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Food Science

2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 265

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Determination Of The Effect Of Dairy Powders On Adherence Of Streptococcus Sobrinus And Streptococcus Salivarius To Hydroxylapatite And Growth Of These Bacteria, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan Dec 2010

Determination Of The Effect Of Dairy Powders On Adherence Of Streptococcus Sobrinus And Streptococcus Salivarius To Hydroxylapatite And Growth Of These Bacteria, Rachel Halpin, D.B. Brady, E.D. O’Riordan, M. O’Sullivan

Articles

Dental caries is a highly prevalent disease caused by colonisation of tooth surfaces by cariogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus salivarius. Reducing initial adherence of such bacteria to teeth may delay onset of caries. Many foods, such as milk, can inhibit microbial adherence. In this investigation, the effect of untreated (UT) and enzyme-treated (ET) dairy powders on adherence of S. sobrinus and S. salivarius to hydroxylapatite (HA), an analogue of tooth enamel, was examined. Untreated (UT) acid whey protein concentrate (AWPC) 80 inhibited streptococcal adherence to phosphate-buffered saline-coated HA (PBS-HA) and saliva-coated HA (S-HA) by >80% at ⩾31 ...


Growth Inhibition Of Common Food Spoilage And Pathogenic Microorganisms In The Presence Of Brown Seaweed Extracts, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Gaurav Rajauria, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam Dec 2010

Growth Inhibition Of Common Food Spoilage And Pathogenic Microorganisms In The Presence Of Brown Seaweed Extracts, Shilpi Gupta, Sabrina Cox, Gaurav Rajauria, Amit Jaiswal, Nissreen Abu-Ghannam

Articles

The possibility of using extracts from brown seaweed, Himanthalia elongata, as a natural antimicrobial agent for food preservation is presented. The effect of different concentrations of seaweed extract on the growth kinetics of four common food spoilage (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis) and food pathogenic micro-organisms (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella abony) was examined. Seaweed extract at a concentration of 6% inhibited the growth of all four of the studied organisms. Lower concentrations of seaweed extract prolonged the lag phase and reduced both the exponential growth rate and final population densities of the culture. Suitability of three kinetic models, Baranyi-Roberts, Modified ...


The Effects Of Chronic Ampk Activation On Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation And Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferaseactivity With High Fat Feeding, Mary E. Curtis Dec 2010

The Effects Of Chronic Ampk Activation On Hepatic Triglyceride Accumulation And Glycerol-3-Phosphate Acyltransferaseactivity With High Fat Feeding, Mary E. Curtis

Theses and Dissertations

High fat feeding increases hepatic fat accumulation and is associated with hepatic insulin resistance. AMP Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is thought to inhibit lipid synthesis by the acute inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) activity and transcriptional regulation via SREBP-1c. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic activation of AMPK prevented an increase in GPAT1 activity in rats fed a high fat diet. Rats were fed a control (C), or a high fat (HF) diet (60% fat) for 6 weeks and injected with saline or a daily AICAR dose of 0.5 mg/g body weight. Chronic AMPK ...


Novel Approaches For The Efficient Sampling And Detection Of Listeria Monocytogenes And Brochothrix Thermosphacta On Food Contact Surfaces, Jessica Anne Clemons Dec 2010

Novel Approaches For The Efficient Sampling And Detection Of Listeria Monocytogenes And Brochothrix Thermosphacta On Food Contact Surfaces, Jessica Anne Clemons

Masters Theses

The primary step in the microbiological assessment of highly dynamic and complex food processing conditions is environmental sampling. The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare the efficacy of four sampling devices including Microbial-Vac system (MV), cellulose sponge (SP), polyester swab (SW) and composite tissue (CT), for the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes and Brochothrix thermosphacta on five surfaces and (2) to determine if there was a significant difference between the recovery of low (10 CFU/900cm2) and high (100 CFU/900cm2) L. monocytogenes inoculum levels using the sampling devices in a simulated food processing environment. Surfaces used ...


Antimicrobial Activity Of Casein Hydrolysates Against Listeria Monocytogenes And Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Jessica M Christman Dec 2010

Antimicrobial Activity Of Casein Hydrolysates Against Listeria Monocytogenes And Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Jessica M Christman

Masters Theses

Listeriosis has the highest fatality and hospitalization rate among foodborne illnesses. Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis and is a difficult bacterium for ready-to-eat food processors to eliminate because of its ability to grow in the absence of oxygen and under refrigeration. Recently, milk and its proteins have gained recognition as the largest source of biologically active peptides, and, it stands reason that several antimicrobial peptides (AMP) can be released from casein as it is the most abundant milk protein. AMPs are commonly obtained by cutting the whole protein into peptide fragments using enzymes or by acidification. The objective of this study ...


Novel Delivery Systems Of Nisin To Enhance Long-Term Efficacy Against Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes, Dan Xiao Dec 2010

Novel Delivery Systems Of Nisin To Enhance Long-Term Efficacy Against Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes, Dan Xiao

Doctoral Dissertations

Novel intervention strategies such as food grade antimicrobials are used to enhance food safety. Nisin is a widely used naturally occurring antimicrobial effective against many pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. However, its antimicrobial efficacy in food matrices is much reduced because of interactions with food components. Novel delivery systems may overcome this problem by protecting nisin in capsules and releasing it in a controlled manner. The overall goal of this research was to develop delivery systems of nisin to improve its long-term antimicrobial effectiveness. The first objective was to develop a low-cost method to extract nisin from a commercial preparation containing ...


Examination Of Egg White Proteins And Effects Of High Pressure On Select Physical And Functional Properties, Andrew Hoppe Dec 2010

Examination Of Egg White Proteins And Effects Of High Pressure On Select Physical And Functional Properties, Andrew Hoppe

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Egg white proteins have become an important and desirable ingredient to the food industry due to their functional properties which include gelling, foaming, and emulsification. Egg white is also well recognized as an excellent source of nutrition. The goal of this work was to determine the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on egg white proteins. Specifically, experiments were conducted using Raman spectroscopy and pepsin digestibility to investigate structural changes. Pressure treatment at 400 to 800 MPa (5 minutes at 4°C) resulted in increased pepsin digestibility of egg white proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme compared to heat-treated (85 to ...


The Bifidogenicity Of The Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharides, Lauren M. G. Davis Dec 2010

The Bifidogenicity Of The Prebiotic Galactooligosaccharides, Lauren M. G. Davis

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The goal of this research was to determine the effect of different doses of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the fecal microbiota of healthy adults, with a focus on bifidobacteria. The study was designed as a single-blinded study, with eighteen subjects consuming GOS-containing chocolate chews at four increasing dosage levels; 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 g. Subjects consumed each dose for 3 weeks, with a two-week baseline period preceding the study and a two-week washout period at the end. Cultural methods were used for bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, enterobacteria, enterococci, lactobacilli, and total anaerobes; culture-independent methods included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ...


Controlling The Mineral Content Of Sweet Whey Powder In An Industrial Setting, Matthew W. Sawyer Dec 2010

Controlling The Mineral Content Of Sweet Whey Powder In An Industrial Setting, Matthew W. Sawyer

Dairy Science

The objective of this project was to reduce the final ash content of sweet whey powder. The data for this project was collected over a two-week period, from July 13th to July 27th 2010 in a dairy plant in the Mid-West of the United States. The data is composed of particle size test, ash test, and pH test. The conclusions of this study are that multiple pre-heat treatment tank changes contribute to mineral content by requiring more buffering than usual. The low pH of this pre-heat liquid forces a need for more buffering. Particle segregation may play a role in ...


Shelf Life Studies On Processed Peaches, Divija Unhale Dec 2010

Shelf Life Studies On Processed Peaches, Divija Unhale

All Theses

A series of experiments were conducted on the preservation of fresh peaches using freezing and heat (hot-filled packaging). In the first experiment, the effects of four calcium salts (calcium chloride, calcium lactate, calcium citrate, calcium phosphate) on the texture of processed peach slices were determined. Peach slices were immersed in solutions containing dissolved calcium salts at levels of 0.5, 1 and 2 % for 1 minute then stored at 4 ¡C for 3 days. Treatments with calcium salts were firmer than non calcium treated peach slices at all levels. Calcium lactate at 2 % level was best in terms of texture ...


Effect Of Crust Freezing On The Quality And Survival Of Escherichia Coli And Salmonella Typhimurium In Raw Poultry Products, Byron Chaves-Elizondo Dec 2010

Effect Of Crust Freezing On The Quality And Survival Of Escherichia Coli And Salmonella Typhimurium In Raw Poultry Products, Byron Chaves-Elizondo

All Theses

Industry has widely used freezing as a strategy to halt pathogen growth and more recently, crust freezing has been suggested as a means to improve mechanical operations, quality, and safety of poultry products. Two separate studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of crust freezing (20 min, -85 ¡C) on the survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium and on quality and shelf life of raw chicken breasts, with or without skin. For the first study, ampicillin-resistant E. coli JM 109 and nalidixic acid-resistant S. Typhimurium were used in the experiments. A set of cultures was subjected to cold-shock stress ...


Isolation, Characterization And Application Of Bacteriophage To Treat Hydrogen Sulfide Producing Bacteria In Raw Animal Materials Destined For The Rendering Process, Chao Gong Dec 2010

Isolation, Characterization And Application Of Bacteriophage To Treat Hydrogen Sulfide Producing Bacteria In Raw Animal Materials Destined For The Rendering Process, Chao Gong

All Theses

In the United States, billions of pounds of animal by-products are generated by the food processing industry every year. Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) can utilize the sulfur-containing proteins and amino acids in the raw animal materials destined for the rendering process to produce harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas rapidly under the ambient conditions, resulting in hazardous working environments and inferior quality of finished products. In this study, the application of bacteriophage was explored as an effective solution for the elimination of H2S production in the rendering industry. The objectives of this study were to: 1) isolate and characterize strains ...


Chemical Composition And Antioxidant Properties Of Maya Nut (Brosimum Alicastrum), Hatice Kubra Tokpunar Dec 2010

Chemical Composition And Antioxidant Properties Of Maya Nut (Brosimum Alicastrum), Hatice Kubra Tokpunar

All Theses

ABSTRACT
Maya nut was investigated in term of its moisture, ash content, antioxidant activities, phenolic components by high pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) and fatty acid composition by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results showed that Maya nut was mainly composed of 55.06% linoleic acid (C18:2 n6), 27.2% palmitic acid (C16:0), 6.26% stearic acid (C18:0), 9.9% linolenic acid (C18:3 n3), and 3.36% Cis-11-Eicosenoic (C20:1). Maya nut possesses a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (linoleic and linolenic acid), but lower content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) than canola ...


Developing, Refining, And Validating A Survey To Measure Adolescent Food Safety Self-Efficacy, Monica K Brandon Dec 2010

Developing, Refining, And Validating A Survey To Measure Adolescent Food Safety Self-Efficacy, Monica K Brandon

Masters Theses

Self-efficacy is a proven indicator of predicting risky behaviors, but without a baseline level of adolescent food safety self-efficacy to develop targeted interventions it is difficult to produce meaningful behavior change. The research question around which this study was designed is: To what extent can a validated instrument accurately capture adolescent beliefs of food safety self-efficacy. Through rigorous field testing and statistical analysis we hypothesize a valid and reliable instrument can be created for measuring adolescents’ food safety self-efficacy. The purposes of this study included: (a) development of a high quality, food safety self-efficacy instrument, (b) validation of the instrument ...


Development And Validation Of A Rapid Multi-Class Method For The Confirmation Of Fourteen Prohibited Medicinal Additives In Pig And Poultry Compound Feed By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Mark Cronly, Patrice Behan, Barry Foley, Liam Regan, Marella Gallagher, Sean Earley, Paula Shearan, Edward Malone Dec 2010

Development And Validation Of A Rapid Multi-Class Method For The Confirmation Of Fourteen Prohibited Medicinal Additives In Pig And Poultry Compound Feed By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Mark Cronly, Patrice Behan, Barry Foley, Liam Regan, Marella Gallagher, Sean Earley, Paula Shearan, Edward Malone

Articles

A confirmatory method has been developed to allow for the analysis of fourteen prohibited medicinal additives in pig and poultry compound feed. These compounds are prohibited for use as feed additives although some are still authorised for use in medicated feed. Feed samples are extracted by acetonitrile with addition of sodium sulphate. The extracts undergo a hexane wash to aid with sample purification. The extracts are then evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in initial mobile phase. The samples undergo an ultracentrifugation step prior to injection onto the LC-MS/MS system and are analysed in a run time of 26 minutes ...


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 1: Getting Ready To Cook, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 1: Getting Ready To Cook, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 1 focuses on the steps needed when getting ready to cook.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 4: Beverages, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 4: Beverages, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 4 provides tips and recipes for making beverages.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 7: Sandwiches, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Ronda Olsen, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 7: Sandwiches, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Ronda Olsen, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 7 provides recipes and instructions for making a variety of sandwiches.


Development And Validation Of A Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready To Eat (Rte) Bar, Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick Dec 2010

Development And Validation Of A Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready To Eat (Rte) Bar, Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick

Master's Theses and Project Reports

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A LIGHT WEIGHT, ENERGY DENSE, READY TO EAT (RTE) BAR

Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick

Providing additional calories in the form of an RTE bar to endurance athletes will increase performance and muscle re-synthesis, reduce muscle breakdown, and shorten recovery time. An RTE bar containing a blend of dairy proteins and carbohydrates will create a product with superior functionality, including bioactive and immunity enhancing properties from dairy derived ingredients. The protein will provide benefits in the form of easily digestible calories, essential amino acids and physical satiate.

A formulation was developed and optimized, resulting in a final product ...


Effect Of Sodium Chloride Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate, Scott J. Gualco Dec 2010

Effect Of Sodium Chloride Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate, Scott J. Gualco

Master's Theses and Project Reports

There is considerable interest among food manufacturers to incorporate protein into food products in both developed and developing countries. Dairy proteins are excellent choices for many different applications, as they are known to have several nutritional and functional benefits. Membrane filtration techniques are often utilized as the preferred method of fractionation, due to the high throughput and continuous nature of the process. One such product produced from membrane filtration of skim milk is called milk protein concentrate. This product is valued for its high protein content, but it has historically exhibited poor solubility when reconstituted into water, which severely restricts ...


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 6: Cookies: Molded, Refrigerator & Rolled, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 6: Cookies: Molded, Refrigerator & Rolled, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 6 provides recipes and instructions for molded, refrigerator, and rolled cookies.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 8: Plan A Party, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 8: Plan A Party, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Food Guide, Lesson 8 provides ideas, instructions, checklists, and recipes for planning a party.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lessons 9 And 10: Smart Shopping, Have A Party, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen, Naomi Weeks Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lessons 9 And 10: Smart Shopping, Have A Party, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen, Naomi Weeks

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Food Guide, Lesson 9 and 10 provide smart tips for grocery shopping and executing party plans.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 3: Cookies: Drop & Bar, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 3: Cookies: Drop & Bar, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 3 provides recipes and instructions to make drop and bar cookies.


Mechanical Processing Of European Green Crab (Carcinus Maenas), The Development Of A Value-Added Product And The Use Of Restructuring Additives To Increase The Functional Properties Of Green Crab Patties, Joseph A. Galetti Dec 2010

Mechanical Processing Of European Green Crab (Carcinus Maenas), The Development Of A Value-Added Product And The Use Of Restructuring Additives To Increase The Functional Properties Of Green Crab Patties, Joseph A. Galetti

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The European Green Crab (Carcinus maenas) has proven to be a successful invasive predator and has potential to be a valuable food source for human consumption. Due to the small size of green crab, hand picking commercial operations are not feasible. The objectives of this research were to develop uses for this undervalued resource by examining mechanical separation techniques of mince meat; developing a consumer acceptable mince meat product and exploring the functionality of green crab mince meat with additions of restructuring additives. The first part of this research was designed to determine how boil versus steam thermal processing, large ...


Dutch Oven Cooking, Susan Haws Dec 2010

Dutch Oven Cooking, Susan Haws

All Current Publications

This is a how-to publication on dutch oven cooking details.


4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 5: Microwave Munchies, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen Dec 2010

4-H Fun With Foods - Lesson 5: Microwave Munchies, Georgia C. Lauritzen, Darlene Christensen, Susan Haws, Naomi Weeks, Debra Proctor, Ronda Olsen

All Current Publications

This publication is part of the 4-H Fun with Foods Guide, Lesson 5 provides recipes and instructions for microwave munchies.


Industrial Sorghum Malting: Technologies That Can Be Used And Practical Considerations, Gyebi Duodu Dec 2010

Industrial Sorghum Malting: Technologies That Can Be Used And Practical Considerations, Gyebi Duodu

INTSORMIL Presentations

What is malting?

– Germination of grain in moist air under controlled conditions

Objectives for opaque beer brewing

–Mobilization of endogenous enzymes of the grain

–Use of the endogenous enzymes to modify grain constituents for ready solubilisation

–Use of the endogenous enzymes to solubilise starchy adjunct during mashing


The Importance Of Sorghum Grain Colour And Hardness, And Their Causes And Measurement, Doreen Mwiita Hikeezi Dec 2010

The Importance Of Sorghum Grain Colour And Hardness, And Their Causes And Measurement, Doreen Mwiita Hikeezi

INTSORMIL Presentations

Discusses sorghum grain color and kernel hardness, assessment methods, and the importance of each to the overall quality of the grain.


Sorghum Malting: Introduction, Objectives, And Scientific Principles, John R.N. Taylor Dec 2010

Sorghum Malting: Introduction, Objectives, And Scientific Principles, John R.N. Taylor

INTSORMIL Presentations

What is malting? It is limited germination of cereal grains in moist air under controlled conditions.

Why malt sorghum products?

Sorghum malt for home brewing

For brewing opaque beer, lager and stout

For “brewing” malt (malta) type non-alcoholic beverages

To produce malt extract for hot malted beverages,cereal and confectionery flavoring and coloring

For breakfast cereals

For “power flour”–enzyme active flour to “thin” infant porridges

Also explains the science of malting, and the importance of using high-quality grain.