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Food Science

1995

Food science and technology

Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characterization And Food Applications Of High Amylose And Other Varieties Of Starch , Tunyawat Kasemsuwan Jan 1995

Characterization And Food Applications Of High Amylose And Other Varieties Of Starch , Tunyawat Kasemsuwan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dominant mutant amylose-extender (Ae1-5180) maize starch is a new starch variety and is derived from spontaneous mutation. Scanning electron microscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), amylose content, amylopectin chain-length, and thermal properties (gelatinization and retrogradation) indicated that the doses (1-3 doses) of the dominant gene did not affect the structure or properties of the starch. GPC and real amylose content of these starches indicated that they contained a large amount of intermediate components (≈20%). The Ae1-5180 dominant mutant starch contained 33% amylose. The amylopectin branch-chain length was shorter than that of the intermediate component. Thermal analysis indicated that the dominant ...


Production Of Aldehyde Oxidase By Streptomyces Species , Byungtae Lee Jan 1995

Production Of Aldehyde Oxidase By Streptomyces Species , Byungtae Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Production of aldehyde oxidase (aldehyde:O[subscript]2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.3.1) by Streptomyces setonii 75Vi2 and Streptomyces viridosporus T7A was characterized. For S. setonii, aldehyde oxidase was initially induced in shake-flask culture in 0.6% (w/v) yeast extract medium. Inducer (propanal) concentration was determined to be 1.6 g/L medium and two propanal additions generated the best results. Inducer addition to cells in late-log phase was essential to enzyme induction. Dissolved oxygen and pH measurements were key parameters for determination of late-log phase in 15-L and 50-L batch fermentation. Aldehyde oxidase activity was 0.02 ...


Effects Of Ear Developmental Temperature On Fine Structure Of Maize Starch , Ting-Jang Lu Jan 1995

Effects Of Ear Developmental Temperature On Fine Structure Of Maize Starch , Ting-Jang Lu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two genetically unrelated normal dent maize inbreds, ICI63 and ICI92, with different heterotic backgrounds were used for studying environmental temperature effects on grain yield and quality. These two maize inbreds are used in commercially available hybrids and are proprietary to ICI Seeds. The maize inbreds were grown in a greenhouse to control the growing condition of the plants. After 14 days post-pollination, the ears were wrapped in temperature control devices set at 25 or 35∘ C during the grain-filling period. Grain yield, kernel weight, and kernel density were less for ears developing at 35∘ C than for those at 25 ...


Factors Affecting The Flavor Development Of Swiss Cheese , Firth Kraft Whitehouse Jan 1995

Factors Affecting The Flavor Development Of Swiss Cheese , Firth Kraft Whitehouse

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The flavor of Swiss cheese made from various natural and synthetic fats was compared with cheese made from the natural milk emulsion. Cheeses made from recombined milk fat and skim milk with or without the addition of gum acacia gave typical flavor similar to the natural milk emulsion. Homogenization did not have an effect on flavor of the cheese. Cheese made from recombined milk fat and skim milk plus buttermilk solids had lower typical flavor than the natural milk emulsion or cheeses made with gum acacia. Cheeses made from high-oleate sunflower oil with or without the incorporation of synthetic short-chain ...


Observations On The Biosynthesis Of [Alpha]-Eleostearic And Vernolic Acids And The Accumulation Of Petroselinic Acid In Somatic Carrot Embryos , Linsen Liu Jan 1995

Observations On The Biosynthesis Of [Alpha]-Eleostearic And Vernolic Acids And The Accumulation Of Petroselinic Acid In Somatic Carrot Embryos , Linsen Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Developing somatic embryos of carrots accumulated up to 24% petroselinate of total fatty acids, most of which was incorporated into triacylglycerols. Both triacylglycerol and petroselinate accumulation in the embryos were increased by addition of abscisic acid to the culture medium. The novel phenylethyl esters of the fatty acids were used to separate petroselinate from oleate both by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. This derivative offers the fastest and most efficient method for petroselinate analysis among the published procedures;The biosynthesis of vernolic acid in the developing seed of Vernonia galamensis was explored by using (1-14C) acetate in vivo ...


Oxidative And Frying Stabilities Of Soybean Oils With Altered Fatty Acid And/Or Lipoxygenase Contents , Nuo Shen Jan 1995

Oxidative And Frying Stabilities Of Soybean Oils With Altered Fatty Acid And/Or Lipoxygenase Contents , Nuo Shen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Lipoxygenase (LOX)-null soybean lines, lacking LOX 2, LOX 2 and 3 and containing normal (>8.0%) or low (<3.0%) linolenate (18:3) contents were evaluated for their room-temperature storage stability, stability during frying, and oxidative stability in bread cubes stored after frying. Six genotypes of soybeans were extracted by both laboratory-scale and pilot plant-scale systems and were refined, bleached, and deodorized in the laboratory. Citric acid was added to oils during the cool-down stage of deodorization. For each system, two replications separated at the point of conditioning were evaluated for each genotype, including Century 84, L2-3, L2L3-2-4, A89-269043, A89-269043-L2, and A89-269043-L2L3;Peroxide values (PVs), fatty acid compositions, volatile compounds, and sensory evaluation were determined for several room-temperature storage conditions. To determine stability under frying conditions, each replicate (250 g) was heated to 180 ± 5°C in a minifryer. Bread cubes were fried at the beginning of heating and after 20 h of heating. Heating of the oils was continued for 10 h each day for 3 consecutive days. Sensory evaluation of the fried cubes, the peroxide values of oils extracted from the cubes, and the conjugated dienoic acid values and polymer values of the heated oils were measured. For both room-temperature and frying-temperature tests, soybean oils with low 18:3 contents were significantly more stable than were oils with normal 18:3 contents, regardless of the LOX contents of the beans;Additional soybean genotypes that contained different amounts of palmitate (16:0) and 18:3 were evaluated for oxidative stability. Soybean oils from Hardin 91, P9322, A91-282036, and HPLL were processed and analyzed. The fatty acid compositions, peroxide values, and cloud points were measured. The results showed that elevating 16:0 and/or lowering 18:3 increased the oxidative stability of soybean oils.


Characterization And Application Of Porcine Liver Aldehyde Oxidase In The Removal Of Off-Flavors From Soy Proteins , Peeyush Maheshwari Jan 1995

Characterization And Application Of Porcine Liver Aldehyde Oxidase In The Removal Of Off-Flavors From Soy Proteins , Peeyush Maheshwari

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two enzyme forms (PAO-I and PAO-II) of porcine liver aldehyde oxidase (aldehyde: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.2.3.1) were purified to homogeneity using affinity chromatography. The heat treatment and ammonium sulfate fractionation steps resulted only in a partial purification. Both enzyme forms, PAO-I and PAO-II, have similar pIs of 5.8 and molecular weight of 262,000 and 255,000 daltons, respectively;The two enzyme forms exhibited different substrate specificities. Compared to PAO-II, PAO-I showed higher affinity for the medium-chain aldehydes (pentanal and hexanal) which are mainly responsible for the greeny and beany off-flavor of soybean products. The PAO-I ...


Enhanced Production, Purification, And Characterization Of Propionicin Plg-1, A Bacteriocin Produced By Propionibacterium Thoenii P127 , Hyun-Dong Paik Jan 1995

Enhanced Production, Purification, And Characterization Of Propionicin Plg-1, A Bacteriocin Produced By Propionibacterium Thoenii P127 , Hyun-Dong Paik

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Propionibacterium thoenii strain P127 produces the bacteriocin propionicin PLG-1. Goals of this study were to increase the sensitivity of the standard well diffusion assay system for bacteriocin activity, to improve production of propionicin PLG-1 under controlled conditions in a fermenter, and to obtain the amino acid sequence and composition of the purified bacteriocin;For the well diffusion assay, a 5-mm deep base layer that contained 2.5% agar, 0.85% NaCl and 0.1% Tween 80 was used. Plates were incubated at 37° C for 2 h before adding bacteriocin samples to the wells. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 4797 was used ...


Osmoconditioned Seeds As A Foodstuff , Julie Marie Goldman Jan 1995

Osmoconditioned Seeds As A Foodstuff , Julie Marie Goldman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The technique of seed osmoconditioning, which consists of a controlled hydration and dehydration, was evaluated for use in foodstuff production;In the first experiment, soybean, wheat, mungbean, and sesame seeds were hydrated in polyethylene glycol (PEG), chitosan plus water (CH), citric acid (CA), and water (W). Hydrated seeds were either dehydrated to their original moisture content or left fully-hydrated and stored at 5°C or 15°C for 2 or 4 weeks. Fully-hydrated and dehydrated seeds sprouted faster than untreated seeds, but the performance of fully-hydrated seeds declined during storage. Phytate content in soybean and mungbean seeds increased with the ...