietary iron. Cheese comprises a substantial portion of dairy food consumption and has been determined an appropriate medium for iron-fortification. However, iron may promote the potentially harmful process in food and biological systems known as lipid peroxidation. Therefore, the safety of consuming iron-fortified cheese was examined.

Commercial-scale batches of Cheddar cheese were iron-fortified to a level of two milligrams of iron per ounce with either ferric chloride, ferric-casein complex, or ferric-whey protein complex. Fifty-four premenopausal females were divided into three treatment groups and supplemented ...


Proceedings From The 30th Annual Marschall Italian Cheese Seminar, Various Authors Sep 1993

Proceedings From The 30th Annual Marschall Italian Cheese Seminar, Various Authors

Cheese Industry Conference

Our interviews with cheese makers, owners, managers, and top management of mozzarella processing companies across the United States resulted in our quest for accurate data from which an automatic Mozzarella processing systems could be designed.


Practical Aspects Of Electron Microscopy In Dairy Research, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1993

Practical Aspects Of Electron Microscopy In Dairy Research, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Milk products are based mostly on casein micelles, fat globules, and whey proteins. The former two constituents are corpuscular and whey proteins become corpuscular when coagulated. Structural changes in these basic constituents during processing have been studied by electron microscopy. This review discusses the structures of yoghurt, curd, cheeses (hard cheeses, mould-ripened cheeses, cream cheeses, and process cheese), cream, milk powders, and nontraditional dairy products. Defects and deviations from traditional structures of these products are explained where the causes are known. Examples of such causes are foaming of milk, presence of unusual ingredients (bacterial polysaccharides, whey protein concentrates), and alterations ...


High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy Of Milk Products: A New Sample Preparation Procedure, William R. Mcmanus, Donald J. Mcmahon, Craig J. Oberg Jan 1993

High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy Of Milk Products: A New Sample Preparation Procedure, William R. Mcmanus, Donald J. Mcmahon, Craig J. Oberg

Food Structure

A metal-impregnation technique (tannin-ferrocyanide- osmium tetroxide) and thin metal coating imparted excellent preservation , and electric and thermal properties to milk products for scanning electron microscopy, resulting in high- resolution images. Three nanometer resolution was obtained, with minimal edge effects, charging , thermal drift, and decoration. Samples were fixed in 2% gluta raldehyde, cryoprotected in 70% ethanol, and cryofractured, exposing internal structure. Fat was extracted with Freon 113 and the sample were metal -impregnated with 1.0% osmium tetroxide and 1.5% potassium ferrocyanide, reduced with 1% hydroquinone, dried using !he critical-point drying melhod , and ion beam sputter-coated with 2-5 nm of ...


Age Related Changes In The Microstructure Of Mozzarella Cheese, L. J. Kiely, P. S. Kindstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano Jan 1993

Age Related Changes In The Microstructure Of Mozzarella Cheese, L. J. Kiely, P. S. Kindstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano

Food Structure

Changes that occurred in the microstructure of low-moisture, part skim Mozzarella made with a mixed starter consisting of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and Lacwbacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and coagulated with fermentation -produced chymosin , were examined during 50 days of ripening at 4 °C. Im mediately after manufacture (day 3), a homogeneous and continuous phase of amorphous paracasein represented a three-dimensional protein network in the cheese. A large number of irregularly shaped and sized microcavi ties were present. During 50 days of aging , an increase in the porosity of the defatted paracasein matrix was apparent. These changes were coincidental with a ...


Proceedings From The 29th Annual Marschall Italian Cheese Seminar, Various Authors Sep 1992

Proceedings From The 29th Annual Marschall Italian Cheese Seminar, Various Authors

Cheese Industry Conference

Three 375 lb vats of cultured low moisture pan skim Mozzarella cheese were produced from the same batch of standardized milk and rennet, but using three different rod (Lactobacillus bulgaricus - Marschall ProduciS - Thennorod) and coccus (Streptococcus thermophilus - Mar chall Product - Thennococcus) ratios (9R:IC, 5R:5C, and !R:9C). The total volume and total colony fonning units of culture added was kept constant for all ratios (i.e., I 02 ml/375 I b). Cheese was made with the ·'no-brine·· chee e making method using a I06°F (41° ) cook temperature, 6.4 draw pH *whey), 5.25 milling pH ...


Effect Of Draw Ph On The Development Of Curd Structure During The Manufacture Of Mozzarella Cheese, L. J. Kiely, P. S. Kindstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano Jan 1992

Effect Of Draw Ph On The Development Of Curd Structure During The Manufacture Of Mozzarella Cheese, L. J. Kiely, P. S. Kindstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano

Food Structure

The impact of varying the pH of whey at whey drainage (5.9, 6.15 or 6.4) on the development of curd structure during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Dramatic changes in curd structure were apparent with stage of manufacture , in particular the stretching step which aligned the protein fibers.

Of additional interest is the effect of draw pH on the structure of curd at whey drainage. When whey was drained at pH 6.4, an open poorly fused network of paracasein particles was observed in the cheese curd. Jn contrast, lowering the ...