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Food Science

Food Structure

Image analysis

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Relationship Between The Starch Granule Structure And The Textural Properties Of Heat-Induced Surimi Gels, V. Verrez-Bagnis, B. Bouchet, D. J. Gallant Jan 1993

Relationship Between The Starch Granule Structure And The Textural Properties Of Heat-Induced Surimi Gels, V. Verrez-Bagnis, B. Bouchet, D. J. Gallant

Food Structure

Starch, used as a textural additive in heat-induced surimi gel, influences the rigidity of the protein gel matrix and hence the gel strength according to its botanical characteristics. The present study focuses on the correlations existing between the textural properties of heatind uced surimi gels obtained by physical measurements and the characteristics of different commercial starches. The gelatinization temperature of starch was closely related to the expressible moisture, work to fracture, and elongation. Behaviour of starchy components during thermal processing and its relationship to fish protein gel matrix were studied by light and electron microscopy. These studies showed differences in ...


Changes In The Microstructure Of A Comminuted Meat System During Heating, Peter A. Koolmees, Gerrit Wijngaards, Monique H.G. Tersteeg, Jan G. Van Logtestijn Jan 1993

Changes In The Microstructure Of A Comminuted Meat System During Heating, Peter A. Koolmees, Gerrit Wijngaards, Monique H.G. Tersteeg, Jan G. Van Logtestijn

Food Structure

As part of a series of experiments on heating of a comminuted meat system , image analyses were conducted to quantify microstructural changes that could be visualized by light microscopy. Three different batches of comminuted meat were investigated. Two batches (A and B) were prepared without polyphosphate; one of these (B) was deliberately overchopped. One batch containing 0. I% polyphosphate was prepared (C). All batches were heated at I I different temperatures ranging from 40 to 115 °C. The microstructure of the three types of meat batte rs at the end of the com minu tion process differed. These types of ...


Image Analysis To Determine Intramuscular Fat In Muscle, T. Ishii, R. G. Cassens, K. K. Scheller, S. C. Arp, D. M. Schaefer Jan 1992

Image Analysis To Determine Intramuscular Fat In Muscle, T. Ishii, R. G. Cassens, K. K. Scheller, S. C. Arp, D. M. Schaefer

Food Structure

The area of intramuscular fat in Holstein steer longissimus was determined using an image analyzing system. Slaughter weights of 500, 636 and 773 kg differed (p < 0.05) for intramuscular fat area, marbling score, and ether extractable lipid . Repeated measurements of intramuscular fat area in a given section showed high accuracy . However, comparing two sections from the same sample, there was often a large difference in fat content between the sections. Fat content determined by the imaging system was correlated significantl y with marbling score (r = 0.49) and ether extractable lipid (r = 0.34). Sampling is critical, and in order to obtain a high correlation several samples would be required from each muscle.


Characterization Of The Pore Structure Of Starch Based Food Materials, Z. Hicsasmaz, J. T. Clayton Jan 1992

Characterization Of The Pore Structure Of Starch Based Food Materials, Z. Hicsasmaz, J. T. Clayton

Food Structure

Macroscopic pore structure parameters (bulk density, true density and porosity) and microscopic pore structure parameters (percentage closed pore volume and pore size distribution) for a highly expanded type (Wonder White Sandwich Bread) and a relatively compact type (Chessmen Butter Cookies) starch based food material were determined and their pore structures were compared. Bulk density determined by solid displacement and true density determined by pycnometry yielded porosity measurement s o f 0.9 for bread and 0.6 for cookies. Percentage closed pore volume calculated by comparing the true density of porous samples of bread and cookies with the true density ...


Relating Spectral Observations Of The Agricultural Landscape To Crop Yield, Craig L. Wiegand, Arthur J. Richardson Jan 1992

Relating Spectral Observations Of The Agricultural Landscape To Crop Yield, Craig L. Wiegand, Arthur J. Richardson

Food Structure

Remote sensing and microscopy share several common concerns including wavelength and sensor selection, signal processing, and image analysis. For crop yield assessments, multispectral observations are acquired photographically, videographically, or with opticalmechanical scanners from aircraft and spacecraft. Sensors are chosen at wavelengths of high atmospheric transmission and maximum contrast between the soil background and the vegetation growing out of it. Vegetation indices have been developed that maximize the information about the photosynthetic size of the vegetation in the landscape and, hence, about crop stresses and yield . Three such indices that reduce the multispectral observations to a single numerical index are described ...


Microscopic Measurement Of Apple Bruise, N. K. Kim, Y. C. Hung Jan 1990

Microscopic Measurement Of Apple Bruise, N. K. Kim, Y. C. Hung

Food Structure

Microstructural differences between unbruised and bruised apple tissues were evaluated. Cell connections appeared to be looser in bruised tissue than in unbruised tissue. Bruised tissue exhibited more empty regions which are not occupied by cells than unbruised tissue. Empty reg ions in unbruised and bruised tissues were about 0.7 and 2.4 per mm2, respectively, comprising 0.7% and 2.7% of the respective total volume. Stereology is a body of mathematical methods relating three-dimensional parameters defining a structure to two- dimensional measurements. Two methods based on a stereological principle were also used to quantify the fraction of total ...


Image Analysis Of The Fat Dispersion In A Comminuted Meat System, Peter A. Koolmees, Piet C. Moerman, Monique H.G. Zijderveld Jan 1989

Image Analysis Of The Fat Dispersion In A Comminuted Meat System, Peter A. Koolmees, Piet C. Moerman, Monique H.G. Zijderveld

Food Structure

In a series of experiments on a comminuted meat system, image analyses were conducted to quantify changes in structure as affected by polyphosphate, fat level, and chopping time and temperature. Four batches of comminuted meat were investigated which contained neck beef, pig head meat, rino, ice, salt (2%), fat at a level of either 27 or 40%, and polyphosphate at a level of either 0 or 0. 5%. Structural changes in different stages of comminution coincided with a shift in size distribution, shape factor, density and area percentage of fat particles. The density of the protein matrix (matrix defined as ...


Use Of Image Analysis To Predict Milling Extraction Rates Of Wheats, A. D. Evers, R. P. Withey Jan 1989

Use Of Image Analysis To Predict Milling Extraction Rates Of Wheats, A. D. Evers, R. P. Withey

Food Structure

Image analysis of grain morphological characteristics was examined as a possible means of predicting extraction rates of a wide variety of wheat types.

Two elevations of grain were examined and measured for the top view whole grains were used, while for the lateral view grains were sagittally bisected in the plane of the crease. Extraction rate was assessed on laboratory mills and expressed as flour yield.

Milling extraction rate correlated with one shape factor with a coefficient of 0.78. Inclusion of a second factor in a stepwise regression increased the correlation coefficient to 0.925.

No satisfactory predictor of ...


Rheological And Ultrastructural Studies Of Wheat Kernel Behaviour Under Compression As A Function Of Water Content, A. Al Saleh, D. J. Gallant Jan 1985

Rheological And Ultrastructural Studies Of Wheat Kernel Behaviour Under Compression As A Function Of Water Content, A. Al Saleh, D. J. Gallant

Food Structure

The rhea logical behaviour of two wheat varieties (Triticum durum), cultivated at different sites, was studied by INSTRON* as a function of water content. Patterns of crushed grains were investigated by scanning electron microscopy . The apparent modulus of elasticity of the wheat grains was apparently re 1 a ted to their vitreosity. The mealy grain generally had an apparent modulus of elasticity lower than that of the vitreous one and the modulus appeared to be related to the air spaces in mealy endosperm. Humidification favoured the conversion of vitreous endosperm to the mealy state. Grain morphology and particularly the kernel ...


Image Analysis Of Morphological Changes In Wiener Batters During Chopping And Cooking, A. G. Kempton, S. Trupp Jan 1983

Image Analysis Of Morphological Changes In Wiener Batters During Chopping And Cooking, A. G. Kempton, S. Trupp

Food Structure

Histological changes in wiener batters during chopping and cooking have often been illustrated with "representative" fields . The practice of selecting representative fields ignores variation and leads to word descriptions that cannot be correlated with numerical scores for functional or sensory tests . If wieners are regarded as a multi-component system, objectivity can be achieved by selecting many fields for each sample according to a rigid sampling plan. Image analysis quantified parameters of both the fat and protein components . The reduction in size of fat globules during chopping of a commercial formulation, for example, was a function of area and aggregate perimeter ...