- Chitosan (7)
- Nanoemulsion (5)
- Antimicrobial (4)
- Lipid oxidation (3)
- C. elegans (3)
- Salmonella (3)
- Antimicrobials (3)
- Essential oils (3)
- Essential oil (3)
- Inactivation (2)
- Inflammation (2)
- Human norovirus (2)
- Antioxidants (2)
- N-halamines (2)
- Phenolic compounds (2)
- Food (2)
- Foodborne pathogens (2)
- Aichi virus (2)
- Fluorescence (2)
- Listeria monocytogenes (2)
- Food safety (2)
- Potassium peroxymonosulfate (2)
- Biofilm (2)
- Hepatitis A virus (2)
- Oxidation (2)
- Benzalkonium chloride (2)
- Food Safety (2)
- Curcumin (2)
- Emulsion (2)
- Lipids (2)
Articles 1 - 30 of 209
Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences
The Efficacy Of Atp Monitoring Devices At Measuring Organic Matter On Postharvest Surfaces, Kristin Lane
The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), specifically the Produce Safety Rule (PSR), requires growers to clean and sanitize food-contact surfaces to protect against produce contamination. The ATP monitoring device is a potential sanitation tool to monitor the efficacy of an on-farm cleaning and sanitation program that could help growers meet regulatory expectations mandated by PSR. The ATP device uses bioluminescence to detect all ATP (found in bacteria and produce matter cells) from a swabbed surface. Little work has been done to test the efficacy of these tools under postharvest conditions. The present study evaluated ATP measurement for postharvest surface cleanliness ...
Optical Meets Mechanical: Use Of Luminescence Spectroscopy To Assess Ageing In Biodegradable Films, Louis Colaruotolo
With the growing concern of the accumulation of plastic-based food packaging waste, the search for bio-based biodegradable packages is on the rise. These materials differ from their petro-based counterparts in their degradation rates, which are much higher in the former. Not only do bio-based biodegradable materials degrade faster during post-usage processes but also they age faster during usage and storage, which affects their performance and functionality. The application of noninvasive testing methods with the capability to report on the matrix’s state could assist in the development of a more ubiquitous way to assess ageing in food packaging, particularly in ...
Influence Of Shipping Container Upon Temperature, Relative Humidity, And Bacterial Growth On Broccoli, Nicholas Berus
Temperature and relative humidity of produce throughout the cold chain can greatly affect the quality and safety of the food product. Different packaging systems or containers can provide better cooling environments for food products that could decrease temperature abuse and ultimately safety risks. In this study we compiled temperature and relative humidity profiles of broccoli packed in different shipping containers throughout the produce supply chain. The shipping containers looked at were the wax corrugated box, reusable plastic containers (RPC), and Eco Pack Green Box with and without a lid. Large differences were seen in the temperature profiles of each package ...
Use Of Alamarblue As An Indicator Of Microbial Growth In Turbid Solutions For Antimicrobial Evaluation, Precious Henshaw
The use of antibiotics in animal feed is a large cause of concern due to bacterial resistance, which occurs when bacteria change after exposure to antibiotics and become less affected by the drug. Consequently, the desire to find a replacement for these antibiotics has garnered interest in both farmers and consumers. The ideal substance would display antimicrobial activity without promoting bacterial resistance and would still function as a growth promoter in animals. One antimicrobial that fits this criterion is carvacrol, a compound found in oregano extract. Carvacrol exhibits antimicrobial activity in a number of bacteria, including E.coli O157:H7 ...
Understanding The Thermal Stability And Environmental Sensitivity Of Phycocyanin Using Spectroscopic And Modelling Tools, Cally Toong
Phycocyanin (PC), a pigment-protein conjugate from Arthrospira platensis, is increasingly used in foods as a natural alternative to artificial blue dyes. Although PC has been classified as a color additive exempt from certification by the Food and Drug Administration, its limited stability has hindered its widespread application in food products. The objectives of this study were: a) to evaluate the photophysical properties of PC and their sensitivity to temperature, viscosity, and water activity, b) to monitor PC’s thermal degradation based on changes in the optical properties of its intrinsic fluorophores, namely its chromophores and aromatic amino acids, and c ...
Development And Application Of A Sers Needle For One-Step Multi-Phase Analysis, Haoxin Chen
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an emerging and sensitive technique in food analysis providing advantages of rapid detection, simple sample preparation and on-site detection capability over GC and LC methods. Most SERS applications focus on detecting trace amount of analyte in liquid as an alternative approach to HPLC. Herein, we invented an innovative SERS-active needle which is composed with an injection needle and a gold-nanoparticles coated fiber inside the injection needle. The gold nanoparticles-coated fiber was fabricated by reducing gold (III) on a chemically etched stainless wire. The SERS needle can be used to insert into the headspace and liquid ...
Adding Increased Value To Strawberry Puree By Adding Xylo-Oligosaccharides To Improve Health, Haochen Dai
Cancer is a global risk for human wellness and health. Dietary habits could profoundly affect the risk of certain cancer, such as colorectal cancer (CRC) (Platz, 2000). CRC has listed the third leading cancer among male and female in the United States (Stewart, 2014). Surprisingly, the consumption of dietary fiber has an inverse correlation with the mortality of CRC (Song, 2018). However, most Americans do not consume enough dietary fiber to meet the recommended level of dietary fiber intake (Clemens, 2012; Lee-Kwan, 2017). Hence, it is reasonable to increase the nutrient density, i.e., dietary fiber, of current food model ...
Screening Of Commercially Available Chlorine Based Sanitizers And Their Efficacy In Reducing Microbial Load Levels Of E. Coli O157:H7 At High And Low Organic Load Environments, Paola Martinez-Ramos
The presence of postharvest sanitizers has shown to be an effective approach to reducing microbial cross contamination in agricultural washing operations. However, choosing an appropriate sanitizer can be challenging due to produce commodity, processing conditions and interference with organic load. Current research shows a wide variety of methods to mimic the organic load of vegetable processing conditions, with paddle mixing and blender as the most commonly used. Controlling and understanding the physiochemical properties of wash water is key in maintaining sanitizer efficacy. The effects of simulated wash water preparation method on the physiochemical properties were tested at 0 and 50 ...
Development Of Methodology For Rapid Bacterial Detection In Complex Matrices Using Sers, Madeline Tucker
Fresh foods, including meats and produce are the fastest growing market in the supermarket and the class of foods most likely to cause a bacterial foodborne illness. As the rate of consumption of perishable products increases, rapid detection of pathogens within the food supply becomes a critical issue. Current methods used for the detection of bacteria that cause food-borne illnesses are time consuming, expensive and often require selective enrichment. In this study we adapted a separation technique originally developed for PCR to extract bacteria from ground beef using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and milk protein coated activated carbon (MP-CAC) as filtration agents ...
Biological Effects And Action Mechanisms Of Dietary Compounds, Elvira Sukamtoh
Biological Effects And Action Mechanisms Of Dietary Compounds, Elvira Sukamtoh
The food that we consume contain many dietary compounds which are biologically active. In this thesis we will discuss the biological effects of dietary compounds and the mechanisms behind their activities.
First, we studied on the anti-metastatic effects of curcumin, a dietary compound derived from turmeric, through lymphangiogenesis inhibition. Curcumin inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C)-induced lymphangiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Curcumin inhibited lymphangiogenesis, in part through suppression of proliferation, cell cycle progression and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells. Curcumin inhibited expressions of VEGF receptors (VEGFR2 and VEGFR3), as well as down-stream signaling such as phosphorylation of ERK ...
Caenorhabditis Elegans Model To Study Antimicrobial Treatment On E. Coli O157:H7, Parita Patel
An increase in antimicrobial resistance bacteria has endangered our ability to treat infectious diseases. Lack of good in-vivo model has made it difficult to study antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we have used an inexpensive and short life span in-vivo model namely, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to study antimicrobial treatment using pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7, a multidrug resistance bacterium that causes life threatening infection in humans.
We have investigated the influence of live vs. heat killed non-pathogenic E. coli OP50 (OP50) as a food source on the growth and survival of infected C. elegans mutant AU37 with E. coli ...
Reactive Carbonyl Compounds: Their Control And Consequences In Foods, Michael Freund
Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been suggested to reduce risk for multiple diseases but animal studies on the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs are conflicting, possibly due to the presence of toxic lipid oxidation products in the oils used in these studies. In order to provide guidance for future research in n-3 PUFA supplementation, this study researched lipid oxidation and its inhibition in an animal feed system enriched with fish oil. Different storage conditions were tested, and it was found that samples stored at room temperature or above were at significant risk for oxidation with lag phases of ...
Transcriptomic Analysis Of Salmonella Enterica Newport Adaptive Response To Oxidative Antimicrobials, Dara Melanie Smith
Agricultural water systems are a known potential source for contamination of fresh produce with foodborne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli, as well as Salmonella enterica strains. To reduce this associated risk, antimicrobials such as hypochlorite compounds and peroxyracetic acid (PAA) have been utilized as in-line irrigation disinfectants and as post-harvest treatments. These treatments are considered effective and commonly used; however, pathogenic microbes like Salmonella have the ability to adapt to many environmental conditions. Adaptive response to environmental factors like oxidative conditions, contributes to transfer, attachment, and resilience of Salmonella on surfaces. Through RNA sequencing and analysis of the ...
Utilization Of Modified Lecithin To Control Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oils, Anuj Shanbhag
Lipid oxidation is a major challenge faced by the food industry since it causes loss of quality in lipid containing foods which results in a decrease of shelf life. In order to delay the oxidation in lipids, food industries make use of antioxidants such as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), BHA (tbutyl-4-hydroxyanisole), BHT (t-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene), and TBHQ (tert-butyl-hydroxyquinone). However, these antioxidants are chemically synthesized and consumers desire simpler and cleaner labels without artificially synthesized antioxidants. Also, artificially synthesized antioxidants such as t-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) can cause cancer in humans. Previous studies have shown that phospholipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC ...
Tocopherol Regeneration By Phospholipids In Soybean Oil-In-Water Emulsions: Effect Of Tocopherol Homologue And Emulsifier Type, Gautam Samdani
Phospholipids can regenerate oxidized tocopherols and help delay lipid oxidation. The impact of emulsifier type, tocopherol homologue and phospholipid head group on tocopherol-phospholipid interaction was investigated in this study.
Three µmol tocopherol/kg emulsion and 15.0µmol/kg emulsion of PE or PS were dissolved in oil and emulsions were prepared. Tween 20 or bovine serum albumin(BSA) was used as emulsifier and the continuous phase contained 10mM imidazole/acetate buffer at pH 7. Lipid hydroperoxides and hexanal were measured as lipid oxidation products and the lag phase was determined. With Tween 20 as the emulsifier, α and δ-tocopherol had ...
Designing Antimicrobial Polymer Coating To Inhibit Pathogenic And Spoilage Microorganisms, Anne Yu-Ting Hung
Microbial cross-contamination remains an on-going challenge in the food sector despite implemented sanitation programs. Antimicrobial coatings with inherent self-sanitizing properties have been explored to enhance current cleaning practice and support food safety. Prior work has demonstrated successful incorporation of dual antimicrobial characters, cationic polymers and N-halamines, into one coating system. In addition to the rechargeable nature of N-halamines, the coating was reported to exhibit biocidal effects due to the inherently antimicrobial cationic moieties and the chlorinated N-halamines. However, while these polymer coatings were able to retain antimicrobial activity after repeated chlorination, signs of hydrolysis was observed for the N-halamine bonds ...
Effects Of Solid Fat Content, Synthetic Antioxidants And Headspace Oxygen Reduction On The Rates Of Oxidation In Surface And Total Lipids Of Crackers, Collin Alexander Hayes
Unsaturated fats undergo a process known as oxidation by which they are degraded into undesirable compounds. Therefore it is important for food manufacturers to employ antioxidant strategies. Crackers were used as a model in these studies because of their dietary contribution to saturated, and because the properties of crackers are translatable to other low moisture foods.
The objective of this thesis was to determine if there was a significant variance in rates of oxidation between surface and total lipids in crackers and how solid fat content, synthetic antioxidants, and reduction of headspace oxygen affect those rates. It was hypothesized that ...
Use Of Different Ripening Inhibitors To Enhance Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oil Nanoemulsion, Victor Ryu
The objective of this research was to study the impact of ripening inhibitor level and type on the formation, stability, and activity of antimicrobial thyme oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification. Oil-in-water antimicrobial nanoemulsions (10 wt%) were formed by titrating a mixture of essential oil, ripening inhibitor, and surfactant (Tween 80) into 5mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 3.5). Stable nanoemulsions containing small droplets (d < 70 nm) were formed. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsions decreased with increasing ripening inhibitor concentration, which was attributed to a reduction in the amount of hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents transferred to the separated hydrophobic domain, mimicking bacterial cell membranes, by using dialysis and chromatography. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsions also depended on the nature of the ripening inhibitor used: palm ≈ corn > canola > coconut which also depended on their ability to transfer hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents to the separated hydrophobic domain.
Extractable And Non-Extractable Polyphenols From Apples: Potential Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Makenzi Gennette
With diet being such a huge factor in the development of diseases, emerging research has supported that apple consumption is a promising candidate for disease prevention due to the high phenolic content it possesses. These polyphenols can be found in two forms: extractable polyphenols (EP) and non-extractable polyphenols (NEP). Polyphenols have been shown to have strong anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, but up until this point, most researchers focus on EP fractions, while NEP are neglected. After the EP extraction using acetone and acetic acid (99:1) from the Apple Boost powder, three additional extraction methods were conducted on the remaining ...
Influence Of Biomimetic Chelating Packaging On Natural Antimicrobial Efficacy, Paul Castrale
The iron chelating molecule, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is used in food applications for the preservation of oxidation prone ingredients. Research has suggested that EDTA is also capable of enhancing the antimicrobial effectiveness of various compounds including naturally-derived antimicrobials. With consumer demand for cleaner food labels, there remains an opportunity to introduce new chelating technology to replace synthetically-derived EDTA. Through photographting and chemical conversion, hydroxamic acid ligands were covalently bound to polypropylene films resulting in polypropylene-graft-poly(hydroxamic acid) (PP-g-PHA). The resulting films demonstrated an ability to chelate 64 nmol/cm2 from an iron saturated environment or ...
Investigating Natural And Induced Biofilm Dispersion In Listeria Monocytogenes, Brett Boulden
Dispersion is a natural part of a biofilm life cycle in many bacterial species. Dispersion occurs when bacteria revert from a stationary, sessile state to a free-swimming, planktonic state and are freed from a biofilm. Bacterial biofilms consist of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA that together make up the extracellular polymeric substances. Surrounded by this mucus-like substance, sessile cells can be extremely difficult to eradicate as compared to the planktonic form of Listeria monocytogenes. Biofilms are robust due to increased surface adherence, inhibition of diffusion of harmful compounds, and increased genetic diversity that exists within a biofilm. As a result ...
Effect Of Ultrasonication On The Physicochemical Properties Of Sorghum Kafirin And Evaluation Of Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties In Vitro, Andrew Cullen Sullivan
Sorghum is one of the hardiest, most drought resistent cereal grains known to exist, providing the bulk of nutritional content for many semi-arid regions and developing countries throughout Africa and southwestern Asia. It contains dense nutritional value, but due to inhibition factors within the grain, much of these nutrients are indigestible. Access to these nutrients, which have shown to contain high contents of bioactive molecules linked to the decrease of prevalence of chronic disease, must then be facilitated before consumption. In sorghum, these molecules could include complex carbohydrates, proteins and polyphenols. The overall objective of this study was to determine ...
Methylglyoxal Influences Development Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Via Heterochronic Pathway, Jiaying Wang
Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound, which is widely distributed in food products and beverages, and is particularly high in Manuka honey. In addition to its antibacterial effects, methylglyoxal is also known as a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), that produces altered macromolecules (such as proteins and DNA), leading to abnormal physiological changes. However, the effects of methylglyoxal on development is unclear. Thus, this study aimed to determine the role of methylglyoxal in this aspect using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Treatment of methylglyoxal at 0.1 mM and 1 mM for 48 h significantly inhibited development ...
Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Fat Accumulation In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Jinning Liu
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is a polyphenol that is most abundant in tea. It has been shown from many studies that consumption of EGCG can contribute to weight loss, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. To determine how EGCG acts to reduce fat, an organism model Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is introduced, which is a useful animal system in exploring crucial biological mechanisms that are readily applicable to humans. In this study, different strains were raised for two days on a diet with or without 100µM and 200µM EGCG treatment: N2 (i.e., wild type ...
Comparative Chemical Characterization Of Lunasin-Enriched Preparations And Modifications Of The Inflammasomes In Vitro, Samuel James Price
Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most cultivated crops in the world providing the population with large amounts of protein and oil. In addition to its nutritional composition, soybean also contains biologically active compounds with potential health-promoting properties. The presence of these bioactives may be responsible for the lower incidence of chronic diseases in populations that consume a significant portion of soybeans in their diet. One group of soybeanderived bioactives are bioactive peptides and proteins including lunasin, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) and Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (KTI). The overall objective of this research was to develop a method of preparing lunasin-enriched ...
Protein, Methionine, And Cysteine Upregulation In Phaseolus Vulgaris ‘Black Turtle Bean’ Seeds Through Sulfur Fertilization At V2 And R2 Stages Of Growth, Hannah Paige Barry
The purpose of this research was to increase protein, methionine, and cysteine content in Phaseolus vulgaris L., common bean in relation to the inhibitory compound tannin. Previous research has shown that sulfur fertilization increases total protein, methionine and cysteine content in various crops, but always in tandem with inhibitory compound increases. If successful, the resulting bean seed will have a better nutrient profile for malnourished populations around the world.
Granular gypsum was applied at 0 kg S ha-1 [kilograms of sulfur per hectare], 10 kg S ha-1, 20 kg S ha-1, 40 kg S ha-1, 60 ...
Heat Inactivation Kinetics Of Tulane Virus And Aichi Virus, Sukriti Ailavadi
Heat Inactivation Kinetics Of Tulane Virus And Aichi Virus, Sukriti Ailavadi
Human noroviruses (HNoVs) and Aichi virus (AiV) causes significant number of gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. Tulane virus (TV), a cultivable HNoV surrogate, is used to determine control measures against HNoV. The objectives of this study were to determine the heat inactivation kinetics of TV and AiV in cell-culture media and TV in spinach using the first-order and Weibull models. TV and AiV in cell-culture media at ~7 log PFU/ml in 2-ml glass vials were heated at 50-58°C [degree Celsius] up to 10 min in a circulating water-bath. Surviving infectious viruses were enumerated by standard plaque assays using confluent host ...
Investigating The Utilization Of Mushrooms In Beef-Based Products For Improved Health, Kristin Wong
This research investigated the use of mushrooms in beef-based products as a means to reduce overall sodium and fat for food service applications. Initial product development used physical characterization analysis (color, moisture, texture, yield, fat, and sodium) to determine initial threshold of mushroom inclusion with minimal differences against an all-meat control. Additional physical analysis then investigated a variety of other factors (mushroom type, blanching, mushroom particle size, salt level, and meat/fat blend) to determine if there were other attributing ingredient characteristics that would yield statistical similarity to the all-meat control. Taco filling formulations with optimized ingredients were then fielded ...
Sodium Reduction In Turkey Breast Meat By Using Sodium Anion Species, Janamkumar Pandya
Sodium Reduction In Turkey Breast Meat By Using Sodium Anion Species, Janamkumar Pandya
Research studies show that an average American consumes 3,400 to 4,500 mg/day of sodium in their diet against the dietary recommendation of 1,500 to 2,300 mg/day. The majority of this sodium comes from processed foods. Excess sodium in the diet can potentially cause health issues such as hypertension, heart attack, kidney failure, and bone problems. The objective of this study is to understand sodium diffusion in a protein model using turkey breast meat and determine the opportunities of its reduction by changing the process conditions and combining table salt with other sodium salts.
Switchgrass Extractives Have Potential As A Value-Added Antimicrobial Against Plant Pathogens And Foodborne Pathogens, Alexander Ian Bruce
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a perennial grass native to North America, is a leading biomass feedstock candidate for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol. Switchgrass is considered a viable option for biofuel production due to its cheap production cost and ability to grow on marginal land. Biofuel derived from switchgrass has been shown to be very energy efficient, producing 540% more renewable energy versus nonrenewable energy expended. Switchgrass-derived biofuel is also estimated to have greenhouse gas emissions that are 94% lower than emissions from gasoline (Schmer et al 2008). Biofuels are created through biochemical processes that utilize various enzymes and microorganisms for ...