Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Food Science

Food Structure

Wheat

Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Distribution And Intracellular Localization Of Titanium In Plants After Titanium Treatment, G. Kelemen, A. Keresztes, E. Bacsy, M. Feher, P. Fodor, I. Pais Jan 1993

Distribution And Intracellular Localization Of Titanium In Plants After Titanium Treatment, G. Kelemen, A. Keresztes, E. Bacsy, M. Feher, P. Fodor, I. Pais

Food Structure

The physiological role of titanium in plants has not been elucidated yet, but a higher rate of growth , greater chlorophyll content and higher productivity, among others , may be attributed to this element. We have investigated the distribution of titanium in wheat seedlings after Titavit (a Ti ·ascorbate containing plant conditioner) treatment applied either through the leaf or through the root. In field experiments, we also sprayed spinach plants with Titavit. We have found a practically unidirectional tran slocation of Ti from the shoot into the root, and a preferential local ization of Ti in the nuclear cell fraction as seen ...


Vacuole Formation In Wheat Starchy Endosperm, D. B. Bechtel, A. Frend, L. A. Kaleikau, J. D. Wilson, P. R. Shewry Jan 1989

Vacuole Formation In Wheat Starchy Endosperm, D. B. Bechtel, A. Frend, L. A. Kaleikau, J. D. Wilson, P. R. Shewry

Food Structure

The formation of vacuoles in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Highbury) starchy endosperm cells was studied using electron microscopy. Some vacuoles were always present, even in the coenocytic cytoplasm. The first formed endosperm cells were highly vacuolated, but became filled with cytoplasm as they grew older. Various-sized pieces of cytoplasm were found in vacuoles of developing endosperm cells, probably as a result of autophagic sequestration. The membranes of the autographic vacuoles appeared to originate from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and from extensions of already-formed vacuoles. Autographic activity was confirmed by localizing the hydrolytic enzyme acid phosphatase within the vacuoles. The rough ...


Cereal Structure And Its Relationship To Nutritional Quality, S. H. Yiu Jan 1989

Cereal Structure And Its Relationship To Nutritional Quality, S. H. Yiu

Food Structure

Factors that determine the digestibility of carbohydrates and minerals in cereals are examined . Most carbohydrates and minerals in cereals are structurally bound, either surrounded by or associated with cell wall components not easily digested by non-ruminant animals and humans. Treatments such as mechanical grinding and heat improve the digestibility of nutrient s . Further processing and cooking result in structural and physeochemical changes of cereal starch, phytate, and dietary fiber. Such changes greatly Influence the physiological and metabolic effects in animals and humans. The digestive breakdown of most nutrient components is also dependent on the activities of enzymes in cereals and ...


Microstructural Changes In Wheat Starch Dispersions During Heating And Cooling, M. Langton, A. M. Hermansson Jan 1989

Microstructural Changes In Wheat Starch Dispersions During Heating And Cooling, M. Langton, A. M. Hermansson

Food Structure

Microstructural changes in 8-11% wheat starch dispersions during heating, cooling and cold storage have been evaluated by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

Heat treatment of wheat starch dispersions gives rise to two stages of swelling and solubilization. During the first phase of swelling, solubilized amylose was observed ln the centre of the granules and, to some extent, outside the granules. Further swelling deformed the granules and more amylose was released. When the temperature treatment took place under shear, the outer layer of the swo llen granules fra ctured at 94°C and above, and amylopectin fragments were dispersed into ...


Use Of Image Analysis To Predict Milling Extraction Rates Of Wheats, A. D. Evers, R. P. Withey Jan 1989

Use Of Image Analysis To Predict Milling Extraction Rates Of Wheats, A. D. Evers, R. P. Withey

Food Structure

Image analysis of grain morphological characteristics was examined as a possible means of predicting extraction rates of a wide variety of wheat types.

Two elevations of grain were examined and measured for the top view whole grains were used, while for the lateral view grains were sagittally bisected in the plane of the crease. Extraction rate was assessed on laboratory mills and expressed as flour yield.

Milling extraction rate correlated with one shape factor with a coefficient of 0.78. Inclusion of a second factor in a stepwise regression increased the correlation coefficient to 0.925.

No satisfactory predictor of ...


Textural Properties And Structure Of Starch-Reinforced Surimi Gels As Affected By Heat-Setting, J. M. Kim, C. M. Lee, L. A. Hufnagel Jan 1987

Textural Properties And Structure Of Starch-Reinforced Surimi Gels As Affected By Heat-Setting, J. M. Kim, C. M. Lee, L. A. Hufnagel

Food Structure

The gel forming behavior of red hake (Urophycis chuss) surimi with and without starch and its relationship to the structure of the gel matrix were studied. For surimi gels without starch, a combination of preheat- setting at 40 C and cooking at 90 C resulted in significantly greater gel strength than cooking alone. However, preheat - setting of gels containing wheat or potato starch had no significant effect on gel strength demonstrating an opposite trend in gel strength due to the differences in swelling power, water holding ability and gelatinization temperature between potato and wheat starches. This difference in gel forming ...


Microstructure Of Mealy And Vitreous Wheat Endosperms (Triticum Durum L.) With Special Emphasis On Location And Polymorphic Behaviour Of Lipids, A. Al Saleh, D. Marion, D. J. Gallant Jan 1986

Microstructure Of Mealy And Vitreous Wheat Endosperms (Triticum Durum L.) With Special Emphasis On Location And Polymorphic Behaviour Of Lipids, A. Al Saleh, D. Marion, D. J. Gallant

Food Structure

Dark inclusions observed in osmiophilic zones, already described in mature wheat endosperm using transmission electron microscopy, were confirmed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy to be lipids. The polar lipids (glycolipids, phospholipids, free fatty acides, monoglycerides) were organized in a liquid crystalline phase. The reversed hexagonal or HII phase should be the main lattice which might arise from the transition of lipids present in membranous structures as a lamellar phase. This transition was caused by dehydration occurring during maturation. It is suggested that the water-dependent lamellar hexagonal phase transitions are of considerable importance in cereal food technology.


The Application Of Light And Scanning Electron Microscopy During Flour Milling And Wheat Processing, R. Moss Jan 1985

The Application Of Light And Scanning Electron Microscopy During Flour Milling And Wheat Processing, R. Moss

Food Structure

Light and scanning electron microscopy have been employed as part of an on-going study on the effect of the milling system on flour composition and quality. Examples are given of some areas where microscopy has been particularly useful in understanding the functional changes that take place during milling or the subsequent processing of the flour . The use of heavy reduction roll pressures was shown to modify gluten protein quality as well as produce the desired increase in starch damage. The use of in-line impact machines not only disrupted flaked flour particles but also fragmented wheat germ and allowed it to ...