Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 44

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Whole Grains, Lindsay R. Macnab, Sarah L. Francis, Ruth E. Litchfield Dec 2012

Whole Grains, Lindsay R. Macnab, Sarah L. Francis, Ruth E. Litchfield

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Including whole grains in your diet provides many health benefits, including reducing your risk for diabetes, heart disease and certain cancers. The information in this publication will help you understand your whole grain choices so you can select and enjoy a variety of healthy foods.


Genome-Wide Association Study For Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Beta-Glucan Concentration Using Germplasm Of Worldwide Origin, Mark A. Newell, Franco G. Asoro, M. Paul Scott, Pamela J. White, William D. Beavis, Jean-Luc Jannink Dec 2012

Genome-Wide Association Study For Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Beta-Glucan Concentration Using Germplasm Of Worldwide Origin, Mark A. Newell, Franco G. Asoro, M. Paul Scott, Pamela J. White, William D. Beavis, Jean-Luc Jannink

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits followed by selection has become a common approach for selection in crop plants. The QTL are most often identified by linkage mapping using experimental F2, backcross, advanced inbred, or doubled haploid families. An alternative approach for QTL detection are genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that use pre-existing lines such as those found in breeding programs. We explored the implementation of GWAS in oat (Avena sativa L.) to identify QTL affecting β-glucan concentration, a soluble dietary fiber with several human health benefits when consumed as a whole grain. A total of 431 lines ...


Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids..., Ruth E. Litchfield, Karin Westberg, Lyndsey Metcalf Oct 2012

Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Fluids..., Ruth E. Litchfield, Karin Westberg, Lyndsey Metcalf

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Did you know thirst is NOT a good indicator of hydration. Find out about recommended fluid intake, and more.


How Much Are You Eating?, Ruth E. Litchfield, Naomi Ikeshima Oct 2012

How Much Are You Eating?, Ruth E. Litchfield, Naomi Ikeshima

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Manage the food portions you put on your plate and you'll be better able to manage your weight. Find helpful tips to quickly choose food portions compatible with your age, gender, and activity level.

Also see how to personalize MyPlate recommendations with your needed daily amounts of grains, protein, vegetables, fruits, and dairy.


Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Training Diets, Ruth E. Litchfield, Karin Westberg, Emily Lasley Oct 2012

Eat To Compete: What You Should Know About Training Diets, Ruth E. Litchfield, Karin Westberg, Emily Lasley

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Did you know low-carbohydrate diets decrease athletes' ability to perform. Find out more about what to eat when competing.


Consumer-Centered Extension Education Website Increases Usage, Sarah L. Francis, Peggy Martin, Kristin Taylor Oct 2012

Consumer-Centered Extension Education Website Increases Usage, Sarah L. Francis, Peggy Martin, Kristin Taylor

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Concern about young families' ability to cope with rising food prices resulted in creating Spend Smart. Eat Smart (SSES), a website focused on budgetfriendly nutrition information for limited resource audiences (LRA). SSES was redesigned using LRAs needs and preferences to increase use by LRAs. SSES usage increased after it was revised to incorporate interactivity and more consumerfriendly design elements.


Oil Extraction From Microalgae, Tong Wang Sep 2012

Oil Extraction From Microalgae, Tong Wang

Iowa State University Patents

A method of oil extraction and biomass recovery from microalgae is disclosed. Methods according to the invention extract lipids from a biomass source and concentrate protein in the solid biomass source by alcohol processing. Aqueous alcohol processing methods provide extraction and separation techniques for lipids and protein-rich biomass suitable for biofuels.


Myplate Lunch Bag Ideas, Catherine Strohbehn, Ruth E. Litchfield Sep 2012

Myplate Lunch Bag Ideas, Catherine Strohbehn, Ruth E. Litchfield

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Find great menu ideas to pack your child's lunch bag with MyPlate healthy foods. You'll find kid-friendly foods for fruits, veggies, protein, grains, and dairy. Also, find preparation and packing tips to keep foods at a safe temperature.


Measurement Of Single Soybean Seed Attributes By Near-Infrared Technologies. A Comparative Study, Lidia Esteve Agelet, Paul R. Armstrong, Ignacio Romagosa Clariana, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr. Aug 2012

Measurement Of Single Soybean Seed Attributes By Near-Infrared Technologies. A Comparative Study, Lidia Esteve Agelet, Paul R. Armstrong, Ignacio Romagosa Clariana, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr.

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Four near-infrared spectrophotometers, and their associated spectral collection methods, were tested and compared for measuring three soybean single-seed attributes: weight (g), protein (%), and oil (%). Using partial least-squares (PLS) and four preprocessing methods, the attribute that was significantly most easily predicted was seed weight (RPD > 3 on average) and protein the least. The performance of all instruments differed from each other. Performances for oil and protein predictions were correlated with the instrument sampling system, with the best predictions using spectra taken from more than one seed angle. This was facilitated by the seed spinning or tumbling during spectral collection as opposed ...


Solid-State Fermentation Of Soybean And Corn Processing Coproducts For Potential Feed Improvement, Junyi Lio, Tong Wang Aug 2012

Solid-State Fermentation Of Soybean And Corn Processing Coproducts For Potential Feed Improvement, Junyi Lio, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Two agro-industrial coproducts, soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), were used as substrates to evaluate the effect of coculturing three different fungi, Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, on enzyme production by solid-state fermentation (SSF). When soybean fiber was used as the substrate, a maximum xylanase activity of 757.4 IU/g and a cellulase activity of 3.2 IU/g were achieved with the inoculation and incubation of T. reesei and P. chrysosporium for 36 h, followed by A. oryzae for an additional 108 h. This inoculation scheme also resulted in the highest ...


Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Pickles, Sarah L. Francis, Holly R. Van Heel Aug 2012

Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Pickles, Sarah L. Francis, Holly R. Van Heel

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Put up safe, tasty pickles with these detailed instructions. Also includes trouble-shooting advice.


Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) Through A Narrowing Of Particle Size Distribution Followed By Aspiration, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater Aug 2012

Fractionation Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) Through A Narrowing Of Particle Size Distribution Followed By Aspiration, Rafael A. Garcia, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Kurt A. Rosentrater

Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve three screening and three air classification unit operations. In the present study, an alternative process involving fewer unit operations is demonstrated. DDGS are subjected to a single screening, and the oversize particles are processed in a mill setup so that it narrows the particle size distribution of the oversize fraction. The milled DDGS is then processed in an air ...


Modifying Vegetable Oil For Encaustic Painting, Linxing Yao, Barbara Walton, Tong Wang Aug 2012

Modifying Vegetable Oil For Encaustic Painting, Linxing Yao, Barbara Walton, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The work depicted in this article results from collaboration among lipid scientists and an artist. The collaboration started seven years ago when Barbara Walton, an art professor at Iowa State University (ISU) in Ames, USA, read a news story about soywax candles with clean-burning properties characterized by a lipid professor at ISU, Tong Wang.


Interactional Effects Of Β-Glucan, Starch, And Protein In Heated Oat Slurries On Viscosity And In Vitro Bile Acid Binding, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White Jun 2012

Interactional Effects Of Β-Glucan, Starch, And Protein In Heated Oat Slurries On Viscosity And In Vitro Bile Acid Binding, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Three major oat components, β-glucan, starch, and protein, and their interactions were evaluated for the impact on viscosity of heated oat slurries and in vitro bile acid binding. Oat flour from the experimental oat line “N979” (7.45% β-glucan) was mixed with water and heated to make oat slurry. Heated oat slurries were treated with α-amylase, lichenase, and/or proteinase to remove starch, β-glucan, and/or protein. Oat slurries treated with lichenase or lichenase combined with α-amylase and/or proteinase reduced the molecular weight of β-glucan. Heat and enzymatic treatment of oat slurries reduced the peak and final viscosities compared ...


Influence Of Dietary Phytochemicals And Microbiota On Colon Cancer Risk., Ruth S. Macdonald, Kelly Wagner May 2012

Influence Of Dietary Phytochemicals And Microbiota On Colon Cancer Risk., Ruth S. Macdonald, Kelly Wagner

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in the United States. Lifestyle and dietary patterns influence colon cancer risk both positively and negatively. Among the dietary factors, several plant-derived compounds have been found to afford colon cancer protection. These compounds potentially influence all aspects of colonic cellular regulation and develop complex interrelationships with the colonic microbiome. Increasing understanding of the role of microorganisms in determining the colonic environment has led to awareness of this important interrelationship among dietary factors and the microbial population. Plant-derived polyphenols are active mediators of cellular events, target key carcinogenic pathways, and ...


A Longitudinal Study Of The Establishment And Proliferation Of Enterococcus On A Dairy Farm, Ginger M. Shipp, James S. Dickson May 2012

A Longitudinal Study Of The Establishment And Proliferation Of Enterococcus On A Dairy Farm, Ginger M. Shipp, James S. Dickson

Animal Science Publications

Enterococci are Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic cocci. They are found in many environments (including milk and dairy products, vegetables, plants, cereals, and meats). Enterococci are considered commensal organisms, but can also be opportunistic pathogens associated with morbidity and mortality of humans and animals. A longitudinal study of antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus to ampicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline was conducted on an academic teaching farm. Environmental samples were collected by drag swabs at select locations prior to and after the introduction of livestock. All samples were initially processed and screened with specialized media, and then replica plated on tryptic soy agar containing a ...


Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Vegetables, Sarah L. Francis, Holly R. Van Heel May 2012

Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Vegetables, Sarah L. Francis, Holly R. Van Heel

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

Preserve healthy, nutritious vegetables safely using the detailed directions in this publication. Includes typical canning problems and their solutions.


A Proposed Method Of Test For Spoilage Of Fruits And Vegetables, Kristopher R. Lineberry, Michael Pate, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher May 2012

A Proposed Method Of Test For Spoilage Of Fruits And Vegetables, Kristopher R. Lineberry, Michael Pate, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This document is intended to provide all procedures and background needed for testing fruits and vegetables for deter- mination of spoilage progression during storage. This method of testing was developed for research into the effect of household refrigeration storage conditions on the shelf life of fruits and vegetables (Pate and Brehm-Stecher 2005). Instructions start with the procurement of the produce and sample preparation prior to placement within the environ- mental chamber. Data collection procedures used throughout the experiments are specified and a checklist for visually identifying physical attributes of “spoilage” and “freshness” are developed. Procedures for the counting of microorgan- ...


Impact Of High Hydrostatic Pressure And Heat Treatments On Milk Gel Properties: A Comparative Rheological Study, Anas Al-Nabulsi, Reyad Shaker, Tareq Osaili, Stephanie Clark, Federico Harte, Gustavo Barbosa-Canovas Apr 2012

Impact Of High Hydrostatic Pressure And Heat Treatments On Milk Gel Properties: A Comparative Rheological Study, Anas Al-Nabulsi, Reyad Shaker, Tareq Osaili, Stephanie Clark, Federico Harte, Gustavo Barbosa-Canovas

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (483 and 676 MPa at 20°C for 5 min) and heat treatment (63°C for 30 min and 72°C for 15 s) of milk on the rheological properties of coagulant-induced milk gels were investigated. The rheological properties of gels were determined using a dynamic Physica Rheometer and Texture Analyzer. Milk turbidity was measured by a spectrophotometer. The gels produced from a pressure of 483 MPa had higher storage modulus (G*) and firmer gel at cutting compared to heated milks. Increasing the pressure to 676 MPa caused a reduction in G*, less firm ...


Vegetable Protein Fractionization Process And Compositions, Nicolas Alejo Deak, Lawrence A. Johnson Mar 2012

Vegetable Protein Fractionization Process And Compositions, Nicolas Alejo Deak, Lawrence A. Johnson

Iowa State University Patents

According to the invention a novel vegetable protein fractionation procedure is disclosed which includes a straightforward process to obtain β-conglycinin-rich and glycinin-rich isolated protein fractions with unique functional and nutritional properties desired by the food industry. The process is much simplified compared to the art and avoids multiple steps in the usual fractionation of soy protein and uses very small amounts of salts avoiding the necessity of excessive washing and desalting steps. The process yields high amounts of protein fractions with high isoflavone contents and improved functional properties.


Supplementation Of Laying-Hen Feed With Palm Tocos And Algae Astaxanthin For Egg Yolk Nutrient Enrichment, Laurie Ann Walker, Tong Wang, Hongwei Xin, David Dolde Feb 2012

Supplementation Of Laying-Hen Feed With Palm Tocos And Algae Astaxanthin For Egg Yolk Nutrient Enrichment, Laurie Ann Walker, Tong Wang, Hongwei Xin, David Dolde

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Adding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols are potent antioxidants that provide health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed would result in an increased nutrient content in egg yolk with minimum changes in functional properties. Laying hens (Hy-Line W-36 breed) were fed four diets with different supplementation levels of palm toco concentrate and algae biomass containing astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Egg yolks were analyzed for physical, chemical, and functional properties. The feed with the highest nutrient concentration was also studied for stability of these antioxidants ...


Tissue-Specific Alterations Of Methyl Group Metabolism With Dna Hypermethylation In The Zucker (Type 2) Diabetic Fatty Rat., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske Feb 2012

Tissue-Specific Alterations Of Methyl Group Metabolism With Dna Hypermethylation In The Zucker (Type 2) Diabetic Fatty Rat., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

BackgroundAltered methyl group and homocysteine metabolism were tissue-specific, persistent, and preceded hepatic DNA hypomethylation in type 1 diabetic rats. Similar metabolic perturbations have been shown in the Zucker (type 2) diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat in the pre-diabetic and early diabetic stages, but tissue specificity and potential impact on epigenetic marks are unknown, particularly during pathogenesis.

Methods ZDF (fa/fa) and lean (+/?) control rats were killed at 12 and 21 weeks of age, representing early and advanced diabetic conditions. Blood and tissues were analysed with respect to methyl group and homocysteine metabolism, including DNA methylation.

Results At 12 weeks, hepatic ...


Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Meat, Poultry, Wild Game And Fish, Sarah L. Francis, Cindy S. Baumgartner, Nancy C. Clark, Renee J. Sweers, Holly R. Van Heel, Jill R. Weber Feb 2012

Preserve The Taste Of Summer—Canning: Meat, Poultry, Wild Game And Fish, Sarah L. Francis, Cindy S. Baumgartner, Nancy C. Clark, Renee J. Sweers, Holly R. Van Heel, Jill R. Weber

Human Sciences Extension and Outreach Publications

A jar of home preserved meat is a delicious and convenient way to start a quick and easy meal. Canning meat, poultry, wild game, and fish must be done correctly to assure that food is safe to eat. Find guidelines and recipes to follow to achieve the best product.


Assessment Of Native Languages For Food Safety Training Programs For Meat Industry Employees, Sherrlyn Sue Olsen, Joseph C. Cordray, Stephen Graham Sapp, Joseph G. Sebranek, Barbara J. Anderson, Matthew K. Wenger Feb 2012

Assessment Of Native Languages For Food Safety Training Programs For Meat Industry Employees, Sherrlyn Sue Olsen, Joseph C. Cordray, Stephen Graham Sapp, Joseph G. Sebranek, Barbara J. Anderson, Matthew K. Wenger

Animal Science Publications

Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training. Scores concerning food safety knowledge and food handling behavior improved dramatically when training was conducted in the native language. Impressive gains were noted for Spanish-speaking participants who averaged 96.60% on post-training scores, demonstrating that identical food safety training programs are most successful with both English- and Spanish-speaking individuals when presented in their ...


Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt Feb 2012

Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Among the nine Echinacea species, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida, have been widely used to treat the common cold, flu and other infections. In this study, ethanol extracts of these three Echinaceaspecies and E. paradoxa, including its typical variety, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, were screened in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells to assess potential anti-inflammatory activity. E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, rich in polyenes/polyacetylenes, was an especially efficient inhibitor of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 46%, 32%, 53% and 26%, respectively, when tested at 20 μg ...


Synthesis Of Oleoylethanolamide Using Lipase, Xiaosan Wang, Xingguo Wang, Tong Wang Jan 2012

Synthesis Of Oleoylethanolamide Using Lipase, Xiaosan Wang, Xingguo Wang, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

An effective process for the enzymatic synthesis of oleoylethanolamide is described in this study. The process included purification of a commercial oleic acid product and then optimization of the reaction between the purified oleic acid and ethanolamine in the presence of hexane and a lipase. Under the optimal amidation reaction conditions identified, oleoylethanolamide was obtained with 96.6% purity. The synthesis was also conducted on a large scale (50 mmol of each of the reactants), and oleoylethanolamide purity and yield after crystallization purification were 96.1 and 73.5%, respectively. Compared to the previous studies, the current method of preparing ...


Postprandial Effects Of Resistant Starch Corn Porridges On Blood Glucose And Satiety Responses In Non-Overweight And Overweight Adults, Danielle Alexander Jan 2012

Postprandial Effects Of Resistant Starch Corn Porridges On Blood Glucose And Satiety Responses In Non-Overweight And Overweight Adults, Danielle Alexander

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Diabetes and obesity are major health concerns in the United States. There are several lifestyle factors that contribute to the development of these conditions and diet plays a large role in both etiology and treatment of these diseases. Poor carbohydrate quality and excess caloric intake can contribute to obesity and the development of insulin resistance, eventually progressing into Type 2 diabetes (DM2) and its associated co-morbidities. Resistant starch (RS), a type of dietary fiber, is thought to be a tool for prevention and treatment of obesity and DM2 due to its slow release of glucose post prandially, low energy ...


Perceptions Of The Benefits And Challenges Of Purchasing Local Foods In The Iowa Hotel Industry, Sangwook Kang Jan 2012

Perceptions Of The Benefits And Challenges Of Purchasing Local Foods In The Iowa Hotel Industry, Sangwook Kang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore hotel industry decision makers' perceptions of benefits and challenges of purchasing locally produced foods in a Midwestern state. The Theory of Planned Behavior provided the theoretical framework for this study. Interviews were conducted with four full service and limited service hotels in Iowa. Mailed questionnaires were sent to 209 full service and limited service hotels in five Iowa counties which had active local food initiatives. Results showed that Perceived Behavior Control influenced decision makers' Behavioral Intention, while there were not statistically significant influences of Attitudes and Subjective Norms on Behavioral Intention. Purchasing ...


A Competency Model For Culinology® Graduates: Evaluation Of The Research Chefs Association's Bachelor Of Science In Culinology® Core Competencies, Michael S. Cheng Jan 2012

A Competency Model For Culinology® Graduates: Evaluation Of The Research Chefs Association's Bachelor Of Science In Culinology® Core Competencies, Michael S. Cheng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Culinology® is the blending of culinary arts and food technology (RCA, 2012). As of 2012, there are 13 RCA-approved Culinology® degree programs, but there has been no research conducted on the effectiveness of the Culinology® competencies in preparing graduates for employment in the food product development industry. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the RCA's Bachelor of Science in Culinology® core competencies prepared graduates for successful employment in the food product development industry.

A sequential explanatory design was used for this research. In the first stage, a survey was used to measure the graduates' and employers ...


Development And Utilization Of Resistant Starch In Cooked Rice Grains And Breads, Michaael Reed Jan 2012

Development And Utilization Of Resistant Starch In Cooked Rice Grains And Breads, Michaael Reed

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis consists of two separate studies. The first is titled "Effects of Cooking Methods and Starch Structure on Starch Hydrolysis Rates of Rice", and the second one is "Application of a Novel Resistant Starch in Bread: Composition, Structure and Sensory Analysis". With concerns over diabetes, there is a need to find methods of cooking rice to reduce the rate of glucose release after ingesting. Comparing between steamed, stir-fried and pilaf rice, stir-fried rice displayed the slowest starch-hydrolysis rate and the largest resistant starch (RS) content followed by pilaf rice and steamed rice. RS in food is not readily hydrolyzed ...