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Food Science

Food Structure

Ice cream

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Development Of The Food Microscopist, D. F. Lewis Jan 1993

Development Of The Food Microscopist, D. F. Lewis

Food Structure

This paper describes the processes through which the food microscopist develops his/her skills. It is based around a framework of Shakespeare's seven ages of man. The first stage is learning about equipment: how it works and how not to abuse it. Next, attention turns to how to prepare samples for examination whilst maintaining the validity of the observations and avoiding damage to the instrument. The "Lover" is the time at which an understanding of the basic structures of food products is gained and the "Soldier " starts to interpret these structures in terms of the performance of the foodstuff ...


A Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy Study Of Ice Cream. Ii. Influence Of Selected Ingredients And Processes, K. B. Caldwell, H. D. Goff, D. W. Stanley Jan 1992

A Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy Study Of Ice Cream. Ii. Influence Of Selected Ingredients And Processes, K. B. Caldwell, H. D. Goff, D. W. Stanley

Food Structure

The objective of this study was to examine the influence of processing parameters, viz., incorporation of polysaccharide stabilizers, freezing rates, and storage times and temperatures on the microstructure of ice cream. As the freezing rate was reduced, ice crystals and air bubbles increased in size. However, quenchfreezing also contributed to poor texture; thus an optimum freezing rate exists for the production of suitably- sized ice crystals and texture in ice cream. Model systems of polysaccharide stabilizer solutions were seen to have a characteristic network structure when quenchfrozen which was altered by the addition of sucrose. Stabilized ice cream initially had ...


A Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy Study Of Ice Cream. I Techniques And General Microstructure, K. B. Caldwell, H. D. Goff, D. W. Stanley Jan 1992

A Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy Study Of Ice Cream. I Techniques And General Microstructure, K. B. Caldwell, H. D. Goff, D. W. Stanley

Food Structure

The objective of this study was to investigate techniques suitable for viewing the microstructure of ice cream in the frozen and fully hydrated state using low temperature scanning electron microscopy (L T-SEM), and to examine the microstructure of the frozen product. lee cream bad four distinct structural phases: ice crystals, air bubbles, fat globules and serum. Air bubbles, 10 to 60 ~-tm in diameter, were lined with fat globules, 0.5 to 2.5 J.tnl in diameter. Ice cry stals with a mean di ameter of 40 J.Lffi showed a characteri stic reticulat e structure after sublimation. The ...


Structure And Rheology Of Dairy Products: A Compilation Of References With Subject And Author Indexes, David N. Holcomb Jan 1991

Structure And Rheology Of Dairy Products: A Compilation Of References With Subject And Author Indexes, David N. Holcomb

Food Structure

No abstract provided.


An Enzyme/Surfactant Treatment And Filtration Technique For The Retrieval Of Listeria Monocytogenes From Ice Cream Mix, Kelly-Ann Hale, Stephanie Doores, Rosemary A. Walsh Jan 1990

An Enzyme/Surfactant Treatment And Filtration Technique For The Retrieval Of Listeria Monocytogenes From Ice Cream Mix, Kelly-Ann Hale, Stephanie Doores, Rosemary A. Walsh

Food Structure

This study combines an enzyme/surfactant treatment with centrifugal ion and prefiltration to solubilize food constituents in a dairy product containing listeria monocytogenes, remove the constituents by a second filtration and examine the isolated bacteria under the scanning electron microscope. Treatment of an ice cream mix with a combined 2% (w/w} trypsin and 2% (w/w) Tween 80 so lution for 20 minutes at 35 °C resulted i n proteolysis of the dairy mix without lysing the bacteria. Centrifugation at 4300 x g for 20 minutes at 5°C concentrated the bacteria in the form of a pellet which ...


Changes In The Ultrastructure Of Emulsions As A Result Of Electron Microscopy Preparation Procedures, M. Liboff, H. D. Goff, Z. Haque, W. K. Jordan, J. E. Kinsella Jan 1988

Changes In The Ultrastructure Of Emulsions As A Result Of Electron Microscopy Preparation Procedures, M. Liboff, H. D. Goff, Z. Haque, W. K. Jordan, J. E. Kinsella

Food Structure

Various methods of preparing emulsions for electron microscopy were examined with peanut oil/protein and ice cream mix emulsions. For transmission electron microscopy {TEM) , fresh peanut oil/bovine serum albumin emulsions were mixed with 2% agar , fixed in phosphate-buffered (pH 7 . 0) 4% glutaraldehyde solution and postfixed in phosphate-buffered (pH ? . 0) 1% osmium tetroxide alternatively , the glutaraldehyde- fixed samples were briefly rinsed in acetone prior to postfixation . Both preparations yielded satisfactory fat globule preservation. Similar emulsions were prepared on loops and suspended over vapors of 25% gJ nt.RrBl r'lehyr'le Rnc'l 1% oRmi urn tetroxide . This preparation ...


The Effects Of Polysorbate 80 On The Fat Emulsion In Ice Cream Mix: Evidence From Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies, H. D. Goff, M. Liboff, W. K. Jordan, J. E. Kinsella Jan 1987

The Effects Of Polysorbate 80 On The Fat Emulsion In Ice Cream Mix: Evidence From Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies, H. D. Goff, M. Liboff, W. K. Jordan, J. E. Kinsella

Food Structure

Emulsifiers are used in ice cream to produce a dry, smooth textured product with desireable melting properties. They function by promoting a partial destabilization of the fat emulsion. Polyoxythylene sorbitan monooleate is used very commonly in the ice cream industry for this purpose. The objective of this research was to examine by transmission electron microscopy the differences in the fat globules in typical ice cream mix emulsions prepared with and without 0.08% polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate.

Ice cream mix was combined 3:1 with a 2% solultion of ultralow gelling temperature agarose at 20 degrees C, fixed with 4% glutaraldehyde ...