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Food Science

Food Structure

Milk

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Practical Aspects Of Electron Microscopy In Dairy Research, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1993

Practical Aspects Of Electron Microscopy In Dairy Research, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Milk products are based mostly on casein micelles, fat globules, and whey proteins. The former two constituents are corpuscular and whey proteins become corpuscular when coagulated. Structural changes in these basic constituents during processing have been studied by electron microscopy. This review discusses the structures of yoghurt, curd, cheeses (hard cheeses, mould-ripened cheeses, cream cheeses, and process cheese), cream, milk powders, and nontraditional dairy products. Defects and deviations from traditional structures of these products are explained where the causes are known. Examples of such causes are foaming of milk, presence of unusual ingredients (bacterial polysaccharides, whey protein concentrates), and alterations ...


Importance Of Enzymes To Value-Added Quality Of Foods, J. R. Whitaker Jan 1992

Importance Of Enzymes To Value-Added Quality Of Foods, J. R. Whitaker

Food Structure

New uses of enzymes are of major importance for value-added quality of foods. At the production and postharvest handling levels, enzymes associated with maturation , color , texture, flavor and nutritional changes are important. Recent examples are discussed which include longer storage prior to initiation of ripening , deletion or control of genes that result in softening1 browning and other quality defects and the enhancement of genes that improve the nutritional quality of foods. At the processing level, new uses of enzymes are described to change the properties of proteins and lipids , to eliminate off-flavor in beers and sterilized milk, and to monitor ...


Microstructure And Firmness Of Labneh (High Solids Yoghurt) Made From Cow's, Goat's And Sheep's Milks By A Traditional Method Or By Ultrafiltration, A. Y. Tamime, M. Kalab, G. Davies, H. A. Mahdi Jan 1991

Microstructure And Firmness Of Labneh (High Solids Yoghurt) Made From Cow's, Goat's And Sheep's Milks By A Traditional Method Or By Ultrafiltration, A. Y. Tamime, M. Kalab, G. Davies, H. A. Mahdi

Food Structure

Two types of Labneh (high solids yoghurt) were made from goat's and sheep 's milk: (a) traditional style Labneh was produced by straining yoghurt in a cloth bag, and (b) UF Labneh was made by ultrafiltration (UF) of warm yoghurt. A portion of all products were smoothened by a passage through a lactic curd homogenizer. Irrespective of their origin , the Labneh samples contained 20.5-22.5% total solids (including minerals and un-metabolized lactose), 6.7-8.2% protein, and 7.8- 8.9% fat.

Homogenization markedly decreased firmness of the goat's and sheep's Labnehs and is therefore not ...


Structure And Rheology Of Dairy Products: A Compilation Of References With Subject And Author Indexes, David N. Holcomb Jan 1991

Structure And Rheology Of Dairy Products: A Compilation Of References With Subject And Author Indexes, David N. Holcomb

Food Structure

No abstract provided.


Composition And Some Properties Of Spray-Dried Retentates Obtained By The Ultrafiltration Of Milk, Miloslav Kalab, Marijana Caric, Mansour Zaher, V. R. Harwalkar Jan 1989

Composition And Some Properties Of Spray-Dried Retentates Obtained By The Ultrafiltration Of Milk, Miloslav Kalab, Marijana Caric, Mansour Zaher, V. R. Harwalkar

Food Structure

Retentates containing 20, 27, and 34% total solids, obtained on commercial scale by the ultrafiltration of milk were spray-dried on laboratory scale using centrifugal atomization and single stage drying with the inlet air temperature of 220 C and the outlet air temperature of 90 C.

The protein content in the powders was 31% to 35% compared to 24.8% protein in the control whole-milk powder. Lactose contents were markedly lower in the retentate powders (-10.6%) than in the milk powder (40.4%). Storage of the powders at 37 C resulted in a marked increase in the 5-hydroxmethylfural contents with ...


Effect Of Heating To 200 C On Casein Micelles In Milk: A Metal Shadowing And Negative Staining Electron Microscope Study, V. R. Harwalkar, Paula Allan-Wojtas, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1989

Effect Of Heating To 200 C On Casein Micelles In Milk: A Metal Shadowing And Negative Staining Electron Microscope Study, V. R. Harwalkar, Paula Allan-Wojtas, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Milk was heated to 200 C for 3 min in sealed inverted-Y-shaped glass vials and reacted with a glutaraldehyde solution at that temperature. Electron microscopy of the metal-shadowed and negatively stained samples revealed that casein micelles in the milk did not disintegrate extensively at the high-temperature used but, rather, became enlarged. Some of them were found to be either clustered or distorted.


The Role Of B-Lactoglobulin In The Development Of The Core-And-Lining Structure Of Casein Particles In Acid-Heat-Induced Milk Gels, V. R. Harwalkar, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1988

The Role Of B-Lactoglobulin In The Development Of The Core-And-Lining Structure Of Casein Particles In Acid-Heat-Induced Milk Gels, V. R. Harwalkar, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Acid-heat-induced gels were obtained by coagulating casein micelle dispersions at 90 C using glucono-and-lactone. The casein micelles used were isolated from raw skim milk by centrifugation, washed free of whey proteins and soluble salts, and dispersed in water or a milk dialyzate. The pH values of the gels varied from 4.7 to 6.3. A core-and-lining ultrastructure developed in casein particles coagulated at pH 5.2 to 5.5 from casein micelle dispersions in the milk dialyzate provided that B-lactoglobulin or whey proteins (10 mg/ml) were added to them prior to coagulation. Addition of B-lactoglobulin to aqueous casein ...


Development Of Microstructure In Raw, Fried, And Fried And Cooked Paneer Made From Buffalo, Cow, And Mixed Milks, Miloslav Kalab, S. K. Gupta, H. K. Desai, G. R. Patil Jan 1988

Development Of Microstructure In Raw, Fried, And Fried And Cooked Paneer Made From Buffalo, Cow, And Mixed Milks, Miloslav Kalab, S. K. Gupta, H. K. Desai, G. R. Patil

Food Structure

Paneer was made from cow, buffalo, and mixed cow and buffalo milk by coagulation with citric acid at pH 5.5. All milk samples were heated to 90°C. Cow milk was coagulated at this temperature but buffalo and mixed milks were cooled to 70°C before coagulation. Differences in the composition and the treatments of the cow and buffalo milks were reflected in the composition and structure of the paneers. Electron microscopy revealed that raw paneer samples had a granular structure consisting of protein particles having a core-and-lining ultrastructure. Deep-frying in vegetable oil at 175'C for 4-5 min ...


Effect Of Clotting In Stomachs Of Infants On Protein Digestibility Of Milk, S. Nakai, E. Li-Chan Jan 1987

Effect Of Clotting In Stomachs Of Infants On Protein Digestibility Of Milk, S. Nakai, E. Li-Chan

Food Structure

Differences in clotting between human and cow's milk in the stomachs of infants are discussed. Gastric pH, after ingesting milk, of an infant up to 6 months of age stays at a pH range of 4-5, near the isoelectric point of casein, and never reaches the value of 2, which is found in adults. Pepsin C (or gastricsin) can hydrolyze proteins at this pH range. Gastric emptying time is shorter with human milk than with cow's milk which appears to be correlated to the smaller size of human milk clots. Elimination of a readily coagulable fraction of casein ...


Lipolytic Changes In The Milk Fat Of Raw Milk And Their Effects On The Quality Of Milk Products, E. Kirst Jan 1986

Lipolytic Changes In The Milk Fat Of Raw Milk And Their Effects On The Quality Of Milk Products, E. Kirst

Food Structure

Lipolytic changes in milk rat affect sensory attributes and techno logicaI properties of milk and milk products. They are affectcd by physiologal, thermal . and biochemical factors as well as by the mechanics of fluids Lipolytic processes in milk are intensified by modern processing methods.

In this review. special attention has been paid to runinant- related feeding of dairy cows. foaming of milk. mechanical and thermal influences and the growth of psycllrotrophic bacteria.

Feeds deficient in energy affect the chemical composition of the milk fat. Tests have shown that on an average. approximatey 55% of free fatty acids in the raw ...


Observations On The Air-Serum Interface Of Milk Foams, B. E. Brooker Jan 1985

Observations On The Air-Serum Interface Of Milk Foams, B. E. Brooker

Food Structure

A new rapid method for the preparation of milk foams for transmission electron microscopy is described . The air-serum interface of foams made from skimmed milk consists of a uniform electron dense layer (5 nm thick) to which casein micelles become secondarily attached . Changes in bubble volume lead to the formation of folds of excess interfacial material which project into the aqueous phase. Using collapsed bubble ghosts to study the attachment of micelles to the airserum interface it was concluded that neither disulphide bridge formation nor hydrophobic interactions were of major importance. Similar preparations of interfacial material but without casein micelles ...


Characterisation Of Milk Proteins In Confectionery Products, J. F. Heathcock Jan 1985

Characterisation Of Milk Proteins In Confectionery Products, J. F. Heathcock

Food Structure

The proteins from milk play an important part in the structural properties of confectionery products. These properties will in turn influence texture and flavour. Electron microscopy techniques have been used to examine milk chocolate, caramel and fudge and to locate and characterise the milk proteins within their structures. Following scanning electron microscopy examination of the products at low temperature, thin sectioning and freeze-fracture were used to resolve the fine ultrastructure of casein and whey proteins.

A chocolate prepared from milk crumb could be distinguished from one made with a dry milk powder on the basis of a more even distribution ...


Ultrastructural Studies Of Milk Digestion In The Suckling Rat, P. B. Berendsen Jan 1982

Ultrastructural Studies Of Milk Digestion In The Suckling Rat, P. B. Berendsen

Food Structure

The structure of milk in the stomach and proximal small intestine of suckling rats at 12 and 24 hours, 5, 10 and 15 days of age was examined by scanning and by transmission electron microscopy. The milk curd in the gastric lumen consisted of chains of casein micelles which entrapped milk fat globules. The appearance was similar to that reported for bovine milk curd and cottage cheese. The gastric milk curd at 12 and 24 hours also contained large masses of granules 4-8 nm in diameter. The relationship of these particles to casein micelles is unknown.

Casein micelles in the ...