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Food Science

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 304

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher Dec 2014

Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc.) have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1) of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present ...


When You Can't Watch What You Eat: Examining The Fda’S Recall Process For Food Allergies, Jacob Passy Dec 2014

When You Can't Watch What You Eat: Examining The Fda’S Recall Process For Food Allergies, Jacob Passy

Capstones

Over a third of all recalls for food products in the United States occur due to an undeclared allergen. In these situations, a food product is often mislabeled or contaminated in some way, resulting in the unknown presence of allergen. For food-allergic consumers, a company's mistake can become life-threatening. By investigating data from the Food and Drug Administration, I found that supermarket chains are responsible for about a fifth of all recalls, and that many recalls occur past the product's expiration date. These factors point to the need to improve the FDA's handling of food allergies in ...


The Wild West Of Edible Insects, Kyle Ligman Dec 2014

The Wild West Of Edible Insects, Kyle Ligman

Capstones

After the UN came out with a report in 2013 recommending insects for human consumption, businesses and restaurants in the U.S. have been racing to grow a new industry. This project explores the psychological, regulatory and production challenges they face.


Molecular Targets Of Antihypertensive Peptides: Understanding The Mechanisms Of Action Based On The Pathophysiology Of Hypertension, Kaustav Majumder, Jianping Wu Dec 2014

Molecular Targets Of Antihypertensive Peptides: Understanding The Mechanisms Of Action Based On The Pathophysiology Of Hypertension, Kaustav Majumder, Jianping Wu

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

There is growing interest in using functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure. Although numerous preventive and therapeutic pharmacological interventions are available on the market, unfortunately, many patients still suffer from poorly controlled hypertension. Furthermore, most pharmacological drugs, such as inhibitors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), are often associated with significant adverse effects. Many bioactive food compounds have been characterized over the past decades that may contribute to the management of hypertension; for example, bioactive peptides derived from various food proteins with antihypertensive properties have gained a great deal of attention. Some ...


Host Genetics And Diet, But Not Immunoglobulin A Expression, Converge To Shape Compositional Features Of The Gut Microbiome In An Advanced Intercross Population Of Mice, Larry J. Leamy, Scott A. Kelly, Joseph Nietfeldt, Ryan M. Legge, Fangrui Ma, Kunjie Hua, Rohita Sinha, Daniel A. Peterson, Jens Walter, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel Pomp Dec 2014

Host Genetics And Diet, But Not Immunoglobulin A Expression, Converge To Shape Compositional Features Of The Gut Microbiome In An Advanced Intercross Population Of Mice, Larry J. Leamy, Scott A. Kelly, Joseph Nietfeldt, Ryan M. Legge, Fangrui Ma, Kunjie Hua, Rohita Sinha, Daniel A. Peterson, Jens Walter, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel Pomp

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Background: Individuality in the species composition of the vertebrate gut microbiota is driven by a combination of host and environmental factors that have largely been studied independently. We studied the convergence of these factors in a G10 mouse population generated from a cross between two strains to search for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect gut microbiota composition or ileal Immunoglobulin A (IgA) expression in mice fed normal or high-fat diets.

Results: We found 42 microbiota-specific QTLs in 27 different genomic regions that affect the relative abundances of 39 taxa, including four QTL that were shared between this G ...


Short-Term Exposure To Heat Stress Attenuates Appetite And Intestinal Integrity In Growing Pigs 1, S. C. Pearce, M. V. Sanz-Fernandez, James Hollis, Lance H. Baumgard, Nicholas K. Gabler Dec 2014

Short-Term Exposure To Heat Stress Attenuates Appetite And Intestinal Integrity In Growing Pigs 1, S. C. Pearce, M. V. Sanz-Fernandez, James Hollis, Lance H. Baumgard, Nicholas K. Gabler

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Acute heat stress (HS) and heat stroke can be detrimental to the health, well-being, and performance of mammals such as swine. Therefore, our objective was to chronologically characterize how a growing pig perceives and initially copes with a severe heat load. Crossbred gilts (n=32; 63.8±2.9 kg) were subjected to HS conditions (37°C and 40% humidity) with ad libitum intake for 0, 2, 4, or 6 h (n=8/time point). Rectal temperature (Tr), respiration rates (RR), and feed intake were determined every 2 h. Pigs were euthanized at each time point and fresh ileum and ...


Beneficial Effects Of Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Digests Of Fried Egg And Its Fractions On Blood Pressure, Plasma Lipids And Oxidative Stress In Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, Forough Jahandideh, Kaustav Majumder, Subhadeep Chakrabarti, Jude S. Morton, Sareh Panahi, Susan Kaufman, Sandra T. Davidge, Jianping Wu Dec 2014

Beneficial Effects Of Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Digests Of Fried Egg And Its Fractions On Blood Pressure, Plasma Lipids And Oxidative Stress In Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, Forough Jahandideh, Kaustav Majumder, Subhadeep Chakrabarti, Jude S. Morton, Sareh Panahi, Susan Kaufman, Sandra T. Davidge, Jianping Wu

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Background: We have previously characterized several antihypertensive peptides in simulated digests of cooked eggs and showed blood pressure lowering property of fried whole egg digest. However, the long-term effects of this hydrolysate and its fractions on blood pressure are not known. Therefore, the objectives of the study were to determine the effects of long term administration of fried whole egg hydrolysate and its fractions (i.e. egg white and egg yolk) on regulation of blood pressure and associated factors in cardiovascular disease such as plasma lipid profile and tissue oxidative stress.

Methods and Results: We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR ...


What’S Cookin’ Good Lookin’: The Rise And Phenomena Of The Female Foodie Performer Through Social Media, Alison Weiss Dec 2014

What’S Cookin’ Good Lookin’: The Rise And Phenomena Of The Female Foodie Performer Through Social Media, Alison Weiss

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Once seen in black and white terms as human sustenance or luxury, eating has become not only a hobby, but an obsession. Whereas chefs and cooks were previously regarded as average, behind-the-scenes workers, they have now stepped out from the kitchen and into the spotlight, becoming celebrated public idols – and performers. With images tailored to different demographics right down to their clothing and hairstyles, chefs and cooks no longer merely prepare food: they put on a show. The foodie phenomena has been pioneered by females, largely in part to the parallel-running infatuation with health, fitness, and food trends that make ...


Assessment Of The Effects Of Caffeine, Gallic Acid, And Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate On Cell Inhibition, Pim-3 And E. Cadherin Protein Levels In Two Lines Of Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Lena Haddad, Melissa Rowland-Goldsmith Dec 2014

Assessment Of The Effects Of Caffeine, Gallic Acid, And Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate On Cell Inhibition, Pim-3 And E. Cadherin Protein Levels In Two Lines Of Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Lena Haddad, Melissa Rowland-Goldsmith

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

According to the American Cancer Society, pancreatic cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. In addition to being an exceptionally aggressive form of cancer, it is particularly difficult to treat because it is usually diagnosed in late stages after the onset of metastasis (1). Consequently, the current treatments used, including chemotherapy and radiation, have been rendered ineffective (2). As a result, focus has been placed on using dietary alternatives which are known to possess chemopreventive properties (3). Previous studies have indicated that Gallic acid (an important phytochemical in pomegranates) and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (the ...


Comparison Of Tetrad And Degree Of Difference Sensory Testing Methods In Evaluating The Quality Of Flour Tortillas, Kristine Futalan, Criselda Toto, Heather Mcdonald Dec 2014

Comparison Of Tetrad And Degree Of Difference Sensory Testing Methods In Evaluating The Quality Of Flour Tortillas, Kristine Futalan, Criselda Toto, Heather Mcdonald

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The Tetrad test is a forced choice discrimination method that has recently gained popularity in the sensory evaluation of foods. It has demonstrated superiority over the triangle test both in theory and practice with its proven relatively large statistical power. Tetrad does have one potential drawback, the use of a fourth sample that may cause panelist fatigue. There have been many studies comparing the Tetrad method with other difference tests such as triangle, 3- AFC, and 2- AFC however, there has been little research comparing the Tetrad and Degree of Difference test (DOD). This project compared the precision and power ...


Rolling Harvest Food Rescue, Cathy Snyder Dec 2014

Rolling Harvest Food Rescue, Cathy Snyder

The Last Food Mile Conference

Rolling Harvest Food Rescue began in 2009 when Founder and Executive Director Cathy Snyder began to volunteer at a food pantry in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. Soon after, a bountiful farmers’ market opened up less than a mile away. Snyder quickly realized that she was able to enjoy the taste and benefits of the market products simply because she had a car and disposable income, a luxury many of the food pantry clients were lacking. Returning to the food pantry the following week, continuing to hand out yet more mac and cheese, high-sodium soups and bruised bananas to struggling, food-insecure ...


All About Leftovers, Jonathan Bloom Dec 2014

All About Leftovers, Jonathan Bloom

The Last Food Mile Conference

Wasted food is a particularly galling aspect of our broken food system. The juxtaposition of hunger and waste on this planet is both an affront to common sense and morally callous. Food waste is even more appalling when you consider the environmental impact of modern agriculture. Squandering 30 to 40 percent of available calories while 15 percent of American households are food insecure is ethically and ecologically unsustainable.

There is near universal agreement on the scale of the food waste problem, but little accord on what solutions to prioritize. Where shall we push for action on food waste and where ...


Panel Ii: Consumer Level - Overview, Eugenie L. Birch Dec 2014

Panel Ii: Consumer Level - Overview, Eugenie L. Birch

The Last Food Mile Conference

No abstract provided.


Keynote Presentation: Food, Water, And Energy, Robert Giegengack Dec 2014

Keynote Presentation: Food, Water, And Energy, Robert Giegengack

The Last Food Mile Conference

While blatant food waste late in the production chain is apparent to most of us, less apparent is the inefficiency of resource use in the processes whereby we produce, harvest, process, package, store, and deliver the food that we eat.

We waste water: 72% of water “used” worldwide is applied directly to cropland, much of it via archaic technology. We move water from where it is plentiful to places where we imagine it will be more useful.

We waste nutrients, even those that we know are in limited supply, by careless or excessive application. Effluent from fertilized cropland has contaminated ...


Case Study: Minimizing Food Wastage From Farm To Consumer Products – A Systems Approach, David Masser Dec 2014

Case Study: Minimizing Food Wastage From Farm To Consumer Products – A Systems Approach, David Masser

The Last Food Mile Conference

Sterman Masser, Inc. is committed to minimizing food loss throughout the process of growing, harvesting, and packaging a consumer ready product through the use of cutting edge technology industry leading techniques. Combining Integrated Pest Management with crop rotations and more resistant potato varieties, SMI has minimized the potential for crop destroying fungi and insects to propagate. In response to hazards from rocks in the soil and the stresses from harvesting we have acquired rock crushers capable of pulverizing everything down to a powder and new harvesters designed to reduce the stresses of harvesting. Potatoes, coming from the fields, enter our ...


Case Study: Food Packaging For Extended Shelf Life And Reduced Losses, Yasmin Siddiqi Dec 2014

Case Study: Food Packaging For Extended Shelf Life And Reduced Losses, Yasmin Siddiqi

The Last Food Mile Conference

No abstract provided.


Case Study: A Manufacturer’S Perspective, Dave Stangis Dec 2014

Case Study: A Manufacturer’S Perspective, Dave Stangis

The Last Food Mile Conference

No abstract provided.


Food Loss And Waste In Distribution: A Retailer’S Perspective, Jihad Rizkallah Dec 2014

Food Loss And Waste In Distribution: A Retailer’S Perspective, Jihad Rizkallah

The Last Food Mile Conference

Food waste is an expected and inevitable byproduct of any supermarket retailer operation. In the US, the supermarket industry is held to high standards and expected to provide high quality fresh products and make them readily available to consumers during the regular shopping hours and at times, around the clock. These expectations, coupled with the ongoing dilemma of the product shelf life as related to “Best used by XXX date”, or “Sell by XXX date”, along with issues related to efficient packaging have added to the complexity of resolving the food waste problem.

In addition to the waste generated by ...


Study Of A Contemporary Diet In One Household In The Yucatan, Ericka K. Hardin Dec 2014

Study Of A Contemporary Diet In One Household In The Yucatan, Ericka K. Hardin

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The history of the Yucatan has played a major role in the development of the food system of the area and the nutritional status of the population. Originating from an agricultural based diet, which forms the foundation of the traditional Yucatan diet, there has been a recent shift away from whole and natural foods to a more processed and convenient food supply due to the influx of American products and culture. Coinciding with the influx of these unhealthy foods, there has also been a rise in the health problems of the Mexican population such as heart disease and diabetes, both ...


Improving The Health Impacts Of Whole Grains Through Processing: Resistant Starch, Dietary Fiber Solubility, And Mineral Bioaccessibility, Jennifer A. Arcila Castillo Dec 2014

Improving The Health Impacts Of Whole Grains Through Processing: Resistant Starch, Dietary Fiber Solubility, And Mineral Bioaccessibility, Jennifer A. Arcila Castillo

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Whole grains are good sources of starch, dietary fiber, and mineral elements. Starch is an important source of energy but also can be transformed to resistant starch to impart lower caloric value and increase total dietary fiber. Dietary fibers impart physiological benefits to human body once they are fermented by the gut microbiota. Mineral elements are important co-factors of a wide range of enzymes involved for instance in glucose and lipid metabolism. In general human body is capable of absorbing only 21-28% of most mineral elements, and gut bacteria are only able to ferment 34% of the dietary fiber from ...


The Unseen World: Environmental Microbial Sequencing And Identification Methods For Ecologists, Naupaka Zimmerman, Jacques Izard, Christian Klatt, Jizhong Zhou, Emma Aronson Dec 2014

The Unseen World: Environmental Microbial Sequencing And Identification Methods For Ecologists, Naupaka Zimmerman, Jacques Izard, Christian Klatt, Jizhong Zhou, Emma Aronson

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Archaea, bacteria, microeukaryotes, and the viruses that infect them (collectively “microorganisms”) are foundational components of all ecosystems, inhabiting almost every imaginable environment and comprising the majority of the planet’s organismal and evolutionary diversity. Microorganisms play integral roles in ecosystem functioning; are important in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), and various metals (eg Barnard et al. 2005); and may be vital to ecosystem responses to large-scale climatic change (Mackelprang et al. 2011). Rarely found alone, microorganisms often form complex communities that are dynamic in space and time (Martiny et al. 2006). For these ...


Health Professionals’ Roles In Animal Agriculture, Climate Change, And Human Health, Aysha Z. Akhtar, Michael Greger, Hope Ferdowsian, Erica Frank Dec 2014

Health Professionals’ Roles In Animal Agriculture, Climate Change, And Human Health, Aysha Z. Akhtar, Michael Greger, Hope Ferdowsian, Erica Frank

Michael Greger, MD, FACLM

What we eat is rapidly becoming an issue of global concern. With food shortages, the rise in chronic disease, and global warming, the impact of our dietary choices seems more relevant today than ever. Globally, a transition is taking place toward greater consumption of foods of animal origin, in lieu of plantbased diets. With this transition comes intensification of animal agriculture that in turn is associated with the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases, environmental degradation, and the epidemics of chronic disease and obesity. Health professionals should be aware of these trends and consider them as they promote healthier and more ...


Food And Identity Formation Among Jain Laywomen, Kristin Mcconnell Dec 2014

Food And Identity Formation Among Jain Laywomen, Kristin Mcconnell

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Jains are a small but influential minority community in India. Their religion is structured around the concept of ahimsa, the strict adherence to nonviolence in one’s every under taking. The ideal Jain diet does the least amount of harm to both oneself and one’s environment, including plants and microscopic organisms. Many foods — including meat, honey, alcohol, and underground vegetables — are forbidden. While Jain philosophy is adamant about avoiding foods that are obtained through violence, it says little about the perspectives and lifestyles of those most often charged with maintaining this diet: Jain laywomen. Because these women are ...


Studies On The Initial Stage Of Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oils., Elizabeth Budilarto. Dec 2014

Studies On The Initial Stage Of Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oils., Elizabeth Budilarto.

Theses

During the oxidation of bulk oils, oxidation products (i.e. peroxide values, conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) are formed gradually and increased sharply at the end of the induction period. Tocophero1s were consumed, some water was formed, and micelles increased in size during the induction period of vegetable oils oxidized in bulk. The evidence that the evolution of micellar size was in parallel with the end of induction period corroborates the recognition that micelles are the active site of oxidation. The interaction of α-tocophero1 and three synergists: ascorby1 palmitate, phosphatidy1choline and L-lysine were studied in cod liver oil ...


Absorption And Utilization Of Choline And Vitamin B12 In Lactating Dairy Cows Using Different Delivery Methods, Virginia Maria Artegoitia Etcheverry Dec 2014

Absorption And Utilization Of Choline And Vitamin B12 In Lactating Dairy Cows Using Different Delivery Methods, Virginia Maria Artegoitia Etcheverry

Doctoral Dissertations

Choline and vitamin B12 are essential nutrients for growth and performances of production animals. However, both nutrients are extensively degraded during digestion in the rumen. This thesis comprised three experiments. First, four cows equipped with a rumen cannula and catheters in the portal vein and a mesenteric artery received a post-ruminal bolus of: 1) cyanocobalamin (CN-CBL) alone (0.1 g) [gram], 2) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + casein (10 g) or 3) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + whey proteins (10 g). After the bolus, blood samples were taken until 24 h [hour] post-bolus. The intestinal absorption of CN-CBL was greater when the ...


The Elimination Of Listeria Monocytogenes Biofilms From Stainless Steel Deli Meat Slicer Components By The Use Of Hurdle Technologies, Alexandria Wynne Mertz Dec 2014

The Elimination Of Listeria Monocytogenes Biofilms From Stainless Steel Deli Meat Slicer Components By The Use Of Hurdle Technologies, Alexandria Wynne Mertz

Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes growth is of the greatest concern amongst ready-to-eat foods. The United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Services determined that deli luncheon meats pose the greatest risk of contamination from L. monocytogenes Industrial meat slicers have many removable parts that are connected with sealers and gaskets, which can become worn over time. These spaces cannot be cleaned adequately, therefore are susceptible to bacterial growth. Planktonic cells form biofilms in order to protect the cell from adverse conditions, like during routine cleaning and sanitation. Once a biofilm is formed, the bacteria are much more difficult to ...


Changes In Monomeric And Polymeric Pigments During Chokeberry Juice Processing, Kail David Wilkes Dec 2014

Changes In Monomeric And Polymeric Pigments During Chokeberry Juice Processing, Kail David Wilkes

Theses and Dissertations

Chokeberry consumption has been increasing due to research exposing great potential of health-promoting compounds. However, chokeberries are highly astringent and are typically consumed in processed forms in which product heating is applied. Processing chokeberries has been reported to degrade bioactive compounds, thus limiting the potential for consumers to obtain their health-promoting benefits. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of chokeberry juice processing and storage on anthocyanin, flavonol, proanthocyanidin, hydroxycinamic acid, and polymeric pigment content, as well as percent polymeric color. In addition, new analytical methodologies were explored to better understand possible outcomes of polymeric pigments due ...


Enhancement Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Naturally Occuring Phenolic Compounds By Nano-Particle Mediated Delivery Against Listeria Monocytogenes, Escherichia Coli O157:H7, And Salmonella Typhimurium, Madhuram Ravichandran Dec 2014

Enhancement Of Antimicrobial Activity Of Naturally Occuring Phenolic Compounds By Nano-Particle Mediated Delivery Against Listeria Monocytogenes, Escherichia Coli O157:H7, And Salmonella Typhimurium, Madhuram Ravichandran

Theses and Dissertations

Food-borne illnesses are of major concern in the U.S. and worldwide. Salmonella,Listeria,E. coli O157:H7 continue to be some of the major foodborne pathogens. Recurring recalls due to these pathogens demand critical antimicrobial strategies to decontaminate the food through its procession from farm to fork. In our study, we combined the effectiveness of naturally occurring phenolic compounds individually, with/ without ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and/or Nisin and nanoparticle delivery to improve the antimicrobial potential of the compounds against Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), Salmonella Typhimurium (S.T.), and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.c.), in brain heart ...


An Epidemiological Study Of Campylobacter Populations Reveals A Selective Pressure By Roxarsone, Sean Jeffery Pendleton Dec 2014

An Epidemiological Study Of Campylobacter Populations Reveals A Selective Pressure By Roxarsone, Sean Jeffery Pendleton

Doctoral Dissertations

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is the most discriminatory of typing methods and can provide additional information including virulence, antigen targets for vaccine development, and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The first part of this study aimed to determine the application of WGS as a genotyping method for Campylobacter by comparing WGS to two commonly used genotyping methods, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flaA typing. Five Campylobacter strains isolated from conventional and organic poultry, and five additional isolates with published genomes were compared using the three methods. A total of 8 PFGE patterns and 8 flaA alleles were identified from the 10 strains ...


Cross-Cultural Comparison In The Emotional Responses Elicited By Wine Odors, Aimee Hasenbeck Dec 2014

Cross-Cultural Comparison In The Emotional Responses Elicited By Wine Odors, Aimee Hasenbeck

Theses and Dissertations

To remain competitive in the wine market, wine companies must strive for a deeper understanding of the factors that influence consumers at an emotional level in order to sustain consumer satisfaction. Evaluating the wine odor-induced emotional response, in addition to hedonic response and descriptive analysis, may provide valuable information into the perspective of the consumer and potentially insight to repeat purchases. The objectives of this research were to measure the emotional responses elicited by odor attributes in wine samples and determine whether these emotional responses vary as function of cultural and experiential backgrounds, as well as sensory characteristics of wine ...