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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Chronic Ampk Activation On Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation And Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferaseactivity With High Fat Feeding, Mary E. Curtis Dec 2010

The Effects Of Chronic Ampk Activation On Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation And Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferaseactivity With High Fat Feeding, Mary E. Curtis

Theses and Dissertations

High fat feeding increases hepatic fat accumulation and is associated with hepatic insulin resistance. AMP Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is thought to inhibit lipid synthesis by the acute inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) activity and transcriptional regulation via SREBP-1c. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic activation of AMPK prevented an increase in GPAT1 activity in rats fed a high fat diet. Rats were fed a control (C), or a high fat (HF) diet (60% fat) for 6 weeks and injected with saline or a daily AICAR dose of 0.5 mg/g body weight. Chronic AMPK ...


Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of The Blood: Tissue Relationship In Poultry: Screening For Antibiotic Residues In Chicken Muscle, Ixchel Reyes Herrera Dec 2010

Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of The Blood: Tissue Relationship In Poultry: Screening For Antibiotic Residues In Chicken Muscle, Ixchel Reyes Herrera

Theses and Dissertations

During their life, humans are exposed to numerous substances that are naturally present in the environment or that are the result of man made processes, including heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, pesticides and veterinary drugs. Some of these substances can leave residues in food products and possibly expose consumers to their potential toxic effects. To address these problems extensive regulatory efforts are devoted to prevent, detect and control these substances from reaching the food supply. However, given the vast diversity of food products that requires monitoring and the immense diversity of potential chemical contaminants, the need for an efficient and ...


Conditions Associated With Clostridium Sporogenes Growth As A Surrogate For Clostridium Botulinum In Non-Thermally Processed Canned Butter, Reed H. Taylor Nov 2010

Conditions Associated With Clostridium Sporogenes Growth As A Surrogate For Clostridium Botulinum In Non-Thermally Processed Canned Butter, Reed H. Taylor

Theses and Dissertations

Shelf-stable canned butter is currently available in retail stores, and many home-preservationists promote home-canning of butter. Non-cultured butter is a low-acid canned food, which would presumably require thermal processing. The lack of a thermal process step in canned butter products raises questions of potential safety, because they are hermetically sealed and generally exhibit anaerobic growth conditions, which are optimal for Clostridium botulinum growth. Without thermal processing, low-acid canned foods (LACF) must have inhibitory factors present to prevent C. botulinum growth. Some potential intrinsic inhibitory factors, or "hurdles", within butter include: reduced water activity (aw), acidity (pH) in cultured products, elevated ...


Accelerated Shelf Life Determination Of Antioxidant Stabilized High Oleic Sunflower And Canola Oils In Plastic Bottles, Christine Nicole Shearer Nov 2010

Accelerated Shelf Life Determination Of Antioxidant Stabilized High Oleic Sunflower And Canola Oils In Plastic Bottles, Christine Nicole Shearer

Theses and Dissertations

Vegetable oil is an important commodity; however, the majority of commercially available vegetable oils have a fairly short shelf life, which limits their usefulness for long term food storage, disaster relief, space travel, food aid programs, and military rations. Vegetable oils with high oleic acid and reduced linolenic acid contents, especially with added antioxidant combinations, were previously found to have significantly longer oil stability index (OSI) values than traditional vegetable oils. This study used accelerated shelf life testing to estimate the ambient shelf life of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSUN) and high oleic canola oil (HOCAN), each containing 1,000 ...


Beta Galactosidose Activity Of Commercial Lactase Samples In Raw And Pasteurized Milk At Refrigerated Temperatures, Trenton W. Horner Aug 2010

Beta Galactosidose Activity Of Commercial Lactase Samples In Raw And Pasteurized Milk At Refrigerated Temperatures, Trenton W. Horner

Theses and Dissertations

Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk, due to lactose-intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available, but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is in part due to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated temperatures, possibly in the bulk tank or package, could increase the flexibility of the process, and potentially reduce the cost. A rapid β-galactosidase assay was used to determine the relative activity of commercially available lactase samples at different temperatures. Four enzymes ...


Effects Of Duration Of Proton Pump Inhibitor (Ppi) Therapy On Markers Of Bone Health In Men And Postmenopausal Women, Zarina Maria Pabin Aug 2010

Effects Of Duration Of Proton Pump Inhibitor (Ppi) Therapy On Markers Of Bone Health In Men And Postmenopausal Women, Zarina Maria Pabin

Theses and Dissertations

This observational study compared bone health biomarkers, bone mineral density (BMD),dietary habits, and physical activity levels of men (n=31) and non-estrogen supplementing postmenopausal women (n=23) divided according to duration of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy; more than 5 years (n=16), less than 5 years (n=15), and no PPI therapy (n=23). The shortest duration of PPI therapy was 2 months and the longest duration of PPI therapy was 25 years with a mean duration of 7.5 years. No significant differences were found between measures of spine BMD, urinary deoxypyridinoline (bone resorption), urinary calcium and ...


Change In Eating Competence In College Students Enrolled In Basic Nutrition Courses, Katrina J. Larsen Jul 2010

Change In Eating Competence In College Students Enrolled In Basic Nutrition Courses, Katrina J. Larsen

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: Determine change in eating competence (EC) and factors related to EC in students enrolled in basic nutrition courses at a major private university. Design: Eating competence was measured by administering the ecSatter Inventory (ecSI) both before and after class intervention. Additional data on eating disorder prevalence, food security, and general demographics were also collected in the same structured survey. Significance identified with p value <0.01. Setting/Participants: This survey was administered to 566 students enrolled in basic nutrition courses at a major private university in the western United States. Analysis: ANOVA was used to determine relationships between ecSI end scores and participant characteristics. ANCOVA was used to determine relationships between change in ecSI scores over time and participant characteristics. Results: Enrollment in NDFS 100 is associated with an overall increase in eating competence (EC). However, students with current eating disorders had a significant decrease in EC during enrollment. Current or past eating disorders and low or very low Food Security Status were associated with lack of EC. Females and younger participants were not eating competent at the course end. Enrollment in NDFS 201 was not associated with significant change in EC. Conclusions: Basic nutrition instruction improves EC among students without eating disorders. Low food security status and presence of an eating disorder may be a barrier to improving EC.


Development And Use Of A Physiologically Based Mathematical Model Describing The Relationships And Contributions Of Macronutrients To Weight And Body Composition Changes, Saori Sakita Jul 2010

Development And Use Of A Physiologically Based Mathematical Model Describing The Relationships And Contributions Of Macronutrients To Weight And Body Composition Changes, Saori Sakita

Theses and Dissertations

The effect of the dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss has been a controversial issue for decades. During that time, a high-protein, high-fat, and low-carbohydrate diet has been one of the more popular weight loss diets with the public. We hypothesized that a computer simulation model using STELLA software could help to better understanding the effect of the dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. We calculated daily total oxidation instead of total energy expenditure as others have done based on the facts that carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake influence carbohydrate, fat, and protein oxidation. In order to create a simple ...


Chemopreventive Effects Of Dietary Selenium And Soy Isoflavones In A Mouse Model Of Prostate Cancer, Trevor Elisha Quiner Jun 2010

Chemopreventive Effects Of Dietary Selenium And Soy Isoflavones In A Mouse Model Of Prostate Cancer, Trevor Elisha Quiner

Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Prostate cancer, like many cancers, is a disease that generally requires a long period of time to develop and grow before it becomes detectable. This long period of latency makes prostate cancer a candidate for dietary chemoprevention. Soy and selenium (Se), are associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. We previously showed that high dietary intake of selenium (Se) and soy isoflavones decreased the expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and AR-regulated genes in the prostates ...


Contributing Factors To Excess Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Low Income Women In Utah, Tianna Noelle Watson Jun 2010

Contributing Factors To Excess Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Low Income Women In Utah, Tianna Noelle Watson

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To evaluate factors influencing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and changes in eating patterns from the pre-pregnancy period among low-income women (<185% poverty level). Design, Setting, & Participants: Low-income women who were at least 7-months pregnant and gained excess weight (n= 14) or normal weight (n=15) were interviewed. Questions pertained to previous nutritional knowledge, eating patterns, and sources for obtaining nutrition information.
Outcome Measures and Analysis: Transcripts were coded independently by two researchers, with any differences reconciled. Common themes were discussed and tallied to determine the most commonly re-occurring topics reported in the interviews.
Results: Most of the excess weight gainers (EWG ...


Effect Of Upward Feedback On The Gap Between Manager And Subordinate Perception Of Manager Behavior, Jessica Beesley Zetterquist May 2010

Effect Of Upward Feedback On The Gap Between Manager And Subordinate Perception Of Manager Behavior, Jessica Beesley Zetterquist

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To assess the effect of upward feedback on the perception gap of manager-rated and subordinate-rated managerial behavior scores using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ).

Design: Phase I questionnaires assessed the use of upward (subordinate to manager) feedback and were used to form Feedback and Comparison groups. Phase II questionnaires included feedback, attitudinal, and demographic questions and the MLQ. MLQ scores were compared between the two groups.

Subjects/setting: Directors of Food and Nutrition Services and Clinical Nutrition Managers and their respective subordinates in a hospital setting.

Statistical analyses performed: General Linear Model (using SAS Version 9.2, Cary, NC ...


Qualitative Description Of College Students' Dinner Groups, Brita Michelle Ball Apr 2010

Qualitative Description Of College Students' Dinner Groups, Brita Michelle Ball

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to discover how college students conduct dinner groups and students' perceptions of the benefits and difficulties of participation.

Design: Qualitative study conducted with seven focus groups.

Setting: A university campus.

Participants: Thirty-six college students participating in dinner groups. Dinner groups were defined as a group of ≥3 people cooking for each other (or together) and eating together ≥4 times a week.

Analysis: The focus groups were recorded, transcribed, coded, and reconciled. NUDIST® NVivo software was used in identifying themes and subthemes.

Results: Dinner groups were composed of roommates and/or other students living ...


Factors Influencing Shopping, Cooking, And Eating Behaviors Among Low-Income Families During A One-Month Period Of Time, Janice Darko Apr 2010

Factors Influencing Shopping, Cooking, And Eating Behaviors Among Low-Income Families During A One-Month Period Of Time, Janice Darko

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To evaluate changes in shopping behaviors among low-income families over a one-month period of time in Utah County, Utah.

Design: Two researchers conducted thirteen 90-minute focus groups.

Setting: Two community organizations serving low-income populations and a university campus.

Participants: Seventy-two low-income adults who were the primary household food shoppers and who had at least one child less than 18 years in their household.

Main Outcome Measures: Shopping behavior changes during one month period of time.

Analysis: Focus groups were recorded and transcribed, and then coded independently by two researchers with any differences reconciled. Paired t-tests were used to test ...