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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Regulatory Issues And Functional Health Claims For Bioactive Dairy Compounds, P. Roupas, P. G. Williams, C. Margetts Nov 2010

Regulatory Issues And Functional Health Claims For Bioactive Dairy Compounds, P. Roupas, P. G. Williams, C. Margetts

Peter Williams

Dairy foods and ingredients have a natural advantage over new/novel foods, from a regulatory viewpoint, because they are generally considered as “traditional” foods, that is, there is a long history of human consumption. However, the regulatory landscape on adding bioactive ingredients, whether from dairy streams or from non-dairy sources, into dairy foods is rapidly evolving, and the dairy industry will need to be aware of potential regulatory challenges, within the countries they wish to market their products.


Composition And Antimicrobial Activities Of Lippia Multiflora Moldenke, Mentha X Piperita L. And Ocimum Basilicum L. Essential Oils And Their Major Monoterpene Alcohols Alone And In Combination, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Aline Aline Lamien-Meda, Balé Bayala, Souleymane Tirogo, Chlodwig Chlodwig Franz, Johannes Johannes Novak, Roger Charles Roger Charles Nebié Nov 2010

Composition And Antimicrobial Activities Of Lippia Multiflora Moldenke, Mentha X Piperita L. And Ocimum Basilicum L. Essential Oils And Their Major Monoterpene Alcohols Alone And In Combination, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Aline Aline Lamien-Meda, Balé Bayala, Souleymane Tirogo, Chlodwig Chlodwig Franz, Johannes Johannes Novak, Roger Charles Roger Charles Nebié

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

Essential oils from leaves of Lippia multiflora, Mentha x piperita and Ocimum basilicum from Burkina Faso were analysed by GC–FID and GC–MS. Major components were p-cymene, thymol, β-caryophyllene, carvacrol and carvone for L. multiflora, menthol and iso-menthone for M. x piperita and, linalool and eugenol for O. basilicum. The essential oils and their major monoterpene alcohols were tested against nine bacterial strains using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The essential oils with high phenolic contents were the most effective antimicrobials. The checkerboard method was used to quantify the efficacy of paired combinations of essential oils and ...


Enhancing Chocolate Flavour Quality – Effects Of Technological Modifications During Fermentation Of Ghanaian Cocoa Beans, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd) Oct 2010

Enhancing Chocolate Flavour Quality – Effects Of Technological Modifications During Fermentation Of Ghanaian Cocoa Beans, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd)

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

No abstract provided.


A “Healthy Pizza Kitchen” Nutrition Education Program At A Children's Health Museum, Marjorie R. Freedman Aug 2010

A “Healthy Pizza Kitchen” Nutrition Education Program At A Children's Health Museum, Marjorie R. Freedman

Marjorie R. Freedman

For nutrition education to be successful in changing behavior, schools, families, and communities must participate in or provide a variety of diverse, creative, accessible, and culturally appropriate programs. One venue for provision of nutrition education is a health and science education center that has exhibits and special programs not found in an average school. Establishing relationships with these organizations could greatly enhance a school health curriculum.1 Although nutrition information, displays, and programming are often found in these centers, studies examining whether provision of nutrition education in these venues increases knowledge or changes behavior are lacking. The purpose of this ...


Lifecourse Socioeconomic Trajectories And C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: Findings From A Brazilian Birth Cohort, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Bernardo L. Horta, D. P. Gigante, Cesar G, Victora May 2010

Lifecourse Socioeconomic Trajectories And C-Reactive Protein Levels In Young Adults: Findings From A Brazilian Birth Cohort, Aydin Nazmi, I. O. Oliveira, Bernardo L. Horta, D. P. Gigante, Cesar G, Victora

Aydin Nazmi

Socioeconomic factors are associated with cardiovascular disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is increasingly implicated as a candidate linking conventional risk factors and atherosclerosis. The impact of early- and later-life socioeconomic status (SES) on CRP levels has not been widely investigated and a handful of studies from high-income countries are inconsistent. We set out to examine the associations between lifecourse socioeconomic indicators (family income at birth, maternal education, family income at age 23 and own education) on CRP levels in young adults belonging to the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study (n = 5914). Early-life SES showed significant and graded associations with CRP ...


Effect Of Spontaneous Fermentation And Amylase Rich Flour (Arf) On The Nutritive Value, Functional And Viscoelastic Properties Of Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Maize, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Philip Roger Aidoo, Randy Adjonu Apr 2010

Effect Of Spontaneous Fermentation And Amylase Rich Flour (Arf) On The Nutritive Value, Functional And Viscoelastic Properties Of Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Maize, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Philip Roger Aidoo, Randy Adjonu

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Studied were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of spontaneous fermentation and Amylase Rich Flours (ARF) on some nutritive value, functional and viscoelastic properties of cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. A 2x3x3 factorial design, with fermentation medium, fermentation time and ARF level was performed. The blends were fermented for the specific times and analysed for their titratable acidity, pH, water absorption capacity, viscoelastic properties, texture, protein and mineral content. Fermentation and ARF addition influenced titratable acidity, pH, water absorption, viscoelastic properties and texture of the cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. Addition of ARF decreased the viscoelastic properties, texture and pH of all the blends ...


Sweetened Beverage Consumption And Its Contributing Factors Among School-Aged Children–A Multilevel Analysis, Meizi He, Leonard Piché, Danielle Battram, Isabelle Giroux, Charlene Beynon, Jacqline Swans, Rohna Hanning Mar 2010

Sweetened Beverage Consumption And Its Contributing Factors Among School-Aged Children–A Multilevel Analysis, Meizi He, Leonard Piché, Danielle Battram, Isabelle Giroux, Charlene Beynon, Jacqline Swans, Rohna Hanning

Leonard Piché

Excessive consumption of sweetened beverages by children and youth has become an issue of great concern among health professionals and health policy makers in the U.S. and Canada. Over-consumption of sweetened beverages can have negative effects on children's nutrient profile and may increase their risk of obesity. Reducing children's sweetened beverage consumption offers an opportunity to decrease unnecessary energy intake and prevent excess weight gain.


Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Activities Of Essential Oil And Methanol Extract Of Jasminum Sambac From Djibouti, Fatou Abdoul-Latif, Prosper Edou, François Eba, Nabil Mohamed, Adwa Ali, Samatar Djama, Louis-Clément Obame, Mamoudou Hama Dicko Mar 2010

Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Activities Of Essential Oil And Methanol Extract Of Jasminum Sambac From Djibouti, Fatou Abdoul-Latif, Prosper Edou, François Eba, Nabil Mohamed, Adwa Ali, Samatar Djama, Louis-Clément Obame, Mamoudou Hama Dicko

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

The essential oil of jasminum sambac from Djibouti was subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by two complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging and beta-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as positive control in both test systems. In the DPPH test system, the IC50 value of essential oil and methanol extract were respectively 7.43 and 2.30 μg/ml. In the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system, oxidation was effectively inhibited by Jasminum sambac, the RAA value of essential oil and methanol extract were respectively 96.6 and 93.9%. When compared to BHT, the essential ...


Early Childhood Feeding: Assessing Knowledge, Attitude, And Practices Of Multi-Ethnic Child-Care Providers, Marjorie R. Freedman, Karina P. Alvarez Feb 2010

Early Childhood Feeding: Assessing Knowledge, Attitude, And Practices Of Multi-Ethnic Child-Care Providers, Marjorie R. Freedman, Karina P. Alvarez

Marjorie R. Freedman

Early childhood is a critical period for shaping and influencing feeding and lifestyle behaviors that have implications for future weight and health. With more women in the workforce, families have become reliant on child care. Thus, the child-feeding relationship has become a shared responsibility between the parent and child-care provider. Little is known about the impact of child-care providers on development of early childhood feeding behaviors and subsequent risk for obesity, especially in the Hispanic ethnic group. This research examined child-feeding attitudes, practices, and knowledge of multi-ethnic home-based and center-based child-care providers. Questionnaires were completed by a convenience sample of ...


School Health Fairs Show Potential To Improve Short-Term Learning, Marjorie R. Freedman Feb 2010

School Health Fairs Show Potential To Improve Short-Term Learning, Marjorie R. Freedman

Marjorie R. Freedman

School-based health fairs, that include a variety of informational and/or “fun” booths, are examples of Level 1 interventions designed to build awareness of a health or nutritional topic or problem.1 Designing, implementing, and evaluating a health fair requires considerable resources. Yet recent examination of their efficacy in increasing knowledge is limited.23 and 4 No research has been conducted on preadolescents, a group whose patterns of behavior and food choices may affect their current and future health status. Currently, almost one third of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 are overweight or obese.5 Less than ...


Growth From Birth To Adulthood And Abdominal Obesity In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, D. A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, C. G. Victoria Feb 2010

Growth From Birth To Adulthood And Abdominal Obesity In A Brazilian Birth Cohort, D. A. Gonzalez, Aydin Nazmi, C. G. Victoria

Aydin Nazmi

Background: Rapid weight gain in childhood may increase the risk of chronic adult diseases. Few studies have examined the effects of lifecourse weight gain on waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Objective: To evaluate the effects of birthweight and weight gain from birth to age 23 years on WC, HC, and WHR in young adults. Design: Population-based birth cohort study started in 1982. A sample of 856 individuals was examined in 2006. Conditional growth analyses were carried out with adjustment for confounders. WC and HC were also mutually adjusted. Results: Weight gains during all age ranges ...


Participation In The First Cdm Project: The Role Of Property Rights, Social Capital And Contractual Rules, Yazhen Gong, Gary Bull, Kathy Baylis Jan 2010

Participation In The First Cdm Project: The Role Of Property Rights, Social Capital And Contractual Rules, Yazhen Gong, Gary Bull, Kathy Baylis

Kathy Baylis

Paying developing countries for carbon sequestration is seen as a vital component of climate change mitigation. If appropriately designed, these payments can also transfer income to poor villagers, which can aid both the long-term sustainability of the carbon sequestered, as well as meeting the goal of poverty reduction. However, to encourage the participation of small-scale producers, a CDM forest project must offer sufficient incentives with minimal costs to participants. Both incentives and costs are embedded in property rights, social capital and contractual rules. In this paper, we ask what factors affect participation in the world’s first CDM project, established ...


Childhood Poverty And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood: A Systematic Review, David González, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victoria Jan 2010

Childhood Poverty And Abdominal Obesity In Adulthood: A Systematic Review, David González, Aydin Nazmi, Cesar G. Victoria

Aydin Nazmi

Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood can have lasting effects on health, but evidence is lacking from prospective studies concerning the effects of early poverty on abdominal obesity in adulthood. Cross-sectional studies in adults from middle and high-income countries show that current socioeconomic status is inversely related to obesity in women, but the pattern in men is not consistent. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the influence of early socioeconomic status on waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio in adulthood. Thirteen relevant articles were located (five cross-sectional and eight cohort), including only one from a middle-income country and the ...


Obesity And Food Choices Among Faculty And Staff At A Large Urban University, Marjorie R. Freedman, Rebecca J. Rubinstein Dec 2009

Obesity And Food Choices Among Faculty And Staff At A Large Urban University, Marjorie R. Freedman, Rebecca J. Rubinstein

Marjorie R. Freedman

Objective: In order to address increasing health care costs associated with obesity, this study sought to determine prevalence of overweight and obesity and examine eating behaviors, food choices, health beliefs, and attitudes of university employees. Participants and Methods: An online survey was distributed to > 3,800 faculty and staff at a large public metropolitan university in Winter 2008. Results: Almost half (48%) of 806 respondents were classified as overweight or obese. Compared to those with normal weights, overweight and obese respondents consumed fewer fruits and vegetables (p < .05), were less confident in making healthful food choices (p < .001), and were ...


Effect Of Soybean Fortification On Fermentation Characteristics And Consumer Acceptability Of Hausa Koko, A Ghanaian Fermented Porridge, James Owusu-Kwarteng Dec 2009

Effect Of Soybean Fortification On Fermentation Characteristics And Consumer Acceptability Of Hausa Koko, A Ghanaian Fermented Porridge, James Owusu-Kwarteng

James Owusu-Kwarteng

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the effect of soybean fortification on microbial growth and consumer acceptability of

Hausa koko.

Methodology and results: Hausa koko was prepared from a mixture of soaked millet grains and pre-soaked,

blanched and dehulled soybeans added at 0 to 50 % replacement levels. pH, titritable acidity and microbial

counts were determined before and after the fermentation period using standard methods. The effect of the

added soybean on acceptability was evaluated on a nine point hedonic scale by an untrained panel that is

familiar with Hausa koko. Data were subjected to Analysis of Variance and Tukey testing for the ...


Viscoelastic Properties And Pasting Characteristics Of Fermented Maize: Influence Of The Addition Of Malted Cereals, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Randy Adjonu, Justice Asomaning Dec 2009

Viscoelastic Properties And Pasting Characteristics Of Fermented Maize: Influence Of The Addition Of Malted Cereals, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Randy Adjonu, Justice Asomaning

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Investigations were conducted on the viscoelastic properties and pasting characteristics of fermented maize with malted cereals and their suitability for infant feeding. A 3x3x2 factorial experimental design with malting time, cereal malt concentration and cereal type was used. Maize, millet, and sorghum malts were added to fermented maize to reducing its bulk density. Samples were analysed for their viscoelastic properties and pasting characteristics using Brabender Viscoamylograph. Sorghum malt in comparison to millet and maize malts was not effective in terms of lowering the hot and cold paste viscosities of the fermented maize. Maize and millet malts liquefied the dough considerably ...


Acidification And Starch Behaviour During Co-Fermentation Of Cassava And Soybean Into Gari., Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Edem John Kongor, George Annor, Randy Adjonu Dec 2009

Acidification And Starch Behaviour During Co-Fermentation Of Cassava And Soybean Into Gari., Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Edem John Kongor, George Annor, Randy Adjonu

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using Brabender Viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy-fortification upto 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8%-60.4% within the 48 ...


Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Quality Characteristics Of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)-Based Tempeh., George Amponsah Annor, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Firibu Kwesi Saalia, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Agnes Simpson Budu Dec 2009

Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Quality Characteristics Of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)-Based Tempeh., George Amponsah Annor, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Firibu Kwesi Saalia, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Agnes Simpson Budu

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Response surface methodology was used to optimize the processing conditions in the preparation of cowpea tempeh. The independent factors studied were boiling time (varying from 5 to 30 min), incubation time (varying from 12 to 48 h) and incubation temperatures (varying from 25 to 50°C), whereas the dependent factors were protein content, protein solubility, pH, titratable acidity and total color difference (using L, a* and b*). Regression models were generated and adequacy was tested with regression coefficients (R2) and the lack-of-fit tests. Optimum processing conditions were determined by method of superimposition. There was a strong and significant influence (P < 0.01) of the quadratic effect of the incubation time on the protein content of the cowpea tempeh, with similar significance (P < 0.01) noted in protein solubility with increasing boiling time. The optimum processing conditions observed for the preparation of cowpea tempeh were boiling time of about 20 min, incubation time of about 28 h and incubation temperature of about 37°C.