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Examination Of Egg White Proteins And Effects Of High Pressure On Select Physical And Functional Properties, Andrew Hoppe Dec 2010

Examination Of Egg White Proteins And Effects Of High Pressure On Select Physical And Functional Properties, Andrew Hoppe

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Egg white proteins have become an important and desirable ingredient to the food industry due to their functional properties which include gelling, foaming, and emulsification. Egg white is also well recognized as an excellent source of nutrition. The goal of this work was to determine the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on egg white proteins. Specifically, experiments were conducted using Raman spectroscopy and pepsin digestibility to investigate structural changes. Pressure treatment at 400 to 800 MPa (5 minutes at 4°C) resulted in increased pepsin digestibility of egg white proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme compared to heat-treated (85 to ...


The Bifidogenicity Of The Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharides, Lauren M. G. Davis Dec 2010

The Bifidogenicity Of The Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharides, Lauren M. G. Davis

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The goal of this research was to determine the effect of different doses of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the fecal microbiota of healthy adults, with a focus on bifidobacteria. The study was designed as a single-blinded study, with eighteen subjects consuming GOS-containing chocolate chews at four increasing dosage levels; 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 g. Subjects consumed each dose for 3 weeks, with a two-week baseline period preceding the study and a two-week washout period at the end. Cultural methods were used for bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, enterobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli, and total anaerobes; culture-independent methods included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ...


Industrial Sorghum Malting: Technologies That Can Be Used And Practical Considerations, Gyebi Duodu Dec 2010

Industrial Sorghum Malting: Technologies That Can Be Used And Practical Considerations, Gyebi Duodu

INTSORMIL Presentations

What is malting?

– Germination of grain in moist air under controlled conditions

Objectives for opaque beer brewing

–Mobilization of endogenous enzymes of the grain

–Use of the endogenous enzymes to modify grain constituents for ready solubilisation

–Use of the endogenous enzymes to solubilise starchy adjunct during mashing


The Importance Of Sorghum Grain Colour And Hardness, And Their Causes And Measurement, Doreen Mwiita Hikeezi Dec 2010

The Importance Of Sorghum Grain Colour And Hardness, And Their Causes And Measurement, Doreen Mwiita Hikeezi

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses sorghum grain color and kernel hardness, assessment methods, and the importance of each to the overall quality of the grain.


Sorghum Malting: Introduction, Objectives, And Scientific Principles, John R.N. Taylor Dec 2010

Sorghum Malting: Introduction, Objectives, And Scientific Principles, John R.N. Taylor

INTSORMIL Presentations

What is malting? It is limited germination of cereal grains in moist air under controlled conditions.

Why malt sorghum products?

Sorghum malt for home brewing

For brewing opaque beer, lager and stout

For “brewing” malt (malta) type non-alcoholic beverages

To produce malt extract for hot malted beverages,cereal and confectionery flavoring and coloring

For breakfast cereals

For “power flour”–enzyme active flour to “thin” infant porridges

Also explains the science of malting, and the importance of using high-quality grain.


Market Development In Support Of Sorghum And Millet Farmers In Tanzania And Zambia, J. Mark Erbaugh, Emmanuel R. Mbiha, Fredy T.M. Kilima, Precious Hamukwala, Gelson Tembo, Donald W. Larson Dec 2010

Market Development In Support Of Sorghum And Millet Farmers In Tanzania And Zambia, J. Mark Erbaugh, Emmanuel R. Mbiha, Fredy T.M. Kilima, Precious Hamukwala, Gelson Tembo, Donald W. Larson

INTSORMIL Presentations

Problem: Sorghum and millet productivity, production and consumption have been stagnant or declining for 20 years.

Challenge: How to increase the productivity and incomes of sorghum and millet farmers to improve food security and accelerate economic growth.

Solution: Better technology and linking producers to markets are important parts of the solution to the problem.

Objectives

Examine the effects of new production and marketing technology on sorghum and millet producers’ income and productivity in Tanzania and Zambia.

Identify better technologies, enhance market linkages between producers and buyers, improve quality and diversify utilization to ensure food security and increase farm income.

Conclusions ...


Eagle Lager: A Sorghum Success Story On Many Levels, Ian Mackintosh Dec 2010

Eagle Lager: A Sorghum Success Story On Many Levels, Ian Mackintosh

INTSORMIL Presentations

In 1999 in Uganda we were faced with a static but highly competitive market.

Needed to grow our market and to do this we needed to make beer cheaper

It was felt that a suitable local ingredient would reduce the cost of manufacture and stimulate local agriculture and the economy as well as provide opportunities for growth and profit for the company.

An extensive base line study of the Ugandan agricultural sector was undertaken to determine what was “out there.”

It was clear that there was enormous potential but little else.

Sorghum seemed the logical starting point because there was ...


Improvements In Sorghum Milling Technologies, Martin M. Kebakile Dec 2010

Improvements In Sorghum Milling Technologies, Martin M. Kebakile

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses in some detail various sorghum milling techniques.


Effects Of Malting And Fermentation On The Composition And Functionality Of Sorghum Flours, Onesmo N.O. Mella Dec 2010

Effects Of Malting And Fermentation On The Composition And Functionality Of Sorghum Flours, Onesmo N.O. Mella

INTSORMIL Presentations

Includes information about the sorghum market in Tanzania, and provides an overview of the chemical components present in sorghum grain and their effects on the nutritional qualities of the grain with respect to human consumption. Explains that malting and fermentation improve the nutritional profile of sorghum grain, and describes the methods used to test this hypothesis.


Sorghum Malting, Luke Mugode Dec 2010

Sorghum Malting, Luke Mugode

INTSORMIL Presentations

Malting is defined as the germination of grain in moist air under controlled conditions. Malting occurs in three stages: steeping (soaking), germination, and drying or kilning, then milling can take place. Malting changes the chemistry of the grain.


Breeding Sorghum Cultivars For Processing, Gary Perterson Dec 2010

Breeding Sorghum Cultivars For Processing, Gary Perterson

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses the diversity of traits in sorghum and details some aspects of breeding techniques.


Virtues Of Sorghum: Utilization And Supply Chain Management, Lloyd W. Rooney Dec 2010

Virtues Of Sorghum: Utilization And Supply Chain Management, Lloyd W. Rooney

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses the consumer demands, value-added supply chain, strategy for value-added products, functionality of sorghums and millets, sorghum food use in Central America, plant breeding and improvement of grain quality, sorghum image, special sorghums as a particularly healthy food item, food utilization, improving sorghum quality, effect of molds, insects, and weathering on grain quality, and mycotoxins.


Developing Entrepreneurship, The Tanzania Experience: Sua-Intsormil Project, Joseph J. Mpagalile, Wenceslaus R. Ballegu Dec 2010

Developing Entrepreneurship, The Tanzania Experience: Sua-Intsormil Project, Joseph J. Mpagalile, Wenceslaus R. Ballegu

INTSORMIL Presentations

Project Title: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure for Product Development and Food Entrepreneur/Industry Technical Support: A Strategy to Promote Increased Use of Sorghum and Millet in East Africa.

Long Term Program Objectives: Development of successful entrepreneurial businesses that add-value to sorghum and millet such that:

~Farmers have an established outlet for cash sales of high-quality sorghum and millet

~Small businesses or cooperatives develop processing capabilities enabling the incorporation of sorghum and millet into a wide variety of food products

~Markets and market channels for sorghum and millet-based products develop.

Further develop research, extension and marketing expertise of National Agricultural Research ...


Mycotoxins In Grains – Causes, Prevention And Control, Hester F. Vismer Dec 2010

Mycotoxins In Grains – Causes, Prevention And Control, Hester F. Vismer

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses mycotoxins, their effect on grain, mitigation considerations, and resulting human toxicology.


Water And Fertilizer Influence On Sorghum Grain Quality For Traditional Beer (Dolo) Production In Burkina Faso, S. Palé, S. J.B. Taonda, B. Bougouma, Stephen C. Mason Nov 2010

Water And Fertilizer Influence On Sorghum Grain Quality For Traditional Beer (Dolo) Production In Burkina Faso, S. Palé, S. J.B. Taonda, B. Bougouma, Stephen C. Mason

INTSORMIL Scientific Publications

In the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso, grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the major cereal crop used to produce the traditional beer called dolo. Grain sorghum grain samples collected in 2004 and 2005 from experiments combining five water management techniques and four fertilizer treatments in a randomized complete block design with a split plot arrangement of treatments were analyzed for the physicochemical properties of raw grain, and quality of malted grain. Water management techniques were allocated to main plots and fertilizer treatments to subplots. The objective was to determine the best combination of water management technique and fertilizer ...


Identification And Characterization Of Salmonella Serotypes Isolated From Pork And Poultry From Commercial Sources, Yulie Edith Meneses-GonzáLez Nov 2010

Identification And Characterization Of Salmonella Serotypes Isolated From Pork And Poultry From Commercial Sources, Yulie Edith Meneses-GonzáLez

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Salmonella is one of the leading causes of foodborne illness worldwide, and it is estimated that 1.4 million infections occur annually in the U.S. alone. The Premi®Test Salmonella (PTS), is a potential tool for rapid detection and identification of Salmonella serovars. The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of the PTS system as a serotyping tool to identify pork and poultry isolates obtained from vertically integrated operations and to characterize their antibiotic resistance. Two hundred isolates were evaluated. All isolates were serotyped using the traditional Kaufmann-White scheme and the PTS system. Among the isolates ...


Development Of An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) For The Detection Of Pistachio Residues In Processed Foods, Pei Wen Lim Nov 2010

Development Of An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) For The Detection Of Pistachio Residues In Processed Foods, Pei Wen Lim

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Pistachios (Pistacia vera) are popular snacks and consumption of pistachios is notably increasing due to their usage as ingredients for confections, ice cream, and baked goods. The increased consumption of pistachios may lead to a higher frequency of allergic sensitization and an increased prevalence of allergic reactions to pistachios. Trace amounts of undeclared pistachio allergens can pose serious health risks for food-allergic consumers, including severe anaphylactic reactions. A highly sensitive analytical method, sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is applied as a critical tool for food manufacturers and food scientists to detect minute amounts of allergenic food residues in processed foods ...


Simple Sorghum Grain Quality Evaluation Procedures, Janet Taylor, John R.N. Taylor Nov 2010

Simple Sorghum Grain Quality Evaluation Procedures, Janet Taylor, John R.N. Taylor

INTSORMIL Presentations

Most Appropriate Sorghum Grain Quality Criteria Identified

•High tannin/non-tannin

•Hardness

•Germinability

•Grain purity

•Grain color

Tannin, hardness, germinability and grain purity have been accepted as draft ICC (International Association for Cereal Science and Technology) standard methods.


Harina De Sorgo Para Uso En La Industria De La Panificación, Laboratorio De Tecnología De Alimentos (San Andrés, El Salvador) Oct 2010

Harina De Sorgo Para Uso En La Industria De La Panificación, Laboratorio De Tecnología De Alimentos (San Andrés, El Salvador)

INTSORMIL Scientific Publications

El sorgo o maicillo ha sido cultivado y utilizado en El Salvador por muchos años tanto para el consumo humano como animal. Existen variedades criollas y mejoradas que han sido utilizadas para la produccion de harina y la elaboración de alimentos, obteniendo muy buenos resultados. Con harina de sorgo se pueden elaborar muchos productos alimenticios, ya sea en combinación con harinas de otros cereales (harinas compuestas); o usando harina de sorgo pura, sin mezclas. La industria de la panificacion en El Salvador ya esta utilizando el sorgo para la elaboración de diversos productos tales como pan de dulce y pan ...


The Human Oral Microbiome, Floyd E. Dewhirst, Tuste Chen, Jacques Izard, Bruce J. Paster, Anne C.R. Tanner, Wen-Han Yu, Abirami Lakshmanan, William G. Wade Oct 2010

The Human Oral Microbiome, Floyd E. Dewhirst, Tuste Chen, Jacques Izard, Bruce J. Paster, Anne C.R. Tanner, Wen-Han Yu, Abirami Lakshmanan, William G. Wade

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S ...


Ribosomal Biosynthesis Of The Cyclic Peptide Toxins Of Amanita Mushrooms (Invited Review), Jonathan D. Walton, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, Hong Luo Aug 2010

Ribosomal Biosynthesis Of The Cyclic Peptide Toxins Of Amanita Mushrooms (Invited Review), Jonathan D. Walton, Heather E. Hallen-Adams, Hong Luo

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Some species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita are extremely poisonous and frequently fatal to mammals including humans and dogs. Their extreme toxicity is due to amatoxins such as α- and β-amanitin. Amanita mushrooms also biosynthesize a chemically related group of toxins, the phallotoxins, such as phalloidin. The amatoxins and phallotoxins (collectively known as the Amanita toxins) are bicyclic octa- and heptapeptides, respectively. Both contain an unusual Trp-Cys cross-bridge known as tryptathionine. We have shown that, in Amanita bisporigera, the amatoxins and phallotoxins are synthesized as proproteins on ribosomes and not by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The proproteins are 34–35 ...


The Effects Of High Pressure Processing On Peanut Sauce Inoculated With Salmonella, Tara K. Stiles Jul 2010

The Effects Of High Pressure Processing On Peanut Sauce Inoculated With Salmonella, Tara K. Stiles

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Recent Salmonella outbreaks have prompted the need for new processing options for peanut products. Traditional heating kill-steps have shown to be ineffective in lipid-rich matrices such as peanut products. High pressure processing is one such option for peanut sauce because it has a high water activity, which has proved to be a large contributing factor in microbial lethality due to high pressure processing. Four different formulations of peanut sauce were inoculated with a five strain Salmonella cocktail and high pressure processed. Results indicate that increasing pressure or increasing hold time increases log10 reductions. The Weibull model was fitted to ...


Environment And Hybrid Influences On Food-Grade Sorghum Grain Yield And Hardness, Joni K. Griess, Stephen C. Mason, David S. Jackson, Tomie D. Galusha, Muhammad Yaseen, Jeffrey F. Pedersen Jul 2010

Environment And Hybrid Influences On Food-Grade Sorghum Grain Yield And Hardness, Joni K. Griess, Stephen C. Mason, David S. Jackson, Tomie D. Galusha, Muhammad Yaseen, Jeffrey F. Pedersen

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Few studies have examined grain quality of food-grade sorghum hybrids. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environment and hybrid on grain quality of commercially available food-grade sorghums. A randomized complete block experiment with three replications was planted in 12 environments, which included the 2004 and 2005 growing seasons and irrigated and dryland water regimes in eastern, central, and west central Nebraska and a dryland low-N environment in eastern Nebraska. Environment accounted for 5 to 140 times greater variation in measured parameters than hybrid, and the hybrid × environment interaction accounted for less than 2% of the ...


The Human Oral Microbiome Database: A Web Accessible Resource For Investigating Oral Microbe Taxonomic And Genomic Information, Tsute Chen, Wen-Han Yu, Jacques Izard, Oxana V. Baranova, Abirami Lakshmanan, Floyd E. Dewhirst Jun 2010

The Human Oral Microbiome Database: A Web Accessible Resource For Investigating Oral Microbe Taxonomic And Genomic Information, Tsute Chen, Wen-Han Yu, Jacques Izard, Oxana V. Baranova, Abirami Lakshmanan, Floyd E. Dewhirst

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The human oral microbiome is the most studied human microflora, but 53% of the species have not yet been validly named and 35% remain uncultivated. The uncultivated taxa are known primarily from 16S rRNA sequence information. Sequence information tied solely to obscure isolate or clone numbers, and usually lacking accurate phylogenetic placement, is a major impediment to working with human oral microbiome data. The goal of creating the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) is to provide the scientific community with a body site-specific comprehensive database for the more than 600 prokaryote species that are present in the human oral cavity ...


Development Of Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy As A Metabolomic Technique For Characterizing The Protective Properties Of Grain Sorghum Against Oxidation, Emily Diane Sitorius May 2010

Development Of Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy As A Metabolomic Technique For Characterizing The Protective Properties Of Grain Sorghum Against Oxidation, Emily Diane Sitorius

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

DEVELOPMENT OF FOURIER TRANSFORM MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AS A METABOLOMIC TECHNIQUE FOR CHARACTERIZING THE PROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF GRAIN SORGHUM AGAINST OXIDATION

Emily D. Sitorius, M.S. University of Nebraska, 2010 Advisor: Vicki L. Schlegel

Cellular oxidative damage has been linked to many chronic diseases including Alzheimer’s, diabetes, and cancer. Recent studies have shown that foods rich in antioxidants (i.e., grain sorghum) can protect against oxidative stress and thus reduce the risk of disease. However, a significant gap in knowledge exists in that dietary antioxidants are usually characterized by methods that determine free radical and reactive oxygen species’ scavenging capacity ...


Dynamic Predictive Model For The Growth Of Salmonella Spp. In Liquid Whole Egg And Risk Evaluation Of Egg White Hydrolysates Manufacturing Process For Spore Formers: Bacillus Cereus And Clostridium Perfringens., Aikansh Singh May 2010

Dynamic Predictive Model For The Growth Of Salmonella Spp. In Liquid Whole Egg And Risk Evaluation Of Egg White Hydrolysates Manufacturing Process For Spore Formers: Bacillus Cereus And Clostridium Perfringens., Aikansh Singh

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

A dynamic model for the growth of Salmonella spp. in liquid whole egg under continuously varying temperature was developed and validated. A primary model (Baranyi model) was fitted to each temperature growth data and corresponding maximum growth rates were estimated. Pseudo-R2 values were greater than 0.97 for primary models. The maximum growth rates obtained from each primary model were then plotted against temperature and modeled using the modified Ratkowsky model. The pseudo-R2 and root mean square error were 0.99 and 0.06 h-1, respectively for the secondary model. A dynamic model for the prediction of ...


Effects Of Feeding Distillers Grains On Beef Quality, Amilton S. De Mello Jr. Apr 2010

Effects Of Feeding Distillers Grains On Beef Quality, Amilton S. De Mello Jr.

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

This research was conducted to understand the effects of feeding finishing diets containing distillers grains on beef quality. In the first and second studies, feeding wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) increased proportions of PUFA, omega 6, omega 6/omega3, and trans fatty acids when compared to corn (P ≤ 0.05). Lipid oxidation was higher in muscles from animals fed WDGS when compared to corn (P ≤ 0.05). The third study examined the effects of feeding levels up to 50% of modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) on fatty acid composition in beef. Linear increase (P ≤ 0.05) was observed ...


The Green Revolution Of The 1960'S And Its Impact On Small Farmers In India, Kathryn Sebby Apr 2010

The Green Revolution Of The 1960'S And Its Impact On Small Farmers In India, Kathryn Sebby

Environmental Studies Undergraduate Student Theses

The Green Revolution was initiated in the 1960’s to address the issue of malnutrition in the developing world. The technology of the Green Revolution involved bio-engineered seeds that worked in conjunction with chemical fertilizers and heavy irrigation to increase crop yields. The technology was readily adopted in many stated in India and for some was a great success. However, there were many farmers who could not afford the inputs necessary to participate in the Green Revolution and gaps between social classes widened as wealthy farmers got wealthier and poor farmers lagged behind. This paper discusses how small farmers were ...


Threshold Dose For Peanut: Risk Characterization Based Upon Diagnostic Oral Challenge Of A Series Of 286 Peanut-Allergic Individuals, Steve L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, Rene W. R. Crevel, David Sheffield, Martine Morisset, P. Dumont, Benjamin C. Remington, Joseph L. Baumert Jan 2010

Threshold Dose For Peanut: Risk Characterization Based Upon Diagnostic Oral Challenge Of A Series Of 286 Peanut-Allergic Individuals, Steve L. Taylor, D. A. Moneret-Vautrin, Rene W. R. Crevel, David Sheffield, Martine Morisset, P. Dumont, Benjamin C. Remington, Joseph L. Baumert

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Clinical records of 286 consecutive patients reacting positively with objective symptoms to double-blind, placebo-controlled oral peanut challenges at University Hospital, Nancy, France were examined for individual No Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAELs) and Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Levels (LOAELs). After fitting to a log-normal probability distribution model, the ED10 and ED05 were 14.4 and 7.3 mg (expressed as whole peanut), respectively, with 95% lower confidence intervals of 10.7 and 5.2 mg, respectively. Compared to results from a previous study where the ED10 was based upon individual peanut thresholds gleaned from 12 publications, a ...


Responders And Non-Responders To Probiotic Interventions, Gregor Reid, Estelle Gaudier, Francisco Guarner, Gary B. Huffnagle, Jean M. Macklaim, Alicia Murcia Munoz, Margaret Martini, Tamar Ringel-Kulka, Balfor R. Sartor, Robert R. Unal, Kristin Verbeke, Jens Walter Jan 2010

Responders And Non-Responders To Probiotic Interventions, Gregor Reid, Estelle Gaudier, Francisco Guarner, Gary B. Huffnagle, Jean M. Macklaim, Alicia Murcia Munoz, Margaret Martini, Tamar Ringel-Kulka, Balfor R. Sartor, Robert R. Unal, Kristin Verbeke, Jens Walter

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

As with many clinical studies, trials using probiotics have shown clearly that some patients benefit from the treatment while others do not. For example if treatment with probiotics leads to 36% cure rate of diarrhea, why did the other 64% not have the same result? The issue is important for human and indeed experimental animal studies for two main reasons: (i) Would changing the design of the study result in more subjects responding to treatment? (ii) If a subject does not respond what are the mechanistic reasons? In order to tackle the issue of responders and non-responders to therapy, a ...