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Food Science

Food Structure

Muscle

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effect Of Tumbling, Sodium Chloride And Polyphosphates On The Microstructure And Appearance Of Whole-Muscle Processed Meats, P. D. Velinov, M. V. Zhikov, R. G. Cassens Jan 1990

The Effect Of Tumbling, Sodium Chloride And Polyphosphates On The Microstructure And Appearance Of Whole-Muscle Processed Meats, P. D. Velinov, M. V. Zhikov, R. G. Cassens

Food Structure

The properties of a whole-muscle processed meat were determined. The complex action of socium chloride, polyphosphates and mechanical agitation caused extraction of myofibrillar protein, swelling of fibers and loss of cross-strations. A new functional ability was found for the extracted proteins to form a fine cover or membrane on the surface of the whole muscle during cooking. These changes produced a product with improved cooking yield and color appearance.


The Structural Basis Of The Water-Holding, Appearance And Toughness Of Meat And Meat Products, Gerald Offer, Peter Knight, Robin Jeacocke, Richard Almond, Tony Cousins, John Elsey, Nick Parsons, Alan Sharp, Roger Starr, Peter Purslow Jan 1989

The Structural Basis Of The Water-Holding, Appearance And Toughness Of Meat And Meat Products, Gerald Offer, Peter Knight, Robin Jeacocke, Richard Almond, Tony Cousins, John Elsey, Nick Parsons, Alan Sharp, Roger Starr, Peter Purslow

Food Structure

A structural approach greatly clarifies which components of meat are responsible for its tenderness, water-holding and appearance, and the events occurring during processing.

In living muscle, water is held in the spaces between the thick and thin filaments. Changes in the content and distribution of water within meat originate from changes in this spacing. Myofibrils shrink laterally post mortem . The fluid expelled accumulates between fibre bundles and between fibres and is drain ed by gravity forming drip. In pale, soft and exudative meat, shrinkage of the myosin heads on denaturation increases myofibrillar shrinkage. In salt solutions used in meat processing ...


Structural Binding Properties Of Silvercarp (Hypophtalmichthys Molitrix) Muscle Affected By Nacl And Cacl2 Treatments, Ilan Shomer, Zwi G. Weinberg, Roza Vasiliver Jan 1987

Structural Binding Properties Of Silvercarp (Hypophtalmichthys Molitrix) Muscle Affected By Nacl And Cacl2 Treatments, Ilan Shomer, Zwi G. Weinberg, Roza Vasiliver

Food Structure

The texture of restructured muscle products is well known to be strongly affected by various salts. In the present work the effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on the ultrastructure of both fresh and cooking salted silvercarp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) muscle were examined, in order to elucidate the heat-initiated binding phenomenon. Sodium chloride at 0.3 and 1.5% caused swelling and fusion of the myofibrils and loss of arrayed structure. Calcium chloride at all the tested concentrations resulted in shrinkage of myofibrils, The present study demonstrated two main effects of salts on the ultrastructure of fish muscles: (i) swelling of myofibrils ...


The Skinned Fiber Technique As A Potential Method For Study Of Muscle As A Food, R. G. Cassens, T. J. Eddinger, R. L. Moss Jan 1986

The Skinned Fiber Technique As A Potential Method For Study Of Muscle As A Food, R. G. Cassens, T. J. Eddinger, R. L. Moss

Food Structure

Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle cells can be skinned by physical means or a variety of chemical techniques. The skinned fibers have been used to study the molecular mechanisms of contraction and the regulation of contraction by ca++. Skinned fiber preparations are also useful for study of muscle as a food. For example, it is now possible to determine fiber type of skinned fibers following study of their physical properties.


Comparative Microscopy And Morphometry Of Skeletal Muscle Fibers In Poultry, Carol S. Williams, John W. Williams, Ronald A. Chung Jan 1986

Comparative Microscopy And Morphometry Of Skeletal Muscle Fibers In Poultry, Carol S. Williams, John W. Williams, Ronald A. Chung

Food Structure

Two experiments comparing microscopic analyses were performed using two cooking methods an:t two different muscles from both chickens and turkeys. In the first experiment, breast (pectoralis) and thigh (quadriceps) muscle taken from male and female Rhode Island Red chickens at three ages (10 weeks, 25 weeks and 52 weeks) were cooked in a microwave oven . Samples were collected for observation with brightfield, phase contrast, interference contrast (Nomarski) and transmission electron microscopy. Samples from the same muscle areas were provided for taste pane l evaluation . In the second experiment, breast and thigh samples were collected from 10-week old male and ...


Changes In The Microstructure Of Skipjack Tuna During Frozen Storage And Heat Treatment, L. E. Lampila, W. D. Brown Jan 1986

Changes In The Microstructure Of Skipjack Tuna During Frozen Storage And Heat Treatment, L. E. Lampila, W. D. Brown

Food Structure

Samples of fresh, frozen and heat- treated skipjack tuna muscle were observed by scanning electron mieros copy. The photomicrographs were used to assess changes in the microstructure of fish muscle during frozen storage and thermal processing . Differences noted in frozen tissue could be related to the formation of gaps between fibers and the deformation of muscle fibers . No freeze mediated damage to the cell wall was observed at the lower limits, 20,000x, of high resolution scanning electron microscopy. The degree of muscle fiber shrinkage and erosion and the behavior of certain protein fractions was found to be affected by ...


Microscopal Observations On The Structure Of Bacon, C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer Jan 1986

Microscopal Observations On The Structure Of Bacon, C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer

Food Structure

Commercially processed salt-treated pig longissimus dorsi muscle, in the form of bacon slices, sometimes shows localized variations in the light-scattering properties of the tissue. The phenomenon is described as 'tiger-stripe'. A study of areas of tissue showing such variations, using electron microscopy, has revealed differences in the structure at the myofibrillar level. Areas which appear dark when viewed by incident illumination show ordered myofibrillar structure, whereas areas which appear light under similar viewing conditions appear to be disordered.


Current Concepts Of Muscle Ultrastructure With Emphasis On Z-Line Architecture, M. Yamaguchi, H. Kamisoyama, S. Nada, S. Yamano, M. Izumimoto, Y. Hirai, R. G. Cassens, H. Nasu, M. Muguruma, T. Fukazawa Jan 1986

Current Concepts Of Muscle Ultrastructure With Emphasis On Z-Line Architecture, M. Yamaguchi, H. Kamisoyama, S. Nada, S. Yamano, M. Izumimoto, Y. Hirai, R. G. Cassens, H. Nasu, M. Muguruma, T. Fukazawa

Food Structure

Invertebrate striated muscle, the Z-line, which defines the sarcomere length, presents diverse structural patterns both in cross section and in longitudinal section. Conflicting models have been proposed to explain the microscopic observations. The protein composition of the Z- line structure is unresolved. o: -Actin in is widely accepted as a Z-line component, and actin filaments extend into wide Z-lines. Based on recent findings from our laboratory and others, we developed a new model applicable to wide and narrow Z-lines. The model allowed the observed ultrastructural patterns of Z-lines to be simulated. Improved electron microscopic techniques should allow further progress to ...


An Analysis Of Microstructural Factors Which Influence The Use Of Muscle As A Food, R. G. Cassens, C. E. Carpenter, T. J. Eddinger Jan 1984

An Analysis Of Microstructural Factors Which Influence The Use Of Muscle As A Food, R. G. Cassens, C. E. Carpenter, T. J. Eddinger

Food Structure

Study of structure of muscle provides information on the location and arrangement of various components and the changes which may be inflicted upon them. The structura l features of muscle have been descr ibed in detail down to the molecular level, but rega rding its use as a food, special interest centers on the connective tissue component and on myofibri llar proteins . Muscle comprises about 1/3 of the live weight of the a ni mal and is not static , but rather is subject to major changes in properties associated with growth, repair and se nescence. It is apparent that ...


The Effect Of Salt And Pyrophosphate On The Structure Of Meat, C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer Jan 1984

The Effect Of Salt And Pyrophosphate On The Structure Of Meat, C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer

Food Structure

Our obective was to determine whether or not salt and pyrophosphate have the same effect on the structure of pieces of meat as they have on isolated myofibrils. Blocks of pig M. longissimus dorsi were incubated in solutions of sodium chloride at pH 5.5 or sodium chloride plus sodium pyrophosphate at pH 5.5 or 8.0. The blocks were obtained from fresh (24h post- mortem) or aged (72h post-mor tem) muscle and incubated for 5 or 24h with minimal agitation. There was considerable uptake of water by the tissue especially at the higher pH and longer times.

Electron ...


A Review Of The Muscle Cell Cytoskeleton And Its Possible Relation To Meat Texture And Sarcolemma Emptying, D. W. Stanley Jan 1983

A Review Of The Muscle Cell Cytoskeleton And Its Possible Relation To Meat Texture And Sarcolemma Emptying, D. W. Stanley

Food Structure

A review of the muscle cytoskeleton is presented. Current evidence leads to the concept of a muscle cell cytoskeleton consisting of at least two elements - gap filaments which are located parallel to the fiber ax~s and provide intracellular elasticity and tensile strength and intermediate filameots found in the zdisc area that function to connect adjacent Z- discs and promote lateral registration. The former constituent consists of the high molecular weight protein connectin (titinl while the latter is composed of the smaller protein desmin (skeletinl. Both proteins exist in filamentous form, are susceptible to proteolysis and are insoluble in physiological ...