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Food Science

1993

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Perceptions Of Current Club Managers Regarding College Coursework Necessary For Preparation For A Career As A Club Manager, Candice E. Clemenz Dec 1993

Perceptions Of Current Club Managers Regarding College Coursework Necessary For Preparation For A Career As A Club Manager, Candice E. Clemenz

Masters Theses

The purpose of this research was to gather and interpret the perceptions of current club managers regarding the college coursework that they believed was necessary to prepare a student for a career as a club manager. First, a list of course areas was developed via a review of hospitality curriculums, and conversations with industry professionals. The list was used to design Part 1 of a questionnaire that featured 13 course areas with corresponding descriptive and ascending levels of competencies. Instructions clearly directed club managers to select the highest level of competency for each course area that they thought should be ...


Toxicity Of Fusarium Proliferatum-Fermented Nixtamalized Corn-Based Diets Fed To Rats: Effect Of Nutritional Status, Suzanne Hendrich, Kathrine A. Miller, Terrance M. Wilson, Patricia A. Murphy Oct 1993

Toxicity Of Fusarium Proliferatum-Fermented Nixtamalized Corn-Based Diets Fed To Rats: Effect Of Nutritional Status, Suzanne Hendrich, Kathrine A. Miller, Terrance M. Wilson, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Male F344/ N rats were fed corn, nixtamalized corn, Fusarium proli feratum- fermented (FP) corn to provide 50 mg/kg fumonisin B1 (FB1), or nixtamalized FP corn (NFP), with and without supplemented nutrients. Nixtamalization of FP corn almost completely hydrolyzed FB1 and produced 7-10 mg/kg hydrolyzed fumonisin (HFB1). Relative liver weight was significantly increased in nutrient-supplemented rats fed FP or NFP corn. Plasma cholesterol increased in rats fed FP or NFP corn. Plasma glutamate­ pyruvate transaminase was elevated in allrats fed FP corn and in nutrient-supplemented rats fed NFP corn. All rats fed FP corn and nutrient-supplemented rats fed ...


Proceedings From The 30th Annual Marschall Italian Cheese Seminar, Various Authors Sep 1993

Proceedings From The 30th Annual Marschall Italian Cheese Seminar, Various Authors

Cheese Industry Conference

Our interviews with cheese makers, owners, managers, and top management of mozzarella processing companies across the United States resulted in our quest for accurate data from which an automatic Mozzarella processing systems could be designed.


Ph Homeostasis In Lactic Acid Bacteria, Robert W. Hutkins, Nancy L. Nannen Sep 1993

Ph Homeostasis In Lactic Acid Bacteria, Robert W. Hutkins, Nancy L. Nannen

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The ability of lactic acid bacteria to regulate their cytoplasmic or intracellular pH is one of the most important physiological requirements of the cells. Cells unable to maintain a near neutral intracellular pH during growth or storage at low extracellular pH may lose viability and cellular activity. Despite the importance of pH homeostasis in the lactic acid bacteria, however, an understanding of cytoplasmic pH regulation has only recently begun to emerge. This review describes the specific effects of low pH on lactic acid bacteria, reports recent research on the physiological role of intracellular pH as a regulator of various metabolic ...


Pesticide Use On Peaches And Pears Grown In Connecticut: 1991, James L. Turner Ii, Candace L. Bartholomew Jun 1993

Pesticide Use On Peaches And Pears Grown In Connecticut: 1991, James L. Turner Ii, Candace L. Bartholomew

Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station

No abstract provided.


Comparison Of Predicted And Observed Dioxin Levels In Fish: Implications For Risk Assessment, Judy S. Lakind, Daniel Q. Naiman Jun 1993

Comparison Of Predicted And Observed Dioxin Levels In Fish: Implications For Risk Assessment, Judy S. Lakind, Daniel Q. Naiman

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment (1990-2002)

After comparing sampled and modelled dioxin levels in the tissue of fish near pulp and paper mill discharges, the authors argue that, until an improved bioaccumulation model is incorporated into EPA's Risk assessment process, determination of human health Risks associated with consuming dioxin-contaminated fish should be based on sampling.


Bacterial Starvation Stress And Contamination Of Beef, James S. Dickson, J. F. Frank Jun 1993

Bacterial Starvation Stress And Contamination Of Beef, James S. Dickson, J. F. Frank

James S. Dickson

Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, ad Escherichia coli 0157;H7 were starved by suspending washed cells in phosphate buffer for 5 days at 10, 25 or 37 degrees C. Starved bacteria were evaluated for their ability to attach to beef tissue and their sensitivity to acetic acid sanitizing. Starvation stress generally decreased the numbers of bacteria which attached to the tissue when compared to control bacterial cultures grown to late logarithmic growth phase. Starvation temperature was negatively correlated to the numbers of attached bacteria. Starvation slightly increased the sensitivity of attached S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes cells to acetic acid, but ...


Anaerobic Treatment Of Whey Permeate Using Upflow Sludge Blanket Bioreactors, Seokhwan Hwang May 1993

Anaerobic Treatment Of Whey Permeate Using Upflow Sludge Blanket Bioreactors, Seokhwan Hwang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Whey permeate was anaerobically digested in laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Nine hydraulic retention times between 5 and 0.2 days were examined with a fixed influent concentration of 10.6 ± 0.2 g COD/L.

Chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency ranged from 99.0 to 18.9% and maximum production rate of methane gas was 2.67 L/L/day at a hydraulic loading rate of 12.97 kg COD/m3/day. About 70% of the chemical oxygen demand removed was converted to methane.

Both the nonlinear least square method with 95% confidence interval and linear ...


Sensory And Functional Properties Of Wheat Stored Under Home Conditions, Marilyn M. Shumway May 1993

Sensory And Functional Properties Of Wheat Stored Under Home Conditions, Marilyn M. Shumway

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Samples of wheat that had been stored in homes up to 48 years were collected with information about age and storage conditions. Germination, weight per bushel, protein, moisture, grade, and aroma were investigated. Volumes of gluten balls and bread made from ground whole wheat samples were measured. Sensory attributes of bread were evaluated by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) for eight flavor and seven texture characteristics. Because of the tremendous variation in samples, generalizations on cause and effect are difficult to make. No one criterion was a perfect indicator of quality. A high percentage of germination was one of the better ...


Formation Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons On The Surfaces Of Ultra-High Temperature Treated Meat, Michelle T. Foote May 1993

Formation Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons On The Surfaces Of Ultra-High Temperature Treated Meat, Michelle T. Foote

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effect of ultra-high temperature (UHT) on production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the surface of beef steaks was determined. Beef steaks were treated with five treatments, raw, UHT, UHT/grill marks, UHT/grill marks/microwave, and charcoal grilled. Four PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene, were quantified. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) were used to purify and analyze the PAH extracts, respectively. Levels of PAH found on charcoal-grilled steaks were higher than those observed in the literature. A balanced incomplete block design was used to analyze ...


A Study Of Factors Controlling Physical Properties Of Mozzarella Cheese And The Manufacture Of A Reduced Fat Mozzarella Cheese, Richard Kevin Merrill May 1993

A Study Of Factors Controlling Physical Properties Of Mozzarella Cheese And The Manufacture Of A Reduced Fat Mozzarella Cheese, Richard Kevin Merrill

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Variables affecting the physical properties of Mozzarella cheese were investigated. The effects of various milk-clotting enzymes were examined. The type of milk coagulating enzyme used played a significant role in determining physical properties of direct acid Mozzarella cheese. Cook color was not affected by enzyme type, but melt and stretch were significantly affected.

Proteolytic nature of starter cultures was reviewed and recommendation s were give n. Cheese made with proteinase-deficient strains had more stretch after holding for 14 and 28 d than cheese made with non-deficient strains. Cheese made with pairs or single strains of L. helveticus had the same ...


Amylopectin And Intermediate Materials In Starches From Mutant Genotypes Of The Oh43 Inbred Line., Y. J. Wang, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak, J. Jane Mar 1993

Amylopectin And Intermediate Materials In Starches From Mutant Genotypes Of The Oh43 Inbred Line., Y. J. Wang, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak, J. Jane

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Amylopectin (AP) and intermediate materials (IM) from five endosperm mutant genotypes in a common Oh43 inbred line were isolated and examined by gel-permeation chromatography, iodine affinity, blue value (BV), and viscosity. The chain-length distributions of AP and IM were determined using an enzymatic- chromatographic method. The degrees of branching in AP and IM decreased when the amylose-extender (ae) gene was present. The dull-1 (du1) gene produced AP and IM with the highest degrees of branching among the samples. The ae starch had a significantly (P less than 0.01) longer peak average chain length (CL) of the long-B chains in ...


Temporal Variation In Potassium Chloride Extractable Aluminum, Sodium, And Soil Ph, And The Effects On Interpretation Of Subsoil Aluminum Toxicity In Yellow Earths, S. J. Carr, G. S.P. Ritchie Mar 1993

Temporal Variation In Potassium Chloride Extractable Aluminum, Sodium, And Soil Ph, And The Effects On Interpretation Of Subsoil Aluminum Toxicity In Yellow Earths, S. J. Carr, G. S.P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

Temporal variation in two soil tests ([Al] and the ratio [Al]:[Na] in 1:5 0.005M KCl extract) and pH were evaluated on six occasions during a twelve month study of eleven yellow earths in the Merredin region (31°5, 118°E) of Western Australia. The [Al] and ratio [Al]:[Na] in 1:5 0.005M KCl extracts are useful soil tests capable of distinguishing between productive and non-productive (Al toxic) yellow earths in Western Australia. The aim of the study was to determine the most appropriate time to sample yellow earths, in order to predict accurately which soils ...


United States Patent: Composition And Method For Inhibiting Pathogens And Spoilage Organisms In Food, Robert W. Hutkins, Elaine D. Berry, Michael B. Liewen Feb 1993

United States Patent: Composition And Method For Inhibiting Pathogens And Spoilage Organisms In Food, Robert W. Hutkins, Elaine D. Berry, Michael B. Liewen

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The method of the invention uses live cells of non-fermenting and/or non-growing lactic acid bacteria to deliver bacteriocin into edible food substances to inhibit the growth of food spoilage and/or food-borne pathogenic organisms. The method of the invention may be used to inhibit growth of these organisms in raw food substances and finished food products after processing. The lactic acid bacteria within the food mixture are capable of producing bacteriocin in the desired microbial- inhibiting amounts under conditions of non-growth and non-fermentation


Zinc Adsorption By Sterilized And Non-Sterilized Soil In The Presence Of Citrate And Catechol, P. Chairidchai, G. S.P. Ritchie Feb 1993

Zinc Adsorption By Sterilized And Non-Sterilized Soil In The Presence Of Citrate And Catechol, P. Chairidchai, G. S.P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

The effect of organic ligands on zinc (Zn) adsorption in the rhizosphere may be influenced by microbial activity depleting the concentration of the ligand over time. Zinc adsorption by sterile and non-sterile lateritic soil was measured by shaking the soils with Zn solutions at a soil-liquid ratio of 1: 5 for five periods of time ranging from 17-480 h. The concentrations of Zn and the ligands were determined after the selected times. The speciation of Zn was then estimated. Changes in Zn adsorption with time in the presence of organic ligands were due to changes in pH and Zn complexation ...


Ua12/12 Your Healthstyle, Wku Wellness Center Feb 1993

Ua12/12 Your Healthstyle, Wku Wellness Center

WKU Archives Records

Newsletter created by the Wellness Center regarding services, health and fitness.


Isolation Of Listeria Spp. From Feces Of Feedlot Cattle, James S. Dickson, G. R. Siragusa, E. K. Daniels Feb 1993

Isolation Of Listeria Spp. From Feces Of Feedlot Cattle, James S. Dickson, G. R. Siragusa, E. K. Daniels

James S. Dickson

Healthy feedlot beef cattle were surveyed for the presence of Listeria spp. in fecal grab samples taken over 3 months. Composite samples were made from 224 individual animals each month. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from one composite sample (4%) from the first sampling and not from the subsequent two. Listeria innocua was found in composite samples from all three samplings at levels of 17, 9, and 35%, respectively. From the individual samples comprising the Listeria spp.—positive composites, L. monoytogenes was isolated from one sample (3%) in the second sampling but not in the first or third samplings. L. innocua ...


Solid Waste Disposal: Independent Food Service Practices, William F. Jaffe, Barbara A. Almanza, Chen-Hua Jennifer Min Jan 1993

Solid Waste Disposal: Independent Food Service Practices, William F. Jaffe, Barbara A. Almanza, Chen-Hua Jennifer Min

Hospitality Review

Solid waste disposal is a major concern today. This study seeks to identify the current practices and attitudes of managers of independent food services toward solid waste management and the characteristics of food services which were most likely to be involved with a solid waste management program


Restaurant Dining Strategies: Attracting Nutrition-Conscious Future Seniors, Elizabeth B. Pederson, Frederick J. Demicco Jan 1993

Restaurant Dining Strategies: Attracting Nutrition-Conscious Future Seniors, Elizabeth B. Pederson, Frederick J. Demicco

Hospitality Review

Senior Customers pose some unique challenges to operators due to some of the physiological changes associated with aging. In an effort to make food and beverage managers more cognizant of these changes, the authors examine these areas and also discuss strategies to attract and enhance the dining experience of the viable senior market segment.


The Influence Of Ph On The Forms Of Cadmium In Four West Australian Soils, S. S. Mann, G. S.P. Ritchie Jan 1993

The Influence Of Ph On The Forms Of Cadmium In Four West Australian Soils, S. S. Mann, G. S.P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

The forms of cadmium in soils affect its uptake by plants and hence its potential toxicity to animals and humans. We studied the effect of pH on the forms of native and added Cd in four West Australian soils which differed in their clay, hydrous oxide and organic matter content. The forms of Cd were extracted sequentially by KCl, BaCl2, NaOCl, ammonium oxalate and concentrated acids.
The majority of Cd applied to a sandy soil was found in the soluble (KCl) and the exchangeable (BaCl2) forms at all pH values. In the siliceous sand, the proportion of the ...


H+/Oh- Excretion And Nutrient Uptake In Upper And Lower Parts Of Lupin (Lupinus Angustifolius L.) Root Systems, S. P. Loss, A. D. Robson, G. S.P. Ritchie Jan 1993

H+/Oh- Excretion And Nutrient Uptake In Upper And Lower Parts Of Lupin (Lupinus Angustifolius L.) Root Systems, S. P. Loss, A. D. Robson, G. S.P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

The cultivation of narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) increase rates of subsoil acidification, and this is thought to be partly related to their pattern of nutrient uptake and H+/OH- excretion. The main hypothesis of this study was that H+ and OH- excretion is not distributed evenly over the entire length of the root system but is limited to zones where excess cation or anion uptake occur. Seedlings of nodulated lupins were grown in solution culture using vertically split pots that allowed the upper and lower zones of the root system to be supplied with varying concentrations of K+ and ...


Phosphorus Retention And Release From Sandy Soils Of The Peel-Harvey Catchment, G. S.P. Ritchie, D. M. Weaver Jan 1993

Phosphorus Retention And Release From Sandy Soils Of The Peel-Harvey Catchment, G. S.P. Ritchie, D. M. Weaver

Food Science and Nutrition

In order to manage phosphorus (P) losses from soils to waterbodies, knowledge of the mechanisms through which P is retained or released from the soil is essential. Sandy soils of the Peel-Harvey catchment (Western Australia) were subjected to a range of environmental and management factors in the laboratory and field in order to gain an understanding of the mechanisms that affect the magnitude of P losses. Sandy soils accumulated P, despite having little sorption capacity, and this accumulation could be monitored by measuring an acid-extractable fraction. The potential, short-term P loss could be estimated by determination of water-soluble soil solution ...


Al Toxicity Of Wheat Grown In Acidic Subsoils In Relation To Soil Solution Properties And Exchangeable Cations, S. J. Carr, G. S.P. Ritchie Jan 1993

Al Toxicity Of Wheat Grown In Acidic Subsoils In Relation To Soil Solution Properties And Exchangeable Cations, S. J. Carr, G. S.P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

Toxic concentrations of soluble A1 in the subsoil decrease the yield of wheat grown on many yellow earths in the eastern wheatbelt of Western Australia. In our previous research (Carr et al. 1991), we observed variable plant response to high concentrations of soluble Al in subsoils of yellow earths in different regions of the wheatbelt. Environmental conditions (e.g. water supply) and/or an unidentified soil mitigating factor may have contributed to the variable plant response to soluble Al in some of the regions studied.
We collected ten soils from four regions of the eastern wheatbelt of Western Australia. In ...


The Long-Term Fate Of Copper Fertilizer Applied To A Lateritic Sandy Soil In Western Australia, R. G. Mclaren, G. S.P. Ritchie Jan 1993

The Long-Term Fate Of Copper Fertilizer Applied To A Lateritic Sandy Soil In Western Australia, R. G. Mclaren, G. S.P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

A soil copper fractionation was carried out on soils sampled from plots in a long-term copper fertilizer trial on a lateritic sandy soil in Western Australia. At copper application rates up to 8.25 kg copper sulphate ha-1, a high proportion of the applied copper was initially associated with the soil organic matter. During the course of the trial (20 years), a substantial proportion of this copper became redistributed to a residual soil fraction, i.e. the residue remaining after extractions to remove organic matter and iron oxides. However, significant redistribution of copper with time was not detected in ...


Effect Of Lupins And Pasture On Soil Acidification And Fertility In Western Australia, S. P. Loss, G. S.P. Ritchie, A. D. Robson Jan 1993

Effect Of Lupins And Pasture On Soil Acidification And Fertility In Western Australia, S. P. Loss, G. S.P. Ritchie, A. D. Robson

Food Science and Nutrition

An 'across the fence' comparison of farmer paddocks with nearby virgin bush sites was made at 3 locations, to measure the effects of lupins and subterranean clover based pastures on the chemical properties of the soil. Estimated rates of acidification in the 0-60 cm depth were 0.29-0.55 kmol H+/ha.year for wheat-lupin paddocks and 0.16-0.2 1 kmol H+/ha .year for pasture paddocks. A significant proportion of this acidification occurred below 20 cm, particularly in the lupin paddocks (up to 70% of the total). Severe water repellency had developed at 1 location that had produced ...


The Effect Of Citrate And Ph On Zinc Uptake By Wheat, P. Chairidchai, G. S. P. Ritchie Jan 1993

The Effect Of Citrate And Ph On Zinc Uptake By Wheat, P. Chairidchai, G. S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

Zinc uptake by plants may be influenced by its reaction with organic ligands in the rhizosphere. Therefore, four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of an organic ligand (citrate) and pH on the uptake of Zn by wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Thell). Plants were grown for 21 to 28 d in a nutrient solution (containing 0-0.05 µmol L-1 Zn) in a temperature controlled tank, either in the absence or presence of citrate and at constant or variable pH (3.7-7.1). Dry matter weights of plant parts and Zn content in the shoots were determined. The ...


Effect Of Gypsum And Lime On Wheat Growth In Pots Containing An Acidic Subsoil, C. D.A. Mclay, G. S. P. Ritchie Jan 1993

Effect Of Gypsum And Lime On Wheat Growth In Pots Containing An Acidic Subsoil, C. D.A. Mclay, G. S. P. Ritchie

Food Science and Nutrition

A pot experiment was conducted to establish whether gypsum or lime could increase wheat growth in an acid subsoil. Wheat (Triticum aestivum c. v. Gutha) was grown in 3 kg of soil which had been mixed with basal nutrients and different rates of gypsum and lime. Wheat in the treatment which received no gypsum or lime showed the most severe nutrient deficiency symptoms and had the lowest shoot and root dry weights. Lime treatments increased shoot and root growth 2 to 3 fold and decreased the concentration of total Al and the calculated activities of all Al species. Gypsum increased ...


Hydrothermal Processing Of Soy Protein Products , Chunyang Wang Jan 1993

Hydrothermal Processing Of Soy Protein Products , Chunyang Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Hydrothermal Cooking (HTC) is a steam infusion process used to continuously cook slurries at high temperatures for short periods of time. The objectives of present studies were to investigate the effects of HTC processing on functional properties of soy protein products and to contribute to a better understanding of protein ultrastructure changes induced by heat;In the first study, the effects of HTC processing on the functional properties of soy flour, soy protein concentrate (aqueous-alcohol-washed) and soy protein isolate were studied. HTC processing increased the NSI of soy protein concentrate by approximately four times (from 15 to 56%). HTC changed ...


Demand For Risky Foods And Food Safety , Kung-Cheng Lin Jan 1993

Demand For Risky Foods And Food Safety , Kung-Cheng Lin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A demand for risky food model is constructed to study several aspects of food safety problems. On the basis of this proposed model, results are addressed in the following. First, when the food safety is exogenously fixed, an increase in the safety level of the risky food X[subscript]1 increases the demand for X[subscript]1 if X[subscript]1 is normal. However, when both goods are risky, a rise in the safety level of one good generally has an ambiguous effect on the demands. For the case where the safety level is endogenously chosen, the consumer will in ...


Granular Cold-Water-Soluble Starch: Preparation, Characterization, And Its Use On Controlled Release Of Atrazine , Jen-Fang Chen Jan 1993

Granular Cold-Water-Soluble Starch: Preparation, Characterization, And Its Use On Controlled Release Of Atrazine , Jen-Fang Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Granular cold-water-soluble (GCWS) starches were prepared by alcoholic-alkaline treatments. The method was carried out by treating starches with mixtures of ethanol and alkali, primarily NaOH solution (3M), to swell starch granules. The treated starches were then neutralized with HCl (3M, in 100% alcohol), washed with aqueous alcohol solution, and dried in an oven at 80°C for 3 h. The method was effective to wide varieties of starches, including high amylose starches, normal starches, and waxy starches. The efficacy of the method depended mainly on concentrations of NaOH and ethanol, and reaction temperature. Different reaction conditions gave products different properties ...