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Food Science

2003

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Analysis Of Weight-Related Advertisements And Nutrition Articles In Popular Women's Magazines, Jennifer Cardall Jacobson Dec 2003

Analysis Of Weight-Related Advertisements And Nutrition Articles In Popular Women's Magazines, Jennifer Cardall Jacobson

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the weight-related messages and themes from food advertisements in women's magazines reinforce or contradict the messages communicated in nutrition-related articles focusing on weight control within the same magazines.

Design: Content analysis of 48 issues of weight-related content six popular women's magazines, 2001-2002. There were three magazines in each of two categories, "homemaking" and "health." All food and nutrition advertisements were analyzed (n=954), along with all nutrition articles (n=336). Advertisements and articles were identified as being either weight-related or non-weight-related. Type of food/product advertised, claims used ...


Maine Food Trader, New England Environmental Finance Center, University Of Southern Maine Dec 2003

Maine Food Trader, New England Environmental Finance Center, University Of Southern Maine

Local Food Systems

A free website for buying, selling, trading and donating local food. Keep food from going to waste and help make food production a good way to make a living in Maine.


The Effect Of Whole Wild Blueberries On Endothelial Function Of The Sprague-Dawley Rat As Related To Cardiovascular Disease, Cynthia Ann Norton Dec 2003

The Effect Of Whole Wild Blueberries On Endothelial Function Of The Sprague-Dawley Rat As Related To Cardiovascular Disease, Cynthia Ann Norton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly fed three different diets (n=8 per group), a control diet (AIN '93) (C), a blueberry diet (B) for 13 weeks and a reverse diet (R)(C for 13 weeks, switched to B for 8 weeks). Aortae were excised, rings were prepared, and two intact and two denuded rings were immersed in tissue baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) at 37OC, aerated with 95% 0 2 and 5% CO2 (pH 7.4). Following equilibration and pre-conditioning under 1 Sgm preload, cumulative dose response curves were generated with six doses of the a-1 adrenergic receptor ...


Determination Of Residential-Use Turf Pesticides In Surface And Ground Water By Hplc/Dad, Danyun Zhu Dec 2003

Determination Of Residential-Use Turf Pesticides In Surface And Ground Water By Hplc/Dad, Danyun Zhu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A simple. relatively fast, and efficient method has been developed for the simultaneous detection of residual levels of the pesticides dithiopyr, fenoxaprop-1'-e~hyl, l~alofenozide, and oryzalin in surface and ground water. This method involves solid phase (SPE) extraction/clean-up of these pesticides from water, followed by detcction and quantification by a high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with a photo diode array detector (DAD). The recoveries for dithiopyr, fenoxaprop-l'-c~I~yl. halofenozide, and oryzalin were performed by fortifying ground water from 0.1 ppb to 100 ppb, and surface water from 0.2 ppb to 100 ppb ...


Understanding Why Adult Participants At The World Senior Games Choose A Healthy Diet, Ray M. Merrill, Eric C. Shields Nov 2003

Understanding Why Adult Participants At The World Senior Games Choose A Healthy Diet, Ray M. Merrill, Eric C. Shields

Faculty Publications

Identifying those seniors most likely to adopt a healthy diet, the relative importance they place on certain perceived benefits associated with a healthy diet, and whether these perceived benefits are associated with selected demographic, lifestyle, and health history variables is important for directing effective dietary health promotion programs. Methods: Analyses are based on a cross-sectional convenience sample of 670 seniors aged 50 years and older at the 2002 World Senior Games in St. George, Utah. Data are assessed using frequencies, bivariate analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly higher in individuals ...


The Application And Evaluation Of Modified Atmosphere Packaging In Selected Minimally Processed Vegetables, Aine Greene Nov 2003

The Application And Evaluation Of Modified Atmosphere Packaging In Selected Minimally Processed Vegetables, Aine Greene

Masters

The central aim of this study was to optimise the processing and storage of selected vegetable within the parameters of extended shelf life, time/temperature relationships and sensory quality. The vegetables were selected on the basis of the results of a survey of the Irish vegetable industry. The current literature in the field of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and the Irish vegetable industry was reviewed. The current state and future requirements of the Irish vegetable industry was investigated through the use of a questionnaire. This established the views of Irish vegetable purchasers (food service, fast food and retail outlets), in ...


European Food-Safety Concerns: From Farm To Market, D. Burden, Lawrence A. Johnson Nov 2003

European Food-Safety Concerns: From Farm To Market, D. Burden, Lawrence A. Johnson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

In May of this year, 14 students from Iowa State University (ISU) had the opportunity to visit England and Scotland to examine food-safety issues, with emphasis on increasing the exposure to and understanding of European food-safety concerns, farming practices,the regulatory environment,research activities, and consumer attitudes.


Structure And Function Of Starch From Advanced Generations Of New Corn Lines, Y. Ji, K. Wong, J. Hasjim, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Jay-Lin Jane, Pamela J. White Nov 2003

Structure And Function Of Starch From Advanced Generations Of New Corn Lines, Y. Ji, K. Wong, J. Hasjim, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Jay-Lin Jane, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Objectives of this research were to evaluate functions and structures of starches from exotic × adapted inbred lines and exotic lines, to confirm that the functional traits continue into the next generation of inbreeding, and to establish relationships between the fine structure and functional properties of the starches. Several lines were characterized from the successive generations of exotic crosses and exotic inbreds containing kernels with unusual, and potentially useful, thermal properties as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, gelatinization onset temperature <60 °C or range of gelatinization temperature >14 °C). The frequency of these traits increased with succeeding generations, when selection of the plants was based on the ...


Terrorism Preparedness In State Health Departments --- United States, 2001--2003, G. Shipp, James S. Dickson, P. Quinlisk, C. Lohff, N. Franklin Oct 2003

Terrorism Preparedness In State Health Departments --- United States, 2001--2003, G. Shipp, James S. Dickson, P. Quinlisk, C. Lohff, N. Franklin

Meat Science Publications

The anthrax attacks in fall 2001 highlighted the role of infectious disease (ID) epidemiologists in terrorism preparedness and response. Beginning in 2002, state health departments (SHDs) received approximately $1 billion in new federal funding to prepare for and respond to terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and other public health threats and emergencies (1). This funding is being used in part to improve epidemiologic and surveillance capabilities. To determine how states have used a portion of their new funding to increase ID epidemiology capacity, the Iowa Department of Public Health's Center for Acute Disease Epidemiology and the Iowa State University Department ...


Altered Fatty-Acid, Protein, Oil, And Starch Corn Lines And Method For Producing Same, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White Oct 2003

Altered Fatty-Acid, Protein, Oil, And Starch Corn Lines And Method For Producing Same, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White

Iowa State University Patents

Improved corn lines having high protein and/or oil content and a method for producing such a lines. In another embodiment, improved corn lines having high oleic fatty-acid content, and/or either elevated or lowered saturated fat content, and a method for producing such a lines. In yet another embodiment, improved corn lines having a starch composition including starch components having a lower peak onset, having lower or higher enthalpy of gelatinization (cal/g), having lower or higher range of gelatinization (° C.), and/or having lower or higher percentage retrogradation. According to the present invention, new genes are introduced from ...


Tomographic Reconstruction Of Treponemal Cytoplasmic Filaments Reveals Novel Bridging And Anchoring Components, Jacques Izard, Bruce F. Mcewen, Rita M. Barnard, Thomas Portuese, William A. Samsonoff, Ronald J. Limberger Oct 2003

Tomographic Reconstruction Of Treponemal Cytoplasmic Filaments Reveals Novel Bridging And Anchoring Components, Jacques Izard, Bruce F. Mcewen, Rita M. Barnard, Thomas Portuese, William A. Samsonoff, Ronald J. Limberger

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

An understanding of the involvement of bacterial cytoplasmic filaments in cell division requires the elucidation of the structural organization of those filamentous structures. Treponemal cytoplasmic filaments are composed of one protein, CfpA, and have been demonstrated to be involved in cell division. In this study, we used electron tomography to show that the filaments are part of a complex with a novel molecular organization that includes at least two distinct features decorating the filaments. One set of components appears to anchor the filaments to the cytoplasmic membrane. The other set of components appears to bridge the cytoplasmic filaments on the ...


Sensitization Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Escherichia Coli To Antibiotics By The Sesquiterpenoids Nerolidol, Farnesol, Bisabolol, And Apritone, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Eric A. Johnson Oct 2003

Sensitization Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Escherichia Coli To Antibiotics By The Sesquiterpenoids Nerolidol, Farnesol, Bisabolol, And Apritone, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Eric A. Johnson

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

The sesquiterpenoids nerolidol, farnesol, bisabolol, and apritone were investigated for their abilities to enhance bacterial permeability and susceptibility to exogenous antimicrobial compounds. Initially, it was observed by flow cytometry that these sesquiterpenoids promoted the intracellular accumulation of the membrane-impermeant nucleic acid stain ethidium bromide by live cells of Lactobacillus fermentum, suggesting that enhanced permeability resulted from disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. The ability of these sesquiterpenoids to increase bacterial susceptibility to a number of clinically important antibiotics was then investigated. In disk diffusion assays, treatment with low concentrations (0.5 to 2 mM) of nerolidol, bisabolol, or apritone enhanced the ...


Sheep Updates 2003 - Meat, Lucy Anderton, Rob Davidson, Keith Croker, Robin Jacob, Rachel Kirby, Steve Meerwald, John Milton, David Pethick Aug 2003

Sheep Updates 2003 - Meat, Lucy Anderton, Rob Davidson, Keith Croker, Robin Jacob, Rachel Kirby, Steve Meerwald, John Milton, David Pethick

Sheep Updates

This session covers seven papers from different authors: 1. Economic analysis of using terminal sires in a self replacing Merino flock Lucy Anderton, Department of Agriculture Western Australia, Katanning 2. Is the mating of ewe weaners an option for increasing the numbers of lambs in WA? Rob Davidson University of WA, Crawley and Keith Croker Department of Agriculture Western Australia, South Perth 3.Dehydration of lambs at the time of slaughter Robin Jacob, School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University 4.Feeding prime lambs for slaughter Rachel Kirby, Outback Solutions 5. Live sheep export R&D Steve Meerwald, Wellard ...


Potato Production (Indonesian Version), Peter Dawson, Ian Mcpharlin, Malcolm Howes Aug 2003

Potato Production (Indonesian Version), Peter Dawson, Ian Mcpharlin, Malcolm Howes

Bulletins 4000 -

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Chelators On The Antimicrobial Activity Of Lysozyme Against Escherichia Coli O157:H7., Jeffrey Smith Boland Aug 2003

Influence Of Chelators On The Antimicrobial Activity Of Lysozyme Against Escherichia Coli O157:H7., Jeffrey Smith Boland

Masters Theses

The objectives of these studies were to determine the influence of chelator combinations on the effectiveness of the food antimicrobial lysozyme against the foodborne pathogenic bacterium, Escherichia coli O157:H7. By itself, lysozyme has little or no activity against Gram-negative bacteria, however, in the presence of chelating agents, the antimicrobial spectrum of lysozyme can be increased to include Gramnegative bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7. Experiments were three-fold. The first series of experiments examined the effects of lysozyme and three chelating agents (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), disodium pyrophosphate (DSPP), and pentasodium tripolyphosphate (PSTPP)) on growth inhibition of E. coli ...


Probing And Three-Point Bend Methods Compared To Sensory Scales As Measurements For Cookie Texture, Aaron Lee Woody Aug 2003

Probing And Three-Point Bend Methods Compared To Sensory Scales As Measurements For Cookie Texture, Aaron Lee Woody

Masters Theses

Cookies, an important product of the food industry, have distinctive textural attributes that affect consumer perception of quality. Reliable methods of texture evaluation of cookies are important to monitor the manufacture of consistent, consumer acceptable products. Instrumental methods for textural evaluation that correlate with sensory values can help with the speed, cost, and ease of evaluating during processing. A study was conducted to evaluate differences and similarities between two instrumental methods and sensory evaluation of texture evaluation for seven commercially available varieties of cookies (two shortbread, pecan shortbread, a soft and hard sugar cookie, and a soft and hard oatmeal ...


“Effect Of Labeling On Consumer Perception Of Commercial And Laboratory-Produced Vanilla Ice Creams, April Rae Parker Aug 2003

“Effect Of Labeling On Consumer Perception Of Commercial And Laboratory-Produced Vanilla Ice Creams, April Rae Parker

Masters Theses

Ice cream, produced in millions of gallons, has been a favorite comfort food to many people since its development centuries ago. Vanilla ice cream has long been a staple in the ice cream industry with its production and consumption being the highest when compared to other flavors. Since many consumers want more “natural” foods, the objective of this study was to study the effect of labeling the type of vanilla flavoring on consumer perception of commercial ice cream and laboratory-produced vanilla ice cream. Four commercial vanilla ice creams, one containing natural vanilla, one with artificial, and two containing both, were ...


Evaluating Attitudes Of Obesity And Their Change Processes Among Student Teachers And School Teachers On The World Wide Web Using The Elaboration Likelihood Model, Anne L. Hague Aug 2003

Evaluating Attitudes Of Obesity And Their Change Processes Among Student Teachers And School Teachers On The World Wide Web Using The Elaboration Likelihood Model, Anne L. Hague

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Teachers have an active role in helping to prevent and deter stigmatizing acts toward children labeled as "fat." The objective was to examine attitudes of obesity and their change processes among student teachers and schoolteachers, when exposed to a Web-based educational module promoting size acceptance, using the Elaboration- Likelihood Model (ELM). The ELM is a theoretical approach to message-based persuasion specifying conditions under which attitude change occurs. The theory was used to explain the impact of the module (content included etiological factors of obesity, implications of weight loss efforts, and emotionaVpsychosocia1 effects of obesity), high nutrition credibility of the module ...


Functional And Comparative Genomic Analyses Of An Operon Involved In Fructooligosaccharide Utilization By Lactobacillus Acidophilus, Rodolphe Barrangou, Eric Altermann, Robert W. Hutkins, Raul Cano, Todd Klaenhammer Jul 2003

Functional And Comparative Genomic Analyses Of An Operon Involved In Fructooligosaccharide Utilization By Lactobacillus Acidophilus, Rodolphe Barrangou, Eric Altermann, Robert W. Hutkins, Raul Cano, Todd Klaenhammer

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a probiotic organism that displays the ability to use prebiotic compounds such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which stimulate the growth of beneficial commensals in the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the mechanisms and genes involved in FOS utilization by Lactobacillus species. Analysis of the L. acidophilus NCFM genome revealed an msm locus composed of a transcriptional regulator of the LacI family, a four-component ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system, a fructosidase, and a sucrose phosphorylase. Transcriptional analysis of this operon demonstrated that gene expression was induced by sucrose and FOS but not by glucose or fructose, suggesting ...


Quality And Adequacy For Long-Term Storage Of Dehydrated Apple Slices Packaged In No. 10 Cans, T. S. Oesterle, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2003

Quality And Adequacy For Long-Term Storage Of Dehydrated Apple Slices Packaged In No. 10 Cans, T. S. Oesterle, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

Dehydrated food commodities can be packaged in restaurant-size No.10 cans intended for long-term storage for such uses as personal storage, emergency relief efforts and military rations. Because foods packaged for long-term storage are seldom opened soon after purchase, the quality of the product or the adequacy of the packaging could be unknown to the buyer for months or even years. The objective of this research was to compare the quality of various brands of dehydrated apple slices sold at the retail level in No.10 cans and to evaluate the adequacy of the packaging for long-term food storage. Nine ...


Quality Of Dehydrated Mashed Potatoes Retail Packaged In No. 10 Cans, H. Farnsworth, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2003

Quality Of Dehydrated Mashed Potatoes Retail Packaged In No. 10 Cans, H. Farnsworth, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

Manufacturers of further processed potato products recognize consumer demand for convenience and the economy of transporting dehydrated commodities. Because of their bulkiness, dehydrated potato products are often sold in large containers, including No. 10 cans. The quality of such products available at the retail level has not been reported. The objective of this research was to compare the quality of several brands of dehydrated instant mashed potatoes packaged in No. 10 cans for retail sale. Eight brands of instant mashed potatoes, including two types (4 granules, 4 flakes) packaged in No. 10 cans were obtained from retail outlets representing at ...


Quality Of White Rice Retail Packaged In No. 10 Cans For Long-Term Storage, M. B. Halling, N. D. Van Noy, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2003

Quality Of White Rice Retail Packaged In No. 10 Cans For Long-Term Storage, M. B. Halling, N. D. Van Noy, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

Dry foods, such as white rice, are available for retail sale packaged in No. 10 cans for long-term storage in case of natural disasters or other emergencies. Little information is available regarding the quality of such products that are packaged for prolonged storage using hermetically sealed containers and oxygen absorbers. The objective of this research was to evaluate and compare the quality of several different brands of white rice products packaged for long-term storage, available at the retail level. Ten brands of rice products (7 long-grain white rice, 2 parboiled white rice, 1 instant white rice) packaged in No. 10 ...


Effects Of Long-Term Storage On Quality Of Regular And Quick Rolled Oats, M. B. Mcewan, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2003

Effects Of Long-Term Storage On Quality Of Regular And Quick Rolled Oats, M. B. Mcewan, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

Traditionally, shelf life studies of cereal staples have investigated quality after storage for a maximum of several (~18) months. However, there is a market for product that will store for much longer periods of time, intended for such uses as personal storage, emergency relief efforts and military rations. Rolled oats in hermetically sealed cans and treated to remove oxygen are available at the retail level, yet little work has investigated the effects of long-term storage on quality. The objective of this research was to investigate the quality of regular and quick rolled oats packaged in cans for long-term storage. Twenty ...


Quality Of Hermetically Packaged Nonfat Dry Milk In Long-Term Storage, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2003

Quality Of Hermetically Packaged Nonfat Dry Milk In Long-Term Storage, Michelle A. Lloyd, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

Over the past few decades, nonfat dry milk (NFDM) has been retail-packaged for long-term storage in No. 10 cans under reduced oxygen concentrations for use in emergency situations. Little information is available concerning the quality of NFDM held in such conditions for prolonged storage periods. The objective of this research was to evaluate the quality attributes of NFDM in hermetically sealed cans with reduced oxygen levels held in long-term storage. Twenty samples of regular and instant NFDM (representing 9 brands) stored up to 29 years at ambient conditions were obtained from 14 sources. Samples were evaluated for headspace oxygen, can ...


Quality Of Dehydrated Whole Egg Packaged In No. 10 Cans, T.A. Gnadt, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike Jul 2003

Quality Of Dehydrated Whole Egg Packaged In No. 10 Cans, T.A. Gnadt, Lynn V. Ogden, Oscar A. Pike

Faculty Publications

Dehydration reduces egg mass and increases shelf-life without significantly affecting most functional properties. This has created a demand for dehydrated whole egg in military rations, emergency relief programs and personal storage. However, because such products are usually stored before use, the buyer may be unaware of product quality until long after purchase. The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of several brands of dehydrated whole egg commercially packaged in No. 10 cans. Eight brands of dehydrated whole egg were obtained from food retailers. All but 1 brand were labeled as having a low oxygen environment. A 50 ...


Approaching Foodservice Establishments With Locally Grown Products, Food Processing Center Jun 2003

Approaching Foodservice Establishments With Locally Grown Products, Food Processing Center

Reports from the Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This report summarizes the initial findings of a survey of members of the Chefs Collaborative organization. The Chefs Collaborative is a national network of more than 1,000 members of the food community who promote sustainable cuisine by celebrating the joys of local, seasonal and artisanal ingredients. Many of the Chefs Collaborative members have significant expertise in purchasing locally grown food products. The purpose of this research and the following report is to 1) use the expertise gained by members of the Chefs Collaborative organization in order to help producers market their products to the foodservice industry and 2) to ...


Powdery Mildew In Wine Grapes In Western Australia, Diana Fisher, Trevor Wicks Dr May 2003

Powdery Mildew In Wine Grapes In Western Australia, Diana Fisher, Trevor Wicks Dr

Bulletins 4000 -

Powdery mildew is caused by the fungal pathogen Uncinula necator. It is the most persistent fungal problem of grapes in WA and one of the most widespread fungal diseases of grapevines in the world. It is characterised by ash-grey to white powdery growth on green tissue of the vine. If uncontrolled it can cause serious crop losses and impair wine quality.


The Effect Of Ultimate Ph On The Shelflife And Safety Of Fresh Pork Loins, Brandy Lynn Knox May 2003

The Effect Of Ultimate Ph On The Shelflife And Safety Of Fresh Pork Loins, Brandy Lynn Knox

Masters Theses

Ultimate pH (the pH of meat 24 hr post-mortem) is one of the most important contributors to defects and reduced sensory and microbial shelflife of pork. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of ultimate pH (pHu) of pork loin on its shelflife at the wholesale and retail level and (2) its influence on the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork. Thirty-six pork loins (pH range = 5.56- 6.57) were collected at a commercial slaughter facility 24 hr post-slaughter. All pigs were from the same genetic line. Aerobic (APC), psychrotrophic (PPC), Enterobacteriaceae (EC ...


Effect Of Gaseous Ozone On Antioxidant Content And Color Of Sliced Tomatoes, Sarah Malone May 2003

Effect Of Gaseous Ozone On Antioxidant Content And Color Of Sliced Tomatoes, Sarah Malone

Masters Theses

Sliced tomatoes are used frequently in restaurants and fast-food establishments. Their limited shelf-life has caused scientists to study treatments to prolong their useful life. Previously, treatments for shelf-life extension have included mild heat treatment and modified atmosphere packaging. Although gaseous ozone has been shown to reduce spoilage microorganisms on produce, limited research has been performed regarding the oxidation potential of ozone on antioxidant compounds. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of gaseous ozone on lycopene and ascorbic acid in sliced tomatoes, as well as its effect on tomato color. Two tomatoes of uniform size and color (USDA Stage 5 ...


Physical And Chemical Treatments For Control Of Salmonella On Cantaloupe Rinds, Vivian Ann Rash May 2003

Physical And Chemical Treatments For Control Of Salmonella On Cantaloupe Rinds, Vivian Ann Rash

Masters Theses

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of various sanitizing treatments applied to cantaloupe rinds on survival of Salmonella. A five-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella was inoculated (~ 6 log cfu/cm2) onto the rinds of whole cantaloupes, which were then treated with tap water (control), chlorine dioxide solution (100 and 200 ppm for 30, 60 and 90 sec), peroxyacetic acid solution (40 and 80 ppm for 45, 90 and 150 sec), dimethyl dicarbonate solution (1000, 5000, and 10,000 ppm for 3 min), ozonated water (~1.66 ppm for 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours), steam ...