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Food Science

2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 175

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Determination Of The Effect Of Dairy Powders On Adherence Of Streptococcus Sobrinus And Streptococcus Salivarius To Hydroxylapatite And Growth Of These Bacteria, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan Dec 2010

Determination Of The Effect Of Dairy Powders On Adherence Of Streptococcus Sobrinus And Streptococcus Salivarius To Hydroxylapatite And Growth Of These Bacteria, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan

Articles

Dental caries is a highly prevalent disease caused by colonisation of tooth surfaces by cariogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus salivarius. Reducing initial adherence of such bacteria to teeth may delay onset of caries. Many foods, such as milk, can inhibit microbial adherence. In this investigation, the effect of untreated (UT) and enzyme-treated (ET) dairy powders on adherence of S. sobrinus and S. salivarius to hydroxylapatite (HA), an analogue of tooth enamel, was examined. Untreated (UT) acid whey protein concentrate (AWPC) 80 inhibited streptococcal adherence to phosphate-buffered saline-coated HA (PBS-HA) and saliva-coated HA (S-HA) by >80% at ⩾31 ...


Growth Inhibition Of Common Food Spoilage And Pathogenic Microorganisms In The Presence Of Brown Seaweed Extracts, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Gaurav Rajauria, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam Dec 2010

Growth Inhibition Of Common Food Spoilage And Pathogenic Microorganisms In The Presence Of Brown Seaweed Extracts, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Gaurav Rajauria, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

The possibility of using extracts from brown seaweed, Himanthalia elongata, as a natural antimicrobial agent for food preservation is presented. The effect of different concentrations of seaweed extract on the growth kinetics of four common food spoilage (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis) and food pathogenic micro-organisms (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella abony) was examined. Seaweed extract at a concentration of 6% inhibited the growth of all four of the studied organisms. Lower concentrations of seaweed extract prolonged the lag phase and reduced both the exponential growth rate and final population densities of the culture. Suitability of three kinetic models, Baranyi-Roberts, Modified ...


Examination Of Egg White Proteins And Effects Of High Pressure On Select Physical And Functional Properties, Andrew Hoppe Dec 2010

Examination Of Egg White Proteins And Effects Of High Pressure On Select Physical And Functional Properties, Andrew Hoppe

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Egg white proteins have become an important and desirable ingredient to the food industry due to their functional properties which include gelling, foaming, and emulsification. Egg white is also well recognized as an excellent source of nutrition. The goal of this work was to determine the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on egg white proteins. Specifically, experiments were conducted using Raman spectroscopy and pepsin digestibility to investigate structural changes. Pressure treatment at 400 to 800 MPa (5 minutes at 4°C) resulted in increased pepsin digestibility of egg white proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme compared to heat-treated (85 to ...


The Bifidogenicity Of The Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharides, Lauren M. G. Davis Dec 2010

The Bifidogenicity Of The Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharides, Lauren M. G. Davis

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The goal of this research was to determine the effect of different doses of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the fecal microbiota of healthy adults, with a focus on bifidobacteria. The study was designed as a single-blinded study, with eighteen subjects consuming GOS-containing chocolate chews at four increasing dosage levels; 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 g. Subjects consumed each dose for 3 weeks, with a two-week baseline period preceding the study and a two-week washout period at the end. Cultural methods were used for bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, enterobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli, and total anaerobes; culture-independent methods included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ...


Development And Validation Of A Rapid Multi-Class Method For The Confirmation Of Fourteen Prohibited Medicinal Additives In Pig And Poultry Compound Feed By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Mark Cronly, Patrice Behan, Barry Foley, Liam Regan, Marella Gallagher, Sean Earley, Paula Shearan, Edward Malone Dec 2010

Development And Validation Of A Rapid Multi-Class Method For The Confirmation Of Fourteen Prohibited Medicinal Additives In Pig And Poultry Compound Feed By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Mark Cronly, Patrice Behan, Barry Foley, Liam Regan, Marella Gallagher, Sean Earley, Paula Shearan, Edward Malone

Articles

A confirmatory method has been developed to allow for the analysis of fourteen prohibited medicinal additives in pig and poultry compound feed. These compounds are prohibited for use as feed additives although some are still authorised for use in medicated feed. Feed samples are extracted by acetonitrile with addition of sodium sulphate. The extracts undergo a hexane wash to aid with sample purification. The extracts are then evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in initial mobile phase. The samples undergo an ultracentrifugation step prior to injection onto the LC-MS/MS system and are analysed in a run time of 26 minutes ...


Industrial Sorghum Malting: Technologies That Can Be Used And Practical Considerations, Gyebi Duodu Dec 2010

Industrial Sorghum Malting: Technologies That Can Be Used And Practical Considerations, Gyebi Duodu

INTSORMIL Presentations

What is malting?

– Germination of grain in moist air under controlled conditions

Objectives for opaque beer brewing

–Mobilization of endogenous enzymes of the grain

–Use of the endogenous enzymes to modify grain constituents for ready solubilisation

–Use of the endogenous enzymes to solubilise starchy adjunct during mashing


The Importance Of Sorghum Grain Colour And Hardness, And Their Causes And Measurement, Doreen Mwiita Hikeezi Dec 2010

The Importance Of Sorghum Grain Colour And Hardness, And Their Causes And Measurement, Doreen Mwiita Hikeezi

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses sorghum grain color and kernel hardness, assessment methods, and the importance of each to the overall quality of the grain.


Sorghum Malting: Introduction, Objectives, And Scientific Principles, John R.N. Taylor Dec 2010

Sorghum Malting: Introduction, Objectives, And Scientific Principles, John R.N. Taylor

INTSORMIL Presentations

What is malting? It is limited germination of cereal grains in moist air under controlled conditions.

Why malt sorghum products?

Sorghum malt for home brewing

For brewing opaque beer, lager and stout

For “brewing” malt (malta) type non-alcoholic beverages

To produce malt extract for hot malted beverages,cereal and confectionery flavoring and coloring

For breakfast cereals

For “power flour”–enzyme active flour to “thin” infant porridges

Also explains the science of malting, and the importance of using high-quality grain.


Market Development In Support Of Sorghum And Millet Farmers In Tanzania And Zambia, J. Mark Erbaugh, Emmanuel R. Mbiha, Fredy T.M. Kilima, Precious Hamukwala, Gelson Tembo, Donald W. Larson Dec 2010

Market Development In Support Of Sorghum And Millet Farmers In Tanzania And Zambia, J. Mark Erbaugh, Emmanuel R. Mbiha, Fredy T.M. Kilima, Precious Hamukwala, Gelson Tembo, Donald W. Larson

INTSORMIL Presentations

Problem: Sorghum and millet productivity, production and consumption have been stagnant or declining for 20 years.

Challenge: How to increase the productivity and incomes of sorghum and millet farmers to improve food security and accelerate economic growth.

Solution: Better technology and linking producers to markets are important parts of the solution to the problem.

Objectives

Examine the effects of new production and marketing technology on sorghum and millet producers’ income and productivity in Tanzania and Zambia.

Identify better technologies, enhance market linkages between producers and buyers, improve quality and diversify utilization to ensure food security and increase farm income.

Conclusions ...


Eagle Lager: A Sorghum Success Story On Many Levels, Ian Mackintosh Dec 2010

Eagle Lager: A Sorghum Success Story On Many Levels, Ian Mackintosh

INTSORMIL Presentations

In 1999 in Uganda we were faced with a static but highly competitive market.

Needed to grow our market and to do this we needed to make beer cheaper

It was felt that a suitable local ingredient would reduce the cost of manufacture and stimulate local agriculture and the economy as well as provide opportunities for growth and profit for the company.

An extensive base line study of the Ugandan agricultural sector was undertaken to determine what was “out there.”

It was clear that there was enormous potential but little else.

Sorghum seemed the logical starting point because there was ...


Improvements In Sorghum Milling Technologies, Martin M. Kebakile Dec 2010

Improvements In Sorghum Milling Technologies, Martin M. Kebakile

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses in some detail various sorghum milling techniques.


Effects Of Malting And Fermentation On The Composition And Functionality Of Sorghum Flours, Onesmo N.O. Mella Dec 2010

Effects Of Malting And Fermentation On The Composition And Functionality Of Sorghum Flours, Onesmo N.O. Mella

INTSORMIL Presentations

Includes information about the sorghum market in Tanzania, and provides an overview of the chemical components present in sorghum grain and their effects on the nutritional qualities of the grain with respect to human consumption. Explains that malting and fermentation improve the nutritional profile of sorghum grain, and describes the methods used to test this hypothesis.


Sorghum Malting, Luke Mugode Dec 2010

Sorghum Malting, Luke Mugode

INTSORMIL Presentations

Malting is defined as the germination of grain in moist air under controlled conditions. Malting occurs in three stages: steeping (soaking), germination, and drying or kilning, then milling can take place. Malting changes the chemistry of the grain.


Breeding Sorghum Cultivars For Processing, Gary Perterson Dec 2010

Breeding Sorghum Cultivars For Processing, Gary Perterson

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses the diversity of traits in sorghum and details some aspects of breeding techniques.


Virtues Of Sorghum: Utilization And Supply Chain Management, Lloyd W. Rooney Dec 2010

Virtues Of Sorghum: Utilization And Supply Chain Management, Lloyd W. Rooney

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses the consumer demands, value-added supply chain, strategy for value-added products, functionality of sorghums and millets, sorghum food use in Central America, plant breeding and improvement of grain quality, sorghum image, special sorghums as a particularly healthy food item, food utilization, improving sorghum quality, effect of molds, insects, and weathering on grain quality, and mycotoxins.


Developing Entrepreneurship, The Tanzania Experience: Sua-Intsormil Project, Joseph J. Mpagalile, Wenceslaus R. Ballegu Dec 2010

Developing Entrepreneurship, The Tanzania Experience: Sua-Intsormil Project, Joseph J. Mpagalile, Wenceslaus R. Ballegu

INTSORMIL Presentations

Project Title: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure for Product Development and Food Entrepreneur/Industry Technical Support: A Strategy to Promote Increased Use of Sorghum and Millet in East Africa.

Long Term Program Objectives: Development of successful entrepreneurial businesses that add-value to sorghum and millet such that:

~Farmers have an established outlet for cash sales of high-quality sorghum and millet

~Small businesses or cooperatives develop processing capabilities enabling the incorporation of sorghum and millet into a wide variety of food products

~Markets and market channels for sorghum and millet-based products develop.

Further develop research, extension and marketing expertise of National Agricultural Research ...


Mycotoxins In Grains – Causes, Prevention And Control, Hester F. Vismer Dec 2010

Mycotoxins In Grains – Causes, Prevention And Control, Hester F. Vismer

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses mycotoxins, their effect on grain, mitigation considerations, and resulting human toxicology.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 1: Getting Ready To Cook, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 1: Getting Ready To Cook, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 1 focuses on the steps needed when getting ready to cook.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 5: Microwave Munchies, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 5: Microwave Munchies, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 5 provides recipes and instructions for microwave munchies.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 3: Cookies: Drop & Bar, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 3: Cookies: Drop & Bar, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 3 provides recipes and instructions to make drop and bar cookies.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 4: Beverages, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 4: Beverages, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 4 provides tips and recipes for making beverages.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 6: Cookies: Molded, Refrigerator & Rolled, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 6: Cookies: Molded, Refrigerator & Rolled, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 6 provides recipes and instructions for molded, refrigerator, and rolled cookies.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 7: Sandwiches, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Ronda Olsen, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 7: Sandwiches, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Ronda Olsen, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 7 provides recipes and instructions for making a variety of sandwiches.


Dutch Oven Cooking, Susan Haws Dec 2010

Dutch Oven Cooking, Susan Haws

All Current Publications

This is a how-to publication on dutch oven cooking details.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 8: Plan A Party, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 8: Plan A Party, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Food Guide, Lesson 8 provides ideas, instructions, checklists, and recipes for planning a party.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lessons 9 And 10: Smart Shopping, Have A Party, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen, Naomi Weeks Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lessons 9 And 10: Smart Shopping, Have A Party, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen, Naomi Weeks

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Food Guide, Lesson 9 and 10 provide smart tips for grocery shopping and executing party plans.


Androidal Fat Dominates In Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk In Postmenopausalwomen, O. A. Matvienko, D. L. Alekel, S. N. Bhupathiraju, Heike Hofmann, L. M. Ritland, M. B. Reddy, M. D. Van Loan, C. D. Perry Nov 2010

Androidal Fat Dominates In Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk In Postmenopausalwomen, O. A. Matvienko, D. L. Alekel, S. N. Bhupathiraju, Heike Hofmann, L. M. Ritland, M. B. Reddy, M. D. Van Loan, C. D. Perry

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and homocysteine. We collected data on 224 healthy postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis (45.8–65 y, median BMI 24.5) who consumed placebo or soy isoflavones (80 or 120 mg/d) for 36 months and used longitudinal analysis to examine the contribution of isoflavone treatment, androidal fat mass, other biologic factors, and dietary quality to cardiometabolic outcomes. Except ...


The Influence Of Persistent Pathogens On Circulating Levels Of Inflammatory Markers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana V. Diez-Roux, Nancy S. Jenny, Michael Y. Tsai, Moyses Szklo, Allison E. Aiello Nov 2010

The Influence Of Persistent Pathogens On Circulating Levels Of Inflammatory Markers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Aydin Nazmi, Ana V. Diez-Roux, Nancy S. Jenny, Michael Y. Tsai, Moyses Szklo, Allison E. Aiello

Food Science and Nutrition

Background: Systemic inflammation is linked to cardiovascular risk, but the influence of persistent pathogens, which are conventionally dichotomously categorized, on circulating levels of inflammatory markers is not clear. Antibody levels of pathogens have not been examined in relation to inflammation.
Methods: Using data from a subsample of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we examined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen in relation to five common persistent pathogens: cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, Hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. We tested the hypothesis that the number of seropositive pathogens (based on conventional cut-off points) would not ...


Deactivation Of Soybean Agglutinin By Enzymatic And Other Physical Treatments, Yating Ma, Tong Wang Nov 2010

Deactivation Of Soybean Agglutinin By Enzymatic And Other Physical Treatments, Yating Ma, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The main objective of this study was to eliminate the hemagglutination activity of an antinutritional factor in soybeans, soybean agglutinin (SBA). A series of experiments was designed to enzymatically modify SBA structure and to use other physical treatments to reduce activity. SBA extract was prepared from soy flour and used as the substrate for all treatments. Deglycosylation by enzyme decreased activity of SBA by 21%, but not to the level of denaturation by heat or by denaturing reagents (47−77% residual activity). Single enzymes, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, thermolysin, and endoproteinase Glu-C, did not hydrolyze native SBA, but they hydrolyzed ...


Water And Fertilizer Influence On Sorghum Grain Quality For Traditional Beer (Dolo) Production In Burkina Faso, S. Palé, S. J.B. Taonda, B. Bougouma, Stephen C. Mason Nov 2010

Water And Fertilizer Influence On Sorghum Grain Quality For Traditional Beer (Dolo) Production In Burkina Faso, S. Palé, S. J.B. Taonda, B. Bougouma, Stephen C. Mason

INTSORMIL Scientific Publications

In the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso, grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the major cereal crop used to produce the traditional beer called dolo. Grain sorghum grain samples collected in 2004 and 2005 from experiments combining five water management techniques and four fertilizer treatments in a randomized complete block design with a split plot arrangement of treatments were analyzed for the physicochemical properties of raw grain, and quality of malted grain. Water management techniques were allocated to main plots and fertilizer treatments to subplots. The objective was to determine the best combination of water management technique and fertilizer ...