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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Procuring And Tracing Produce From Small- And Medium- Scale Farmers For Use In Institutional Foodservice Operations In Nc, Sc And Ga, Anita Nunnelley Dec 2012

Procuring And Tracing Produce From Small- And Medium- Scale Farmers For Use In Institutional Foodservice Operations In Nc, Sc And Ga, Anita Nunnelley

All Theses

In response to concerns about an increasingly globalized food system in the United States, and increasing interest in the connections between small- and medium-scale (SMS) farms and institutional foodservice operations (IFO), the U.S. has recently developed legislation to link farmers to institutional markets (Joshi, Azuma, & Feenstra, 2008; Poulton, Dorward, & Kydd, 2010; USDA, 2010; Wootan, 2012). The purpose of this study is to determine if these connections are viable, sustainable and ultimately if the food is safe for consumption in the IFO. There are significant logistical, contractual and food safety concerns when sourcing food for IFOs from SMS farms. Each step from ordering to ...


Analyses Of Consumer Perceptions, Farmer Challenges, Polyamine, And Amino Acid Content Of Organic And Conventional Fresh Produce Grown In South Carolina, Emily Steinberg Dec 2012

Analyses Of Consumer Perceptions, Farmer Challenges, Polyamine, And Amino Acid Content Of Organic And Conventional Fresh Produce Grown In South Carolina, Emily Steinberg

All Dissertations

Execution of the USDA organic standards led to more support for local food as distinct from organic food. The current study was conducted to examine fresh produce perceptions and purchasing decisions of S.C. consumers. Four-hundred and eight S.C. consumers were surveyed at S.C. grocery stores. More than one-third of the S.C. consumers not knowing about the 'certified S.C. grown' program suggest that the S.C. Department of Agriculture (SCDA) may want to improve the promotion of their program. Eighty-five percent of consumers indicated that they would choose local over organic. This information would be useful ...


Effect Of Temperature On Sensing Intensity Of Basic Tastes: Sweet, Salty And Sour, Keri Lipscomb Aug 2012

Effect Of Temperature On Sensing Intensity Of Basic Tastes: Sweet, Salty And Sour, Keri Lipscomb

All Theses

Twenty semi-trained subjects determined the effect of temperature on basic tastes sweet, salty and sour. The sensory evaluations were performed on each basic taste and on various combinations of the three tastes at serving temperatures 3, 23 and 60¡C. A single intensity level was used for all sensory evaluations and 3 replications of each panel were performed. Results from the panels provided some evidence of temperature affect, both when evaluated singularly and in combination.
The perceived intensity of some sweet and sour samples was affected by a change in temperature. Sensing intensity of the salty samples was not significantly ...


Factors Affecting The Production Of Concentrated Blue Cheese Flavorings, Jason Raines Aug 2012

Factors Affecting The Production Of Concentrated Blue Cheese Flavorings, Jason Raines

All Theses

The effects of media type and culture selection on the aroma profile of Blue cheese flavorings produced using submerged culture fermentation were studied. Fermentations were carried out for 16 hours then compared using sensory analysis and GC/MS SPME. The differences between samples were minimal. Samples produced with adjunct media were found to have higher concentrations of methyl ketones and more &ldquo'creamy'&rdquo aroma character than samples produced from standard media. Higher levels of free fatty acids were found in standard media samples. Adjunct cultures appear to enhance the &ldquo'creamy'&rdquo character of Blue cheese flavorings.
Near-critical and supercritical carbon dioxide were used to concentrate the aroma active compounds of a traditional Blue cheese and a Blue cheese flavoring. Pressures used ranged from 73 to 90 Bar, temperatures used were 35 and 45 degrees Celsius. The extracts were selective for 2-heptanone and 2-nonanone, the characteristic compounds of Blue cheese. Two-heptanone was more soluble than 2-nonanone and comprised 67 to 71 percent of the extracts. Near-critical extraction (73 Bar; 35 degrees Celsius) of Blue cheese flavoring yielded the most methyl ketones. Results indicate that carbon dioxide may be effective for the concentration of methyl ketones on an industrial scale.


Assessment Of Viability Of Probiotic Bacteria In Non Dairy Food Matrices Under Refrigeration Storage, Muthu Dharmasena Aug 2012

Assessment Of Viability Of Probiotic Bacteria In Non Dairy Food Matrices Under Refrigeration Storage, Muthu Dharmasena

All Theses

Functional foods serve nutrients and physiologically active components for a healthy living. In most countries, the products related to having a healthy gut dominate the functional foods market. These products are prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics. Concerning the health benefits, various probiotics are introduced to food matrices. Though dairy is the ideal food matrix for probiotics, the trend of non-dairy probiotics is growing among consumers.
This study included two research objectives: surveying the commercial probiotic containing products for probiotic level and developing a practical home-made probiotic fermentation process. The first part of this study was mainly based on assessing viability of ...


Developing Value-Added Peptide Antioxidants From Rendering Products, Xiaoting Xing Aug 2012

Developing Value-Added Peptide Antioxidants From Rendering Products, Xiaoting Xing

All Theses

Synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), Vitamin E and ethoxyquin, have been commonly added to formulated animal feeds in order to delay discoloration and deterioration due to oxidation. However, these synthetic antioxidants have been limited in their applications as food additives because of potential health hazards. Specifically, synthetic antioxidants have been considered to be linked to various forms of cancer, most commonly kidney, liver and bladder cancer. In this work, value-added peptide antioxidants from rendering products were developed for use in potential aquaculture and pet food markets as natural antioxidant substitutes for synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidant ...


Purification And Characterization Of Aspergillus Niger Α-L-Rhamnosidase For The Biotransformation Of Naringin To Prunin, Hui Ni, An Feng Xiao, Hui Nong Cai, Feng Chen, Qi You, Yun Zheng Lu Jun 2012

Purification And Characterization Of Aspergillus Niger Α-L-Rhamnosidase For The Biotransformation Of Naringin To Prunin, Hui Ni, An Feng Xiao, Hui Nong Cai, Feng Chen, Qi You, Yun Zheng Lu

Publications

This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs) biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Comparedtothenon-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative ...


Effects Of Soy Supplementation On Bone Characteristics And Egg Quality In Peak Production Laying Hens, Kealani Izquierdo May 2012

Effects Of Soy Supplementation On Bone Characteristics And Egg Quality In Peak Production Laying Hens, Kealani Izquierdo

All Theses

In the last few decades equol, a metabolite of the isoflavone daidzein, has become the target of various animal and human studies. Coined the key to health benefits associated with soy foods, equol formation been implicated in the healthy profiles associated with Asian populations. As a metabolite of daidzein, equol must be synthesized from its precursor by intestinal bacteria; however, clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that only about a third of the general human population possess the microflora necessary to metabolize equol. Research indicates that by supplementing laying hens with soybean meal, equol deposition into table eggs can be stimulated ...


Extraction And Identification Of Volatile Constituents Of Oplopanax Horridus , Gregory Jones May 2012

Extraction And Identification Of Volatile Constituents Of Oplopanax Horridus , Gregory Jones

All Theses

O. horridus is an important medicinal and spiritual plant for native peoples where it natively grows. Secondary volatile metabolites which compose the essential oil were isolated by atmospheric simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction (SDE) and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) from the bark and leaves of Oplopanax horridus. The differences between the two extraction methods was investigated for their sensitivity, precision and use in separating volatile compounds from sample matrices.The extracts were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Compounds were identified according to their non-isothermal Kovats indexes, mass spectra, or by comparison with analytical standard substances. The bark ...


Analysis Of The Relationship Between Sweetener Properties And Variations In Both Functionality And Final Product Characteristics, Danielle Lynn May 2012

Analysis Of The Relationship Between Sweetener Properties And Variations In Both Functionality And Final Product Characteristics, Danielle Lynn

All Theses

Scientific research and media attention regarding possible health concerns related to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) consumption has led to a negative consumer perception of this ingredient. Therefore, the baking industry, which commonly uses HFCS as a sweetener, needs to identify appropriate replacements. Even though invert sugar (IS) is nutritionally similar to HFCS, its use in product formulations would allow HFCS to be removed from ingredient lists. Light agave nectar (LA) and amber agave nectar (AA) are two potential replacement ingredients, with the added benefit of low glycemic indexes for products targeting the diabetic community. This study was designed to ...


Biological Properties Evaluation And Chemical Profiles Of Phenolic Compounds In Muscadine Grapes (Vitis Rotundifolia), Qi You May 2012

Biological Properties Evaluation And Chemical Profiles Of Phenolic Compounds In Muscadine Grapes (Vitis Rotundifolia), Qi You

All Dissertations

Phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins in muscadines have attracted much attention due to their diverse biological activities. With bioassays of antioxidant activities in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) total anthocyanin content (TAC), total procyanidin content (TPA), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), ABTS radical scavenging Activity (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oil peroxidation inhibitory capacity of all muscadine samples, the muscadine grapes showed strong antioxidant activities. The liquid-liquid organic solvent extraction successfully separated the anthocyanins and other phenolics to different fractions. Strong linear relationship between responses of TPC, TAC and TPA versus their antioxidant activities ...


The Nutritional And Microbiological Characteristics Of An Equol-Enriched Table Egg Produced In A Free-Range Or Conventional Production System, Michelle Parisi May 2012

The Nutritional And Microbiological Characteristics Of An Equol-Enriched Table Egg Produced In A Free-Range Or Conventional Production System, Michelle Parisi

All Dissertations

The specialty foods market has grown by 30% since 2006 with specialty eggs now making up about 5% of all eggs sold at retail. Specialty eggs like those produced in alternative production systems and enhanced in beneficial nutrients can provide a profitable opportunity for egg producers while meeting consumer demands for nutritious, safe, and humanely-produced eggs. Isoflavone-enriched eggs can be marketed as a new specialty egg that would offer a valuable source of health-promoting isoflavones, nutrients that are typically lacking in diets of Western culture. Equol, a potent soy isoflavone is found naturally in eggs of laying hens and can ...