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Enhancing Chocolate Flavour Quality – Effects Of Technological Modifications During Fermentation Of Ghanaian Cocoa Beans, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd) Oct 2010

Enhancing Chocolate Flavour Quality – Effects Of Technological Modifications During Fermentation Of Ghanaian Cocoa Beans, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd)

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Spontaneous Fermentation And Amylase Rich Flour (Arf) On The Nutritive Value, Functional And Viscoelastic Properties Of Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Maize, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Philip Roger Aidoo, Randy Adjonu Apr 2010

Effect Of Spontaneous Fermentation And Amylase Rich Flour (Arf) On The Nutritive Value, Functional And Viscoelastic Properties Of Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Maize, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Philip Roger Aidoo, Randy Adjonu

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Studied were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of spontaneous fermentation and Amylase Rich Flours (ARF) on some nutritive value, functional and viscoelastic properties of cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. A 2x3x3 factorial design, with fermentation medium, fermentation time and ARF level was performed. The blends were fermented for the specific times and analysed for their titratable acidity, pH, water absorption capacity, viscoelastic properties, texture, protein and mineral content. Fermentation and ARF addition influenced titratable acidity, pH, water absorption, viscoelastic properties and texture of the cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. Addition of ARF decreased the viscoelastic properties, texture and pH of all the blends ...


Viscoelastic Properties And Pasting Characteristics Of Fermented Maize: Influence Of The Addition Of Malted Cereals, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Randy Adjonu, Justice Asomaning Dec 2009

Viscoelastic Properties And Pasting Characteristics Of Fermented Maize: Influence Of The Addition Of Malted Cereals, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Randy Adjonu, Justice Asomaning

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Investigations were conducted on the viscoelastic properties and pasting characteristics of fermented maize with malted cereals and their suitability for infant feeding. A 3x3x2 factorial experimental design with malting time, cereal malt concentration and cereal type was used. Maize, millet, and sorghum malts were added to fermented maize to reducing its bulk density. Samples were analysed for their viscoelastic properties and pasting characteristics using Brabender Viscoamylograph. Sorghum malt in comparison to millet and maize malts was not effective in terms of lowering the hot and cold paste viscosities of the fermented maize. Maize and millet malts liquefied the dough considerably ...


Acidification And Starch Behaviour During Co-Fermentation Of Cassava And Soybean Into Gari., Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Edem John Kongor, George Annor, Randy Adjonu Dec 2009

Acidification And Starch Behaviour During Co-Fermentation Of Cassava And Soybean Into Gari., Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Edem John Kongor, George Annor, Randy Adjonu

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Changes in acidification and starch behaviour were investigated during co-fermentation of cassava and soybean into gari, an African fermented product. Non-volatile acidity, pH and starch content were evaluated using standard analytical methods. Starch breakdown and pasting characteristics were also analysed using Brabender Viscoamylograph. Fermentation caused significant variations in the pH, non-volatile acidity and starch concentration. The pH decreased with concomitant increases in non-volatile acidity during co-fermentation of the cassava dough. Soy-fortification upto 20% caused only minimal effects on the pH, titratable acidity and starch content during the fermentation period. Starch content decreased from 69.8%-60.4% within the 48 ...


Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Quality Characteristics Of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)-Based Tempeh., George Amponsah Annor, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Firibu Kwesi Saalia, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Agnes Simpson Budu Dec 2009

Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Quality Characteristics Of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)-Based Tempeh., George Amponsah Annor, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Firibu Kwesi Saalia, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa (Phd), Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Agnes Simpson Budu

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Response surface methodology was used to optimize the processing conditions in the preparation of cowpea tempeh. The independent factors studied were boiling time (varying from 5 to 30 min), incubation time (varying from 12 to 48 h) and incubation temperatures (varying from 25 to 50°C), whereas the dependent factors were protein content, protein solubility, pH, titratable acidity and total color difference (using L, a* and b*). Regression models were generated and adequacy was tested with regression coefficients (R2) and the lack-of-fit tests. Optimum processing conditions were determined by method of superimposition. There was a strong and significant influence (P < 0.01) of the quadratic effect of the incubation time on the protein content of the cowpea tempeh, with similar significance (P < 0.01) noted in protein solubility with increasing boiling time. The optimum processing conditions observed for the preparation of cowpea tempeh were boiling time of about 20 min, incubation time of about 28 h and incubation temperature of about 37°C.


Quality Function Deployment During Industrial Chocolate Manufacture, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa May 2009

Quality Function Deployment During Industrial Chocolate Manufacture, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

No abstract provided.


Home Grown School Feeding Programmes In Africa, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa Apr 2009

Home Grown School Feeding Programmes In Africa, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

No abstract provided.


Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Related To Particle Size Distribution And Composition In Dark Chocolate, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira Feb 2009

Microstructure And Mechanical Properties Related To Particle Size Distribution And Composition In Dark Chocolate, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Composition in dark chocolate was varied and the effects determined on microstructure, using light microscopy, and mechanical properties of molten and tempered chocolates, using a TA.HD Plus Texture Analyser. Compositional parameters were particle size distribution (PSD) (D90 of 18, 25, 35 and 50 lm), fat (25%, 30% and 35%) and lecithin (0.3% and 0.5%) contents. Micrographs revealed wide variations in sugar crystalline network structure and inter-particle interaction strengths related to PSD and fat level. Samples containing 25% fat had more crystal agglomerates, well flocculated with greater particle-to-particle interaction strengths than those with higher (30% and 35%) fat ...


Fat Bloom Development And Structure-Appearance Relationships During Storage Of Under-Tempered Dark Chocolates, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira Dec 2008

Fat Bloom Development And Structure-Appearance Relationships During Storage Of Under-Tempered Dark Chocolates, Dr. Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Fat bloom development and associated changes in microstructure, texture, appearance and melting properties were studied. Dark chocolates varying in particle size (PS) (D90 of 18, 25, 35 and 50 µm) were processed and pre-crystallised to under-temper regime. Bloom was induced by storing products under ambient conditions (18 ± 2 °C, RH 50%) and changes in texture, surface whiteness, gloss and melting properties evaluated on cooling and after every 24 h in storage until reaching asymptotic values. Microstructure of products were characterised during blooming using stereoscopic binocular microscopy. Measurements on texture and surface whiteness showed initial rapid increases with consequential reductions in ...


Comparison Of Rheological Models For Determining Dark Chocolate Viscosity, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira Dec 2008

Comparison Of Rheological Models For Determining Dark Chocolate Viscosity, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Parameters in chocolate rheology, namely shear viscosity and yield stress, are important in manufacture and directly influenced by product particle size distribution (PSD) and composition. The Casson model was the standard confectionery industry strategy to quantify rheological properties of molten chocolate until in 2000, the International Confectionery Association recommended the use of interpolation data to describe viscosity. The two strategies are compared and correlated in defining rheological properties of molten dark chocolates prepared using different PSD, fat and lecithin content. Rheological parameters were determined using a shear rate-controlled rheometer and data examined using correlation, regression and principal component analyses to ...


Melamine Contamination Of Infant Formula In China: The Causes, Food Safety Issues And Public Health Implications, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa Nov 2008

Melamine Contamination Of Infant Formula In China: The Causes, Food Safety Issues And Public Health Implications, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

No abstract provided.


Modelling Tempering Behaviour Of Dark Chocolates From Varying Particle Size Distribution And Fat Content Using Response Surface Methodology, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira Sep 2008

Modelling Tempering Behaviour Of Dark Chocolates From Varying Particle Size Distribution And Fat Content Using Response Surface Methodology, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for K=2 was used to study the combined effects of multi-stage heat exchangers for Stages 1 (14–30 °C) and 2 (12–28 °C) coolant temperatures at constant Stage 3 coolant and holding temperatures during tempering of dark chocolates using laboratory-scale mini-temperer. Quantitative data on chocolate temper index (slope) were obtained for products with varying particle size distribution (PSD) (D90 of 18, 25, 35 and 50 μm) and fat (30% and 35%) content. Regression models generated using stepwise regression analyses were used to plot response surface curves, to study the tempering behaviour of products ...


Flavor Formation And Character In Cocoa And Chocolate: A Critical Review, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistaiar Paterson, Mark Fowler, Angela Ryan Aug 2008

Flavor Formation And Character In Cocoa And Chocolate: A Critical Review, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistaiar Paterson, Mark Fowler, Angela Ryan

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Chocolate characters not only originate in flavor precursors present in cocoa beans, but are generated during post-harvest treatments and transformed into desirable odor notes in the manufacturing processes. Complex biochemical modifications of bean constituents are further altered by thermal reactions in roasting and conching and in alkalization. However the extent to which the inherent bean constituents from the cocoa genotype, environmental factors, post-harvest treatment and processing technologies influence chocolate flavor formation and relationships with final flavor quality, has not been clear. With increasing speciality niche products in chocolate confectionery, greater understanding of factors contributing to variations in flavor character would ...


Characterization Of Melting Properties In Dark Chocolates From Varying Particle Size Distribution And Composition Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira Jul 2008

Characterization Of Melting Properties In Dark Chocolates From Varying Particle Size Distribution And Composition Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Melting properties in dark chocolates processed from varying particle size distribution (PSD), fat and lecithin content were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Compositional parameters were PSD (D90 (90% finer than this size) of 18, 25, 35 and 50 lm), fat (25%, 30% and 35%) and lecithin (0.3% and 0.5%) contents. Variations in PSD had no influence on crystallinity of products. Fat and lecithin content influenced the degree of crystallinity and melting properties (Tend, Tindex and DHmelt) of the products. Increasing fat content caused consistent increases in degree of crystallinity and crystal size distribution, thus effecting significant changes ...


Effects Of Tempering And Fat Crystallisation Behaviours On Microstructure, Mechanical Properties And Appearance In Dark Chocolates, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa Jun 2008

Effects Of Tempering And Fat Crystallisation Behaviours On Microstructure, Mechanical Properties And Appearance In Dark Chocolates, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

No abstract provided.


Factors Influencing Quality Charateristics Of Chocolate Systems During Industrial Manufacture, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa Jun 2008

Factors Influencing Quality Charateristics Of Chocolate Systems During Industrial Manufacture, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Tempering And Fat Crystalization Behaviours On Microstructure, Mechanical Properties And Appearance In Dark Chocolate Systems., Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistaiar Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira Jun 2008

Effects Of Tempering And Fat Crystalization Behaviours On Microstructure, Mechanical Properties And Appearance In Dark Chocolate Systems., Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistaiar Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Fat crystallisation behaviours in dark chocolates from varying particle size distribution (PSD) (D90 of 18, 25, 35 and 50 µm) was studied, yielding products from different temper regimes (optimal temper, over-temper and under-temper), and their effects on mechanical properties and appearance evaluated. Microstructures of derived products were determined using stereoscopic binocular microscopy. Wide variations in mechanical properties and appearance were noted in products from different particle size and temper regimes. Particle size (PS) was inversely related with texture and colour, with the greatest effects noted in hardness, stickiness and lightness at all temper regimes. Over-tempering caused significant increases in product ...


Relationship Between Rheological, Textural And Melting Properties Of Dark Chocolate As Infuenced By Particle Size Distribution And Composition, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira Feb 2008

Relationship Between Rheological, Textural And Melting Properties Of Dark Chocolate As Infuenced By Particle Size Distribution And Composition, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

In dark chocolate, rheological properties during processing are influenced by particle size distribution (PSD), fat and lecithin contents with consequential effects on finished texture and melting characteristics. Multivariate regression, correlation and principal component analyses (PCA) were used to explore their interrelationships. A 4 x 3 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted with varying PSD [D90 (90% finer than this size) of 18ìm, 25ìm, 35ìm and 50ìm), fat (25%, 30% and 35%) and lecithin (0.3% and 0.5%). Rheological properties (yield stress and apparent viscosity), textural properties (firmness, index of viscosity and hardness) and melting index (duration) were respectively measured ...


Particle Size Distribution And Compositional Effects On Textural Properties And Appearance Of Dark Chocolates, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira Feb 2008

Particle Size Distribution And Compositional Effects On Textural Properties And Appearance Of Dark Chocolates, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler, Joselio Vieira

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Particle size distribution (PSD) and composition in dark chocolate were varied and their effects on textural properties of molten and tempered chocolates determined using a TA.HD Plus Texture Analyzer. Surface colour was evaluated in terms of CIELAB parameters L*, C* and h° using a HunterLab Miniscan Colorimeter. Compositional parameters for particle size distribution were [D90 (>90% finer) of 18 ìm, 25 ìm, 35 ìm and 50 ìm], fat (25%, 30% and 35%) and lecithin (0.3% and 0.5%) contents. Results showed that PSD, fat and lecithin content significantly (p<0.05) influenced the textural parameters with significant interactions among factors. Particle size was inversely correlated with firmness (1235 - 173 g), consistency (50410 - 7029 g.s), cohesiveness (1594 - 262 g), index of viscosity (5737 - 1099 g.s) and hardness (7062 - 5546 g) with chocolates containing 25% fat and 0.3% lecithin. With higher fat and lecithin contents, PSD influence was reduced. PSD and fat concentration inversely influenced all colour measurements (L*, C* and h°) of samples. High correlations (r = 0.71 – 1.00, P<0.001) were observed between texture parameters and colour. It was concluded that PSD, fat and lecithin contents and their interactions were central to changes in textural properties and appearance during processing of dark chocolates.


Effects Of Particle Size Distribution And Composition On Rheological Properties Of Dark Chocolate, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler May 2007

Effects Of Particle Size Distribution And Composition On Rheological Properties Of Dark Chocolate, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Control of chocolate viscosity is vital to its quality and production cost, and directly influenced by solids particle size distribution (PSD) and composition. Effects of PSD and composition on rheological properties of molten dark chocolate were investigated by varying PSD [D90 (90% finer than this size) of 18, 25, 35 and 50 lm], fat 25, 30 and 35% and lecithin (0.3 and 0.5%) using a shear rate-controlled rheometer. PSD, fat and lecithin content significantly affected all rheological parameters, with significant interaction among factors. Increasing particles size gave significant reductions in Casson plastic viscosity, Casson yield value, yield stress ...


Factors Influencing Rheological And Textural Qualities In Chocolate - A Review, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler Apr 2007

Factors Influencing Rheological And Textural Qualities In Chocolate - A Review, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Alistair Paterson, Mark Fowler

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Chocolate, a complex emulsion, is a luxury food that during consumption evokes a range of stimuli that activate pleasure centres of the human brain. Central to chocolate quality is an appropriate melting behaviour so that products are solid at ambient temperature and on ingestion melt to undergo dissolution in oral saliva, with a final assessment of texture after phase inversion. Particle size distribution and ingredient composition play important roles in shaping its rheological behaviour and sensory perception but are poorly understood. With opportunities for improvements in quality possible through improved and more transparent supply chain management, plant breeding strategies and ...


Influence Of Spontaneous Fermentation On Some Quality Characteristics Of Maize-Based Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Foods, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Agnes Simpson Budu, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Justice Asomaning Jan 2007

Influence Of Spontaneous Fermentation On Some Quality Characteristics Of Maize-Based Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Foods, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Agnes Simpson Budu, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Justice Asomaning

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as well as broadening the food processing techniques in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the influence of spontaneous fermentation on the functional, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of maize-based cowpeafortified nixtamalized foods. A 3x3x2 factorial experiment with fermentation time (0, 24, 48 h), cowpea (0, 10 and 20%) and alkaline treatment (nixtamalized and nonnixtamalized maize ...


Application Of Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Influence Of Soaking, Blanching And Sodium Hexametaphosphate Salt Concentration On Some Biochemical And Physical Characteristics Of Cowpeas (Vigna Unguiculata) During Canning, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Yenyi May 2006

Application Of Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Influence Of Soaking, Blanching And Sodium Hexametaphosphate Salt Concentration On Some Biochemical And Physical Characteristics Of Cowpeas (Vigna Unguiculata) During Canning, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Yenyi

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Response surface methodology and central composite design for K = 3 was used to study the combined effect of blanching time (0–12 min), soaking time (0–24 h) and sodium hexametaphosphate [(NaPO3)6] salt concentration (0–1%) on moisture, ash, leached solids, phytates, tannins and hardness (texture) of cowpeas during canning. Regression models were developed to predict the effects of variables on the studied indices. Blanching, soaking and salt concentration all had significant positive effects on moisture content, ash content, leached solids, phytates, tannins and hardness of the canned cowpeas with significant interaction between all the factors with high regression ...


Response Surface Methodology For Optimizing The Pre-Processing Conditions During Canning Of A Newly Developed And Promising Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) Variety, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Yenyi, Esther Sakyi-Dawson Dec 2005

Response Surface Methodology For Optimizing The Pre-Processing Conditions During Canning Of A Newly Developed And Promising Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata) Variety, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Yenyi, Esther Sakyi-Dawson

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Cowpea (IT87D195Y) seeds were canned with the objective of investigating the optimal pre-processing conditions that would yield the best quality canned product from the newly developed cowpea variety. Pre-canning procedures such as blanching time, soaking time and sodium hexametaphosphate [(NaPO3)6] salt concentration were used as the independent variables for a Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The pre-processing parameters obtained from the CCRD were used for the canning of the cowpeas and the quality characteristics (moisture content, pH of the drained liquid, drained weight, splitting of the seeds, leached solids and seed hardness) of the canned products were studied using ...


Application Of Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Product Characteristics Of Extruded Rice-Cowpea-Groundnut Blends, Emmanuel Asare, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa Jul 2004

Application Of Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Product Characteristics Of Extruded Rice-Cowpea-Groundnut Blends, Emmanuel Asare, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3 was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave ...


Effects Of Cowpea Fortification, Dehydration Method And Storage Time On Some Quality Characteristics Of Maize-Based Traditional Weaning Foods., Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Esther Sakyi-Dawson Jun 2004

Effects Of Cowpea Fortification, Dehydration Method And Storage Time On Some Quality Characteristics Of Maize-Based Traditional Weaning Foods., Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Esther Sakyi-Dawson

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Fortification of cereal-based traditional foods with legume protein can improve their nutritional value. It is, however, important to find out the extent to which the addition of cowpea affects the desirable quality characteristics of traditional weaning foods prepared from fermented maize and also to assess the effect of dehydration method and storage time on the chemical, physico-chemical and functional properties of the products. A 3 x 2 x 4 factorial experiment with cowpea level, drying method and storage time as the respective variables was done. The traditional weaning food was prepared by steeping maize in water for 24 hours, mixed ...


Effect Of Nixtamalization On The Chemical And Functional Properties Of Maize, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Beatrice Cornelius, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa Mar 2004

Effect Of Nixtamalization On The Chemical And Functional Properties Of Maize, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Beatrice Cornelius, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

The high utilization and consumption levels of maize in developing countries calls for investigations into new methods of processing to help introduce variety as well as improve the functionality and nutrient quality of maize-based foods. This study was carried out to determine the effect of nixtamalization on the chemical and functional characteristics of maize. A 2X4 factorial experimental design with cooking time (0, 30 min) and lime concentration (0, 0.33, 0.5 and 1.0%) was performed. Chemical composition (moisture, protein and ash), pH, titratable acidity, water absorption, colour, cooked paste viscosity and texture were determined using standard methods ...


Effect Of Fermentation On The Quality Characteristics Of Nixtamalized Corn, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Beatrice Cornelius Apr 2003

Effect Of Fermentation On The Quality Characteristics Of Nixtamalized Corn, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Beatrice Cornelius

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Spontaneous lactic acid fermentation is an important process in cereal processing. It is applied to develop and enhance taste and flavour, modify texture and improve the microbial safety of foods. When applied to nixtamalized corn mixed with traditional steeped corn it is expected to further improve the functionality, improve nutritional quality and provide an alternative corn-based ingredient. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical and functional properties of fermented blends of steeped and nixtamalized corn. A 3_5 factorial experimental design with fermentation time (0, 24, 48 h) and blends composition (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75 ...


Application Of Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Quality Characteristics Of Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Maize, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Beatrice Cornelius, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa Mar 2003

Application Of Response Surface Methodology For Studying The Quality Characteristics Of Cowpea-Fortified Nixtamalized Maize, Samuel Sefa-Dedeh, Beatrice Cornelius, Esther Sakyi-Dawson, Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Professor Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Studies were conducted on the chemical and functional properties of fermented cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize using response surface methodology. The central composite rotatable design for Ks3 was used to study the combined effect of lime concentration (0–1%), moisture content (55–65%) and cowpea level (0–30%) on pH, titratable acidity, water absorption, protein and viscosity of fermented nixtamalized maize. Regression models were developed to predict the variables. The presence of lime and cowpea influenced the pH, titratable acidity, water absorption, protein content and the cooked paste viscosity of the fermented cowpea-fortified maize. The presence of lime during fermentation generally decreased ...