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Differential Surface Deposition Of Complement Proteins On Logarithmic And Stationary Phase Leishmania Chagasi Promastigotes, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Soi Meng Lei, Bryan H. Bellaire, Jeffrey K. Beetham Dec 2012

Differential Surface Deposition Of Complement Proteins On Logarithmic And Stationary Phase Leishmania Chagasi Promastigotes, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Soi Meng Lei, Bryan H. Bellaire, Jeffrey K. Beetham

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Previous works demonstrated that various species of Leishmania promastigotes exhibit differential sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis (CML) during development. Upon exposure to normal human serum (NHS), cultures of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes recently isolated from infected hamsters (fewer than 5 in vitro passages) are CML-sensitive when in the logarithmic growth phase but become CML-resistant upon transition to the stationary culture phase. Visualization by light and electron microscopy revealed dramatic morphological differences between promastigotes from the 2 culture phases following exposure to NHS. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that surface deposition of the complement components C3, C5, and C9 correlated inversely with promastigote CML-resistance ...


Gene Expression In Intestinal Mucosal Biopsy Specimens Obtained From Dogs With Chronic Enteropathy, Vicki L. Wilke, Dan Nettleton, Meghan J. Wymore, Jack M. Gallup, Cumhur Yusuf Demirkale, Mark R. Ackermann, Chris K. Tuggle, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Albert E. Jergens Aug 2012

Gene Expression In Intestinal Mucosal Biopsy Specimens Obtained From Dogs With Chronic Enteropathy, Vicki L. Wilke, Dan Nettleton, Meghan J. Wymore, Jack M. Gallup, Cumhur Yusuf Demirkale, Mark R. Ackermann, Chris K. Tuggle, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael J. Wannemeuhler, Albert E. Jergens

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Objective—To characterize mucosal gene expression in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE). Animals—18 dogs with CE and 6 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—Small intestinal mucosal biopsy specimens were endoscopically obtained from dogs. Disease severity in dogs with CE was determined via inflammatory bowel index scores and histologic grading of biopsy specimens. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and microchip array analysis (approx 43,000 probe sets) and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assays were performed.

Results—1,875 genes were differentially expressed between dogs with CE and healthy control dogs; 1,582 (85%) genes were downregulated in dogs with ...


Microbial Co-Occurrence Relationships In The Human Microbiome, Karoline Faust, J. Fah Sathirapongsasuti, Jacques Izard, Dirk Gevers, Jeroen Raes, Curtis Huttenhower Jul 2012

Microbial Co-Occurrence Relationships In The Human Microbiome, Karoline Faust, J. Fah Sathirapongsasuti, Jacques Izard, Dirk Gevers, Jeroen Raes, Curtis Huttenhower

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The healthy microbiota show remarkable variability within and among individuals. In addition to external exposures, ecological relationships (both oppositional and symbiotic) between microbial inhabitants are important contributors to this variation. It is thus of interest to assess what relationships might exist among microbes and determine their underlying reasons. The initial Human Microbiome Project (HMP) cohort, comprising 239 individuals and 18 different microbial habitats, provides an unprecedented resource to detect, catalog, and analyze such relationships. Here, we applied an ensemble method based on multiple similarity measures in combination with generalized boosted linear models (GBLMs) to taxonomic marker (16S rRNA gene) profiles ...


A Framework For Human Microbiome Research, Barbara A. Methe, Jacques Izard Jun 2012

A Framework For Human Microbiome Research, Barbara A. Methe, Jacques Izard

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

A variety of microbial communities and their genes (the microbiome) exist throughout the human body, with fundamental roles in human health and disease. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project Consortium has established a population-scale framework to develop metagenomic protocols, resulting in a broad range of quality-controlled resources and data including standardized methods for creating, processing and interpreting distinct types of high-throughput metagenomic data available to the scientific community. Here we present resources from a population of 242 healthy adults sampled at 15 or 18 body sites up to three times, which have generated 5,177 microbial ...


Structure, Function And Diversity Of The Healthy Human Microbiome, Curtis Huttenhower, Jacques Izard Jun 2012

Structure, Function And Diversity Of The Healthy Human Microbiome, Curtis Huttenhower, Jacques Izard

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analysed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant body habitats so far. We found the diversity and abundance of each habitat’s signature microbes to vary widely even among healthy subjects, with strong niche specialization both within and among ...


Composition Of The Adult Digestive Tract Bacterial Microbiome Based On Seven Mouth Surfaces, Tonsils, Throat And Stool Samples, Nicola Segata, Susan Kinder Haake, Peter Mannon, Katherine P. Lemon, Levi Waldron, Dirk Gevers, Curtis Huttenhower, Jacques Izard Jun 2012

Composition Of The Adult Digestive Tract Bacterial Microbiome Based On Seven Mouth Surfaces, Tonsils, Throat And Stool Samples, Nicola Segata, Susan Kinder Haake, Peter Mannon, Katherine P. Lemon, Levi Waldron, Dirk Gevers, Curtis Huttenhower, Jacques Izard

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Background: To understand the relationship between our bacterial microbiome and health, it is essential to define the microbiome in the absence of disease. The digestive tract includes diverse habitats and hosts the human body’s greatest bacterial density. We describe the bacterial community composition of ten digestive tract sites from more than 200 normal adults enrolled in the Human Microbiome Project, and metagenomically determined metabolic potentials of four representative sites.

Results: The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and ...


Metabolic Reconstruction For Metagenomic Data And Its Application To The Human Microbiome, Sahar Abubucker, Nicola Segata, Johannes Goll, Alyxandria M. Schubert, Jacques Izard, Brandi L. Cantarel, Beltran Rodriguez-Mueller, Jeremy Zucker, Mathangi Thiagarajan, Bernard Henrissat, Owen White, Scott T. Scott, Barbara Methe´, Patrick D. Schloss, Dirk Gevers, Makedonka Mitreva, Curtis Huttenhower Jun 2012

Metabolic Reconstruction For Metagenomic Data And Its Application To The Human Microbiome, Sahar Abubucker, Nicola Segata, Johannes Goll, Alyxandria M. Schubert, Jacques Izard, Brandi L. Cantarel, Beltran Rodriguez-Mueller, Jeremy Zucker, Mathangi Thiagarajan, Bernard Henrissat, Owen White, Scott T. Scott, Barbara Methe´, Patrick D. Schloss, Dirk Gevers, Makedonka Mitreva, Curtis Huttenhower

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Microbial communities carry out the majority of the biochemical activity on the planet, and they play integral roles in processes including metabolism and immune homeostasis in the human microbiome. Shotgun sequencing of such communities’ metagenomes provides information complementary to organismal abundances from taxonomic markers, but the resulting data typically comprise short reads from hundreds of different organisms and are at best challenging to assemble comparably to single-organism genomes. Here, we describe an alternative approach to infer the functional and metabolic potential of a microbial community metagenome. We determined the gene families and pathways present or absent within a community, as ...


Analyzing Cellular Internalization Of Nanoparticles And Bacteria By Multi-Spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry, Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Sherree L. Friend, Brenda Carrillo-Conde, Paul Lueth, Carrie J. Oster, Gregory J. Phillips, Balaji Narasimhan, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire Jun 2012

Analyzing Cellular Internalization Of Nanoparticles And Bacteria By Multi-Spectral Imaging Flow Cytometry, Yashdeep Phanse, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Sherree L. Friend, Brenda Carrillo-Conde, Paul Lueth, Carrie J. Oster, Gregory J. Phillips, Balaji Narasimhan, Michael J. Wannemuehler, Bryan H. Bellaire

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Nanoparticulate systems have emerged as valuable tools in vaccine delivery through their ability to efficiently deliver cargo, including proteins, to antigen presenting cells1-5. Internalization of nanoparticles (NP) by antigen presenting cells is a critical step in generating an effective immune response to the encapsulated antigen. To determine how changes in nanoparticle formulation impact function, we sought to develop a high throughput, quantitative experimental protocol that was compatible with detecting internalized nanoparticles as well as bacteria. To date, two independent techniques, microscopy and flow cytometry, have been the methods used to study the phagocytosis of nanoparticles. The high throughput nature ...


Harvesting Murine Alveolar Macrophages And Evaluating Cellular Activation Induced By Polyanhydride Nanoparticles, Ana V. Chavez-Santoscoy, Lucas M. Huntimer, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Michael Wannemueler, Balaji Narasimhan Jun 2012

Harvesting Murine Alveolar Macrophages And Evaluating Cellular Activation Induced By Polyanhydride Nanoparticles, Ana V. Chavez-Santoscoy, Lucas M. Huntimer, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Michael Wannemueler, Balaji Narasimhan

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Biodegradable nanoparticles have emerged as a versatile platform for the design and implementation of new intranasal vaccines against respiratory infectious diseases. Specifically, polyanhydride nanoparticles composed of the aliphatic sebacic acid (SA), the aromatic 1,6-bis(p -carboxyphenoxy)hexane (CPH), or the amphiphilic 1,8-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane (CPTEG) display unique bulk and surface erosion kinetics1,2 and can be exploited to slowly release functional biomolecules (e.g., protein antigens, immunoglobulins, etc.) in vivo3,4,5. These nanoparticles also possess intrinsic adjuvant activity, making them an excellent choice for a vaccine delivery platform6,7,8.

In order ...


Dsc Enthalpic Transitions During Starch Gelatinization In Excess Water, Dilute Sodium Chloride, And Dilute Sucrose Solutions, Wajira S. Ratnayake, Chika Otani, David S. Jackson May 2012

Dsc Enthalpic Transitions During Starch Gelatinization In Excess Water, Dilute Sodium Chloride, And Dilute Sucrose Solutions, Wajira S. Ratnayake, Chika Otani, David S. Jackson

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Background: Starch phase transition characteristics were studied by pre-treating starch samples in excess water, dilute sodium chloride and dilute sucrose solutions and subjecting them to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Unmodified maize, wheat and potato starches were held at specific temperatures between 30 and 90 °C for 30 min and promptly cooled to 25 °C. Treated samples were then analyzed in situ by DSC. Results: It was found that the progression of the phase transition behavior differed among the three starches and was dependent on the solvent. It was also revealed that phase transition-related enthalpic changes started to occur at low ...


Amphiphilic Polyanhydride Nanoparticles Stabilize Bacillus Anthracis Protective Antigen, L. K. Petersen, Y. Phanse, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, M. J. Wannemueler, B. Narasimhan Apr 2012

Amphiphilic Polyanhydride Nanoparticles Stabilize Bacillus Anthracis Protective Antigen, L. K. Petersen, Y. Phanse, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, M. J. Wannemueler, B. Narasimhan

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Advancements towards an improved vaccine against Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, have focused on formulations composed of the protective antigen (PA) adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. However, due to the labile nature of PA, antigen stability is a primary concern for vaccine development. Thus, there is a need for a delivery system capable of preserving the immunogenicity of PA through all the steps of vaccine fabrication, storage, and administration. In this work, we demonstrate that biodegradable amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticles, which have previously been shown to provide controlled antigen delivery, antigen stability, immune modulation, and protection in a single dose ...


Efficient And Robust Rna-Seq Process For Cultured Bacteria And Complex Community Transcriptomes, Georgia Giannoukos, Dawn M. Ciulla, Katherine Huang, Brian J. Haas, Jacques Izard, Joshua Z. Levin, Jonathan Livny, Ashlee M. Earl, Dirk Gevers, Doyle V. Ward, Chad Nusbaum, Bruce W. Birren, Andreas Gnirke Mar 2012

Efficient And Robust Rna-Seq Process For Cultured Bacteria And Complex Community Transcriptomes, Georgia Giannoukos, Dawn M. Ciulla, Katherine Huang, Brian J. Haas, Jacques Izard, Joshua Z. Levin, Jonathan Livny, Ashlee M. Earl, Dirk Gevers, Doyle V. Ward, Chad Nusbaum, Bruce W. Birren, Andreas Gnirke

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

We have developed a process for transcriptome analysis of bacterial communities that accommodates both intact and fragmented starting RNA and combines efficient rRNA removal with strand-specific RNA-seq. We applied this approach to an RNA mixture derived from three diverse cultured bacterial species and to RNA isolated from clinical stool samples. The resulting expression profiles were highly reproducible, enriched up to 40-fold for non-rRNA transcripts, and correlated well with profiles representing undepleted total RNA.


Pathogenicity Of Treponema Denticola Wild-Type And Mutant Strain Tested By An Active Mode Of Periodontal Infection Using Microinjection, Jacques Izard, Hajime Sasaki, Ralph Kent Mar 2012

Pathogenicity Of Treponema Denticola Wild-Type And Mutant Strain Tested By An Active Mode Of Periodontal Infection Using Microinjection, Jacques Izard, Hajime Sasaki, Ralph Kent

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The available passive mode of periodontal infections in mice requires high efficiency of bacterial attachment and invasiveness and is not always suitable to test the pathogenicity of genetically engineered mutant strains. We developed an active mode of oral infection, using microinjection in the marginal gingiva of mice, to test the pathogenicity of a genetically engineered Treponema denticola mutant strain deficient in intermediate-like filaments, compared to the wild-type strain. This targeted mode of infection inoculates the bacterial strain to be tested directly at a lesion site (needle entry point) located at the future periodontal lesion site. The efficiency of T. denticola ...


Hybrid And Environment Effects On Popcorn Kernel Physiochemical Properties And Their Relationship To Microwave Popping Performance, Jess C. Sweley, Devin J. Rose, David S. Jackson Mar 2012

Hybrid And Environment Effects On Popcorn Kernel Physiochemical Properties And Their Relationship To Microwave Popping Performance, Jess C. Sweley, Devin J. Rose, David S. Jackson

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of hybrid and environment on physical and chemical characteristics of popcorn kernels that have shown importance in predicting end-use quality. Three popcorn hybrids grown in three different environments were tested for physiochemical attributes and popping performance. Hybrid had a significant effect on kernel sphericity, time-to-grind, dietary fiber, sugars, and starch. Environment effect alone affected total mineral content. Hybrid and environment main effects influenced test weight, tangential abrasive dehulling device index, thousand-kernel weight, total carbohydrates, and kernel protein content. Oil adherence to the bag averaged 15.8% and was proportional to ...


A New Mouse Model For The Study Of Human Breast Cancer Metastasis, Elizabeth Iorns, Katherine Drews-Elger, Toby M. Ward, Sonja Dean, Jennifer Clarke, Deborah Berry, Dorraya El Ashry, Marc Lippman Jan 2012

A New Mouse Model For The Study Of Human Breast Cancer Metastasis, Elizabeth Iorns, Katherine Drews-Elger, Toby M. Ward, Sonja Dean, Jennifer Clarke, Deborah Berry, Dorraya El Ashry, Marc Lippman

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and this prevalence has a major impact on health worldwide. Localized breast cancer has an excellent prognosis, with a 5-year relative survival rate of 85%. However, the survival rate drops to only 23% for women with distant metastases. To date, the study of breast cancer metastasis has been hampered by a lack of reliable metastatic models. Here we describe a novel in vivo model using human breast cancer xenografts in NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice; in this model human breast cancer cells reliably metastasize to distant organs from primary tumors grown ...


Clinical Use Of Probiotics In Pediatric Allergy (Cuppa): A World Allergy Organization Position Paper, Alessandro Fiocchi, Wesley Burks, Sami L. Bahna, Leonard Bielory, Robert J. Boyle, Renata Cocco, Sten Dreborg, Richard E. Goodman, Mikael Kuitunen, Tari Haahtela, Ralf G. Heine, Gideon Lack, David A. Osborn, Hugh Sampson, Gerald W. Tannock, Bee Wah Lee Jan 2012

Clinical Use Of Probiotics In Pediatric Allergy (Cuppa): A World Allergy Organization Position Paper, Alessandro Fiocchi, Wesley Burks, Sami L. Bahna, Leonard Bielory, Robert J. Boyle, Renata Cocco, Sten Dreborg, Richard E. Goodman, Mikael Kuitunen, Tari Haahtela, Ralf G. Heine, Gideon Lack, David A. Osborn, Hugh Sampson, Gerald W. Tannock, Bee Wah Lee

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Background: Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness.

Objective: A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy.

Methods: A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel ...


Green Tea As An Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five To Ten Years, Qin-Yin Shi, Vicki Schlegel Jan 2012

Green Tea As An Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five To Ten Years, Qin-Yin Shi, Vicki Schlegel

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids) present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many ...


Coupled Electromagnetic And Heat Transfer Model For Microwave Heating In Domestic Ovens, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Sohan Birla, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, D. D. Jones, Harshanardhan Thippareddi Jan 2012

Coupled Electromagnetic And Heat Transfer Model For Microwave Heating In Domestic Ovens, Krishnamoorthy Pitchai, Sohan Birla, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, D. D. Jones, Harshanardhan Thippareddi

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Microwave ovens are used extensively for heating a variety of not-ready-to-eat food products. Non-uniform heating of foods in microwave ovens is a major concern in assuring microbiological safety of such products. The non-uniform heating of foods is attributed by complex interaction of microwaves with foods. To understand this complex interaction, a comprehensive model was developed to solve coupled electromagnetic and heat transfer equations using finite-difference time-domain based commercial software. The simulation parameters, cell size, heating time step, and number of iterations for steady state electromagnetic field were optimized. The model was validated by 30 s heating profile of a cylindrical ...