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Food Science

Food Structure

Structure

Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Structure And Function Of Food Products: A Review, I. Heertje Jan 1993

Structure And Function Of Food Products: A Review, I. Heertje

Food Structure

A proper understanding of the behavior of food products requires knowledge of its structure, i.e., the spatial arrangement of the various structural elements and their interactions. The structure can properly be studied by visual observation techniques. In products such as fat spreads, creams, dressings, cheese, bread , milk , yoghurt , whipped cream, and ice cream , different structural elements can be distinguished. A number of those elements a re discussed, viz. , water droplets, oil droplets, gas cell s, particles, fat crystals and strand s. In addition examples of interactions between structural element s are presented, viz., oil droplets/matrix, protein/ protein, protein ...


Age Related Changes In The Microstructure Of Mozzarella Cheese, L. J. Kiely, P. S. Kindstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano Jan 1993

Age Related Changes In The Microstructure Of Mozzarella Cheese, L. J. Kiely, P. S. Kindstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano

Food Structure

Changes that occurred in the microstructure of low-moisture, part skim Mozzarella made with a mixed starter consisting of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and Lacwbacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and coagulated with fermentation -produced chymosin , were examined during 50 days of ripening at 4 °C. Im mediately after manufacture (day 3), a homogeneous and continuous phase of amorphous paracasein represented a three-dimensional protein network in the cheese. A large number of irregularly shaped and sized microcavi ties were present. During 50 days of aging , an increase in the porosity of the defatted paracasein matrix was apparent. These changes were coincidental with a ...


The Cellular Structure Of Selected Apple Varieties, K. G. Lapsley, F. E. Escher, E. Hoehn Jan 1992

The Cellular Structure Of Selected Apple Varieties, K. G. Lapsley, F. E. Escher, E. Hoehn

Food Structure

Apple cultivars (Sauergrauech, Klarapfel, James Grieve, Granny Smith, Mcintosh, Robinette) which had different textures based on sensory and instrumental analysis (particularly in firmness and mealiness) were examined by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cold-stage SEM (cryoSEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) using various preparative procedures. Advantages, lim itations and artifacts of each technique are discussed.

SEM with glutaraldehyde-fixation and criticalpoint- drying produced minimal tissue distortion and the fracture pattern and appearance of mealy versus non mealy tissue was different. Freeze-drying unfixed tissue caused cell collapse and firm versus soft varieties could not be differentiated. Freeze-fracturing and cryoSEM of apple ...


Effect Of Draw Ph On The Development Of Curd Structure During The Manufacture Of Mozzarella Cheese, L. J. Kiely, P. S. Kindstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano Jan 1992

Effect Of Draw Ph On The Development Of Curd Structure During The Manufacture Of Mozzarella Cheese, L. J. Kiely, P. S. Kindstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano

Food Structure

The impact of varying the pH of whey at whey drainage (5.9, 6.15 or 6.4) on the development of curd structure during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Dramatic changes in curd structure were apparent with stage of manufacture , in particular the stretching step which aligned the protein fibers.

Of additional interest is the effect of draw pH on the structure of curd at whey drainage. When whey was drained at pH 6.4, an open poorly fused network of paracasein particles was observed in the cheese curd. Jn contrast, lowering the ...


A Moving Optical Fibre Technique For Structure Analysis Of Heterogeneous Products: Application To Different Foodstuffs, J. C. Akkerman, C. G. J. Bisperink, A. D. Ronteltap Jan 1992

A Moving Optical Fibre Technique For Structure Analysis Of Heterogeneous Products: Application To Different Foodstuffs, J. C. Akkerman, C. G. J. Bisperink, A. D. Ronteltap

Food Structure

The macro structure of many soft heterogeneous products can be studied by a moving optical fibre technique . The method i s based upon an optical sensor that penetrates into the heterogeneous medium. The optical sensor discriminates between materials differing in refractive index or in scattering properties. Coupling of the signal of the optical sensor to its position reveals the spatial distribution of the materials in the product. Applications shown include bread, soft ice-cream, chocolate mousse and draining curd. The major advantages of the method are its speed and ease; moreover, the sample is hardly disturbed by the sensor. The limit ...


Identification Of Proteins And Complex Carbohydrates In Some Commercial Low-Fat Dairy Products By Means Of Immunolocalization Techniques, Barbara L. Armbruster, Nitin Desai Jan 1992

Identification Of Proteins And Complex Carbohydrates In Some Commercial Low-Fat Dairy Products By Means Of Immunolocalization Techniques, Barbara L. Armbruster, Nitin Desai

Food Structure

Macromolecular assemblies of proteins and hydrocolloids in low-fat dairy products contribute to the structure and texture of these foods. Immunolocalization techniques were used to identify B-lactoglobulin, casein, bovine whey proteins, and egg albumin in low-fat frozen desserts, reduced fat process cheese, and salad dressings. SimpJesse18 I 00 protein particles were examined and characterized by these methods and compared to naturally occurring protein structures in the low-fat foods. Hydrocolloid identification in low-fat salad dressing was accomplished by complexing cellulase and hemicellulase with colloidal gold and applying the probe as a pre-embedding step, on sections of embedded specimens or on material dried ...


An Analysis Of Microstructural Factors Which Influence The Use Of Muscle As A Food, R. G. Cassens, C. E. Carpenter, T. J. Eddinger Jan 1984

An Analysis Of Microstructural Factors Which Influence The Use Of Muscle As A Food, R. G. Cassens, C. E. Carpenter, T. J. Eddinger

Food Structure

Study of structure of muscle provides information on the location and arrangement of various components and the changes which may be inflicted upon them. The structura l features of muscle have been descr ibed in detail down to the molecular level, but rega rding its use as a food, special interest centers on the connective tissue component and on myofibri llar proteins . Muscle comprises about 1/3 of the live weight of the a ni mal and is not static , but rather is subject to major changes in properties associated with growth, repair and se nescence. It is apparent that ...


The Effects Of Commercial Processing On The Structure And Microchemical Organization Of Rapeseed, S. H. Yiu, I. Altosaar, R. G. Fulcher Jan 1983

The Effects Of Commercial Processing On The Structure And Microchemical Organization Of Rapeseed, S. H. Yiu, I. Altosaar, R. G. Fulcher

Food Structure

Rapeseed samples collected from different processing stages were obtained from one commercial crushing plant for the present investigation. The samples included (A) whole seeds, (B) flaked seeds, (C) press cakes, (D) solvent extracted meal, (E) desolventized meal and (F) cooled, desolventized meal . Frozen and/or glycol met hacrylate-embedded sections of the samples were examined using the techniques of fluorescence microscopy. Mechanical crushing tended to disrupt cell walls. After cooking and expeller pressing, individual protein bodies fused to form large masses encompassing phytin containing globoids. Storage lipids also coalesced into larger droplets. Most of the oil was removed after solvent extraction ...


Correlation Of Microscopic Structure Of Corn Starch Granules With Rheological Properties Of Cooked Pastes, D. D. Christianson, F.L. Baker, A.R. Loffredo, E. B. Bagley Jan 1982

Correlation Of Microscopic Structure Of Corn Starch Granules With Rheological Properties Of Cooked Pastes, D. D. Christianson, F.L. Baker, A.R. Loffredo, E. B. Bagley

Food Structure

The progressive geometric changes that occur in swelling of corn starch granules during heating throughout the range of gelatinization (63-72°C) and at higher temperatures when substantial amount s of soluble starch are released from the granule were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corn starch granules begin to swell radially, then undergo radial contraction and random tangential expansion. They form complex geometrical structures at the midpoint range (67-70°C) unlike the more uniform single-dimensional tangential swelling that occurs with lenticular granules of wheat starch . At higher temperatures, when starch begins to solubilize, corn starch granules lose their distinct ridges ...