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Food Science

Food Structure

Electron microscopy

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Distribution And Intracellular Localization Of Titanium In Plants After Titanium Treatment, G. Kelemen, A. Keresztes, E. Bacsy, M. Feher, P. Fodor, I. Pais Jan 1993

Distribution And Intracellular Localization Of Titanium In Plants After Titanium Treatment, G. Kelemen, A. Keresztes, E. Bacsy, M. Feher, P. Fodor, I. Pais

Food Structure

The physiological role of titanium in plants has not been elucidated yet, but a higher rate of growth , greater chlorophyll content and higher productivity, among others , may be attributed to this element. We have investigated the distribution of titanium in wheat seedlings after Titavit (a Ti ·ascorbate containing plant conditioner) treatment applied either through the leaf or through the root. In field experiments, we also sprayed spinach plants with Titavit. We have found a practically unidirectional tran slocation of Ti from the shoot into the root, and a preferential local ization of Ti in the nuclear cell fraction as seen ...


Practical Aspects Of Electron Microscopy In Dairy Research, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1993

Practical Aspects Of Electron Microscopy In Dairy Research, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Milk products are based mostly on casein micelles, fat globules, and whey proteins. The former two constituents are corpuscular and whey proteins become corpuscular when coagulated. Structural changes in these basic constituents during processing have been studied by electron microscopy. This review discusses the structures of yoghurt, curd, cheeses (hard cheeses, mould-ripened cheeses, cream cheeses, and process cheese), cream, milk powders, and nontraditional dairy products. Defects and deviations from traditional structures of these products are explained where the causes are known. Examples of such causes are foaming of milk, presence of unusual ingredients (bacterial polysaccharides, whey protein concentrates), and alterations ...


Microstructure And Texture Of Khoa, G. R. Patil, A. A. Patel, Paula Allan-Wojtas, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1992

Microstructure And Texture Of Khoa, G. R. Patil, A. A. Patel, Paula Allan-Wojtas, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Khoa, a partially dehydrated milk product indigenous to India, was prepared from buffalo milk by boiling it vigorously in an open pan and reducing its volume to approximately 25% within 30 min. The hot semi-solid product (Khoa pat) was held at 20•c for 3 h (fresh, cooled Khoa) or 48 h (swred Khoa); the products were either worked with a pestle in a mortar for 5 min or were left without working.

Structural features of Khoa were studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. Freshly prepared coo led Khoa had a granular structure consisting of protein granules several hundred ...


Structure, Meltability, And Firmness Of Process Cheese Containing White Cheese, Miloslav Kalab, H. Wayne Modler, Marijana Caric, Spasenija Milanovic Jan 1991

Structure, Meltability, And Firmness Of Process Cheese Containing White Cheese, Miloslav Kalab, H. Wayne Modler, Marijana Caric, Spasenija Milanovic

Food Structure

White cheese made by coagulating heated milk (90"C) with a 2.5% citric acid solution to pH 5.5 consists of casein particles having a characteristic core-and-shell ultrastructure. The presence of this White cheese in process cheese can be detected by transmission electron microscopy on the basis of the core-and-shell ultrastructure which is stable during cheese processing. White cheese additions may be detected at levels equal to or higher than 8%.

White cheese, which does not melt alone when heated, increases meltability of the process cheese in which it is present as an ingredient. Meltability in creases at all ...


Effects Of Phosphate And Citrate On The Gelation Properties Of Casein Micelles In Renneted Ultra-High Temperature (Uht) Sterilized Concentrated Milk, Donald J. Mcmahon, Paul A. Savello, Rodney J. Brown, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1991

Effects Of Phosphate And Citrate On The Gelation Properties Of Casein Micelles In Renneted Ultra-High Temperature (Uht) Sterilized Concentrated Milk, Donald J. Mcmahon, Paul A. Savello, Rodney J. Brown, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Milk was concentrated to 3X (volume reduction) by ultrafiltration. Disodium phosphate and sodium citrate were added, and the milk concemrates were homogenized. The concentrates were then heated at 135°C for 50 s in a labora· tory ultra-high temperature (UHT) heating system. Rennet gels were made from heated and unheated milk concentrates and their curd firmness measured using a Fonnagraph. Gel microstructures were ex:amined by electron microscopy.

When rennet was added to unhomogenized milk concentrate before UHT heating, the resultant gel consisted of a strong protein network that encapsulated the fat globules. Pockets of milk serum were associated with ...


Encapsulation Of Viscous High-Fat Foods In Calcium Alginate Gel Tubes At Ambient Temperature, Ivan A. Veliky, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1990

Encapsulation Of Viscous High-Fat Foods In Calcium Alginate Gel Tubes At Ambient Temperature, Ivan A. Veliky, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Viscous high-fat foods such as cream, egg yolk, or mayonnaise are co-extruded with a 3% sodium alginate solution from a syringe into a 50 mM calcium chloride solution. The food sample passes through the inner tube of a double needle assembly while the alginate solution is simultaneously extruded through a mantle surrounding the inner needle. As the sodium alginate solution forms a gel on contact with calcium ions, the food sample becomes encapsulated in the calcium alginate gel formed on the surface of the food sample. The encapsulation procedure may be carried out within a temperature range between 0 C ...


Microstructure And Firmness Of Processed Cheese Manufactured From Cheddar Cheese And Skim Milk Powder Cheese Base, A. Y. Tamime, M. Kalab, G. Davies, M. F. Younis Jan 1990

Microstructure And Firmness Of Processed Cheese Manufactured From Cheddar Cheese And Skim Milk Powder Cheese Base, A. Y. Tamime, M. Kalab, G. Davies, M. F. Younis

Food Structure

Processed cheese (10 different types) was made from Cheddar cheese and a cheese base produced from reconstituted skim milk powder by blending and melting with commercial emulsifying salts at 9Q<>C. In one experiment, the cheese base was subjected 10 accelerated cheese ripening by added enzyme. The finished products had 50.1- 53.5% total solids, 18.2-19.3% protein, 47.4-49.7% fat in dry matter, and 2.7-3.0% salt in water; pH was 5.3-5.4 after three months of storage at 10 C and 30 C.

The experimental cheeses were markedly firmer than the control cheeses ...


Development Of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench) Endosperm In Varieties Of Varying Hardness, J. M. Shull, A. Chandrashekar, A. W. Kirleis, G. Ejeta Jan 1990

Development Of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench) Endosperm In Varieties Of Varying Hardness, J. M. Shull, A. Chandrashekar, A. W. Kirleis, G. Ejeta

Food Structure

Factors responsible for grain hardness in sorghum are not well understood. Therefore, a study was undertaken to observe differences in the developmental processes of three sorghum varieties which vary in endosperm texture: hard, intermediate, and soft. Grain samples were collected at 5 day intervals beginning at 5 days after half-bloom (DAHB) until physiological maturity (40 DAHB) and prepared for viewing with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

Comparisons were made between vitreous and floury endosperm portions of each variety and among the three varieties. The major difference between vitreous and floury endosperm was the degree to which the protein ...


Grittiness In A Pasteurized Cheese Spread: A Microscopic Study, H. W. Modler, S. H. Yiu, U. K. Bollinger, M. Kalab Jan 1989

Grittiness In A Pasteurized Cheese Spread: A Microscopic Study, H. W. Modler, S. H. Yiu, U. K. Bollinger, M. Kalab

Food Structure

Coagulation of pasteurized (63 C for 30 min) milk and blending of the resulting curd with high-fat cream followed by heat treatment (44 to 80 C for 10 min) of the blend in preparation of a hot-pack cheese spread led to the formation of a gritty product. Microscopic examination of hard particles causing the grittiness indicated that they consisted of compacted protein. Staining for calcium failed to detect any elevated concentration of this element in the particles. They were amorphous and contained no crystalline structures.

Encapsulation of the gritty curd in agar gel tubes made it possible to freeze-fracture the ...


The Structural Basis Of The Water-Holding, Appearance And Toughness Of Meat And Meat Products, Gerald Offer, Peter Knight, Robin Jeacocke, Richard Almond, Tony Cousins, John Elsey, Nick Parsons, Alan Sharp, Roger Starr, Peter Purslow Jan 1989

The Structural Basis Of The Water-Holding, Appearance And Toughness Of Meat And Meat Products, Gerald Offer, Peter Knight, Robin Jeacocke, Richard Almond, Tony Cousins, John Elsey, Nick Parsons, Alan Sharp, Roger Starr, Peter Purslow

Food Structure

A structural approach greatly clarifies which components of meat are responsible for its tenderness, water-holding and appearance, and the events occurring during processing.

In living muscle, water is held in the spaces between the thick and thin filaments. Changes in the content and distribution of water within meat originate from changes in this spacing. Myofibrils shrink laterally post mortem . The fluid expelled accumulates between fibre bundles and between fibres and is drain ed by gravity forming drip. In pale, soft and exudative meat, shrinkage of the myosin heads on denaturation increases myofibrillar shrinkage. In salt solutions used in meat processing ...


Effect Of Heating To 200 C On Casein Micelles In Milk: A Metal Shadowing And Negative Staining Electron Microscope Study, V. R. Harwalkar, Paula Allan-Wojtas, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1989

Effect Of Heating To 200 C On Casein Micelles In Milk: A Metal Shadowing And Negative Staining Electron Microscope Study, V. R. Harwalkar, Paula Allan-Wojtas, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Milk was heated to 200 C for 3 min in sealed inverted-Y-shaped glass vials and reacted with a glutaraldehyde solution at that temperature. Electron microscopy of the metal-shadowed and negatively stained samples revealed that casein micelles in the milk did not disintegrate extensively at the high-temperature used but, rather, became enlarged. Some of them were found to be either clustered or distorted.


Effects Of Protein Concentration In Ultrafiltration Milk Retentates And The Type Of Protease Used For Coagulation On The Microstructure Of Resulting Gels, Dragoljub D.J. Gavaric, Marijana Caric, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1989

Effects Of Protein Concentration In Ultrafiltration Milk Retentates And The Type Of Protease Used For Coagulation On The Microstructure Of Resulting Gels, Dragoljub D.J. Gavaric, Marijana Caric, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Milk retentates (35~ total solids, 13~ protein) obtained by ultrafiltration were diluted with the permeate to 3 . 2, 5.0, 6.5, 10.0, and 13.0% protein and coagulated using conrnerc1al proteases. Rennet or one of microbial proteases isolated from Bacillus potymlxa , Endothla parasfttca, Mucor mtehel, or Mucor pusfllus were used . Coagulation times were decreased with the Mucor proteases as the protein concentrations in the retentates were increased but the coagulation times were increased with B. potymlxa and f. parasltlca proteases under similar conditions . Firmness was higher in gels made from homogenized retentates than from nonhomogenized retentates of the ...


Changes In The Ultrastructure Of Beef Muscle As Influenced By Acidic Conditions Below The Ultimate Ph, M. V. Rao, N. F. S. Gault, S. Kennedy Jan 1989

Changes In The Ultrastructure Of Beef Muscle As Influenced By Acidic Conditions Below The Ultimate Ph, M. V. Rao, N. F. S. Gault, S. Kennedy

Food Structure

Ultrastructural changes in meat incubated with different concentrations of acetic acid were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Discs of bovine M. longissimus dorsi (48 h postmortem) were incubated at 46 C for 48 h in various acetlc acid solutions, giving discs with pH values ranging from 5.1 to 3.9 . Below pH 4. 5 , the volume of the discs increased markedly due to water absorption.

Discs incubated in 0.01M acetic acid had a pH of 5.1, lower swelling ratios and shorter sarcomeres than control samples at pH 5. 5. Structural studies of the samples at pH 5 ...


The Size Distribution Of Casein Micelles In Camel Milk, Z. Farah, M. W. Ruegg Jan 1989

The Size Distribution Of Casein Micelles In Camel Milk, Z. Farah, M. W. Ruegg

Food Structure

The size distribution of casein micelles in camel milk has been determined by electron microscopy. Individual and pooled samples were cryo-fixed by rapid freezing and freeze-fractured. Electron micrographs of the freeze-fracture replica revealed a relatively broad size distribution, with an average micelle dimeter around 280 nm in the volume distribution curve. The distribution was significantly broader than that of the particles of cow's or human milk and showed a greater number of large particles. The submicelles were also somewhat larger than those observed in cow's and human milk (approx. 15, 10 and 7 nm, respectively). The average values ...


The Role Of B-Lactoglobulin In The Development Of The Core-And-Lining Structure Of Casein Particles In Acid-Heat-Induced Milk Gels, V. R. Harwalkar, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1988

The Role Of B-Lactoglobulin In The Development Of The Core-And-Lining Structure Of Casein Particles In Acid-Heat-Induced Milk Gels, V. R. Harwalkar, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Acid-heat-induced gels were obtained by coagulating casein micelle dispersions at 90 C using glucono-and-lactone. The casein micelles used were isolated from raw skim milk by centrifugation, washed free of whey proteins and soluble salts, and dispersed in water or a milk dialyzate. The pH values of the gels varied from 4.7 to 6.3. A core-and-lining ultrastructure developed in casein particles coagulated at pH 5.2 to 5.5 from casein micelle dispersions in the milk dialyzate provided that B-lactoglobulin or whey proteins (10 mg/ml) were added to them prior to coagulation. Addition of B-lactoglobulin to aqueous casein ...


Microstructure Of Shortenings, Margarine And Butter - A Review, A. C. Juriaanse, I. Heertje Jan 1988

Microstructure Of Shortenings, Margarine And Butter - A Review, A. C. Juriaanse, I. Heertje

Food Structure

Fat spreads are composed of liquid oil, fat crystals and water. The fat crystals in these products give the product the required consistency and stabilize the water droplets. Shortenings are waterfree products , the rheology of which depends on the solid fat content and interactions between fat crystals. Size and interaction between crystals is influenced by both composition and processing. Crystals form a three - dimensional network. Recrystallization phenomena, especially formation of large beta- crystals , can create product defects like sandiness. Margarines and halvarines are water- in - oil emulsions and have a relatively simple product structure. Because of the wettability of fat ...


Amino Acid Composition And Structure Of Cheese Baked As A Pizza Ingredient In Conventional And Microwave Ovens, Alenka Paquet, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1988

Amino Acid Composition And Structure Of Cheese Baked As A Pizza Ingredient In Conventional And Microwave Ovens, Alenka Paquet, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Amino acid compositions of stirred-curd Mozzarella, stretched Mozzarella, and process Cheddar cheeses were similar and did not change as the result of baking in a conventional oven. D-glutamic acid (D0Glue) and D-phenyl-alanine (D-Phe) were present at low concentrations in all cheese samples, the lowest concentrations having been found in unbaked stirred-curd Mozzarella cheese (2.7% D-Glu of total Glu present and <1.0% D-Phe of total Phe present). The highest concentrations were detected in unbaked stretched Mozzarella cheese (5.6% and 1.2%, respectively). Thechanges were not significant and were not the result of aking, indicating that the heat treatment during baking did n ot cause racemization of the amino acids.

Each cheese had a characteristic structure before baking. The structures of the Mozzarella cheeses were altered by baking in the conventional oven and also in a microwave oven and their original features such as curd granule junction and fat ...


Development Of Microstructure In Raw, Fried, And Fried And Cooked Paneer Made From Buffalo, Cow, And Mixed Milks, Miloslav Kalab, S. K. Gupta, H. K. Desai, G. R. Patil Jan 1988

Development Of Microstructure In Raw, Fried, And Fried And Cooked Paneer Made From Buffalo, Cow, And Mixed Milks, Miloslav Kalab, S. K. Gupta, H. K. Desai, G. R. Patil

Food Structure

Paneer was made from cow, buffalo, and mixed cow and buffalo milk by coagulation with citric acid at pH 5.5. All milk samples were heated to 90°C. Cow milk was coagulated at this temperature but buffalo and mixed milks were cooled to 70°C before coagulation. Differences in the composition and the treatments of the cow and buffalo milks were reflected in the composition and structure of the paneers. Electron microscopy revealed that raw paneer samples had a granular structure consisting of protein particles having a core-and-lining ultrastructure. Deep-frying in vegetable oil at 175'C for 4-5 min ...


Ultrastructural And Textural Properties Of Restructured Beef Treated With A Bacterial Culture And Splenic Pulp, E. A. Elkhalifa, N. G. Marriot, R. L. Grayson, P. P. Graham, S. K. Perkins Jan 1988

Ultrastructural And Textural Properties Of Restructured Beef Treated With A Bacterial Culture And Splenic Pulp, E. A. Elkhalifa, N. G. Marriot, R. L. Grayson, P. P. Graham, S. K. Perkins

Food Structure

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Instron measurements were used to evaluate the effects of an Achromobacter iophagus culture {BC) and splenic pulp (SP) treatments one structural and textural properties of flaked and restructured beef steaks. Both treatments improved the textural character is tics of the product when conditioned at 35°C . Electron microscopy studies revealed that the bacterial culture treatment caused a greater effect than SP on the connective tissue elements, with a degradation of the endomysial sheath and sarcolemma. Treatment with splenic pulp produced an overall excessive disruption a t the Z-lines with little definition ...


Textural Properties And Microstructure Of Process Cheese Food Rework, Miloslav Kalab, Joseph Yun, Suk Hing Yiu Jan 1987

Textural Properties And Microstructure Of Process Cheese Food Rework, Miloslav Kalab, Joseph Yun, Suk Hing Yiu

Food Structure

Process cheese food was made using sodium citrate (2.7%) or trisodium phosphate (TSP, 2.7%) as emulsifying agents. No precooked cheese (rework) was used in some samples whereas in others the rework (20%) consisted of a cheese blend emulsified with sodium citrate (2.7%) and (a) briefly heated to 82 degrees C, (b) heated to 82 degrees C for 1 h, (c) heated to 82 degrees C for 5 h, and (d) heated to 82 degrees C for 5 h, frozen at -10 degrees C for 24 h, and thawed at +4 degrees C. Heating for extended periods of ...


The Structure Of Gluten Gels, A. M. Hermansson, K. Larsson Jan 1986

The Structure Of Gluten Gels, A. M. Hermansson, K. Larsson

Food Structure

This paper reports on a combined electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study of gluten gel, in which conventional gluten, a delipidized gluten sample and a storage protein fraction obtained by salt-fractionation were used. It can be concluded that the gluten gel is a continuous phase of densely packed protein units. Other structural components such as air ce lls, lipid droplets, liposomes, fiber residues, starch granules etc. are dispersed in the continuous matrix. The space available for water is strictly limited in the continuous phase due to the dense packing of protein molecules. Water that is not completely separated from the ...


Microscopal Observations On The Structure Of Bacon, C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer Jan 1986

Microscopal Observations On The Structure Of Bacon, C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer

Food Structure

Commercially processed salt-treated pig longissimus dorsi muscle, in the form of bacon slices, sometimes shows localized variations in the light-scattering properties of the tissue. The phenomenon is described as 'tiger-stripe'. A study of areas of tissue showing such variations, using electron microscopy, has revealed differences in the structure at the myofibrillar level. Areas which appear dark when viewed by incident illumination show ordered myofibrillar structure, whereas areas which appear light under similar viewing conditions appear to be disordered.


Comparison Of The Microstructure Of Firm And Stem-End Softened Cucumber Pickles Preserved By Brine Fermentation, W. M. Walter Jr., H. P. Fleming, R. N. Trigiano Jan 1985

Comparison Of The Microstructure Of Firm And Stem-End Softened Cucumber Pickles Preserved By Brine Fermentation, W. M. Walter Jr., H. P. Fleming, R. N. Trigiano

Food Structure

Soft and firm stem end tissues of cucumbers fermented at a low concentration of sodium chloride were examined by a combination of light microscopy {LM), transmission electron microscopy { TEM), and scanning electron microscopy { SEM) . When compared to firm tissue, softened tissue cell walls were swollen and striated, and the middle lamellae were poorly stained by the uranyl acetate-1 ead citrate used in TEM . When the tissue was penetrated by a circu l ar punch {1.5 mm diameter), cells in soft tissue tore along the middle l arne ll ae rather than across cell walls, as did cells in firm ...


The Size Distribution Of Bovine Casein Micelles: A Review, C. Holt Jan 1985

The Size Distribution Of Bovine Casein Micelles: A Review, C. Holt

Food Structure

This review considers the average size and size distribution of bovine casein micelles as measured by electron microscopy, light scattering and controlled pore glass chromatography, and the origin and biological function of the size distribution.

Recent work by electron microscopy has given average sizes in reasonable agreement with measurements on the same milk sample by light scattering . It is suggested that natural variations in averaqe micelle size and overestimation of micelle radii by light scattering methods as well as deficiencies in electron microscopical methodology were responsible for past discrepancies.

Electron microscopy and controlled pore glass chromatography provide evidence that in ...


The Effect Of Salt And Pyrophosphate On The Structure Of Meat, C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer Jan 1984

The Effect Of Salt And Pyrophosphate On The Structure Of Meat, C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer

Food Structure

Our obective was to determine whether or not salt and pyrophosphate have the same effect on the structure of pieces of meat as they have on isolated myofibrils. Blocks of pig M. longissimus dorsi were incubated in solutions of sodium chloride at pH 5.5 or sodium chloride plus sodium pyrophosphate at pH 5.5 or 8.0. The blocks were obtained from fresh (24h post- mortem) or aged (72h post-mor tem) muscle and incubated for 5 or 24h with minimal agitation. There was considerable uptake of water by the tissue especially at the higher pH and longer times.

Electron ...


Electron Microscopic Investigations Of The Cell Structure In Fresh And Processed Vegetables (Carrots And Green Bean Pods), Monika Grote, Hans Georg Fromme Jan 1984

Electron Microscopic Investigations Of The Cell Structure In Fresh And Processed Vegetables (Carrots And Green Bean Pods), Monika Grote, Hans Georg Fromme

Food Structure

The cell structure of fresh, blanched, boiled. dried and rehydrated tissues from carrot roots and green bean pods was examined in the scanning and/or transmission electron microscope. The secondary phloem of carrot roots represents a typical plant storage parenchyma characterized by a high starch and lipid content. Green bean pods show many characteristics of assimilation tissue (e.g. chloroplasts). but they also contain a considerable amount of starch. Blanching, boiling, de- and rehydration affect the texture of both vegetables in a similar way: swelling of cell walls. maceration of tissue during blanching and boiling coupled with a granular denaturation ...


Microstructure Of Winged Beans, K. Saio, Y. Nakano, S. Uemoto Jan 1983

Microstructure Of Winged Beans, K. Saio, Y. Nakano, S. Uemoto

Food Structure

Microstructures of seven plant introductions of winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) produced in Okinawa, Japan were investigated. In cotyledonary cells of winged beans, protein bodies plus numerous lipid bodies were distributed in a cytoplasmic network. Starch granules were often found in some introductions but rarely in others. All seven introductions had very thick cell walls. The high protein, fat and hemicellulose contents of winged beans are consistent with the numerous protein bodies, lipid bodies and thick cell walls in the mature cotyledonary cells. The cell walls contained a number of depressions or cavities 1 to 2 lJ m deep which frequently ...


Structure And Properties Of The Particulate Constituents Of Human Milk. A Review., M. Ruegg, B. Blanc Jan 1982

Structure And Properties Of The Particulate Constituents Of Human Milk. A Review., M. Ruegg, B. Blanc

Food Structure

Milk contains different types of colloidal or coarsely dispersed particles, such as casein micelles, membrane fragments, fat globules and cells. The fat globules are composed of subpopulations of differently sized particles. In contrast to COW 1S milk, the overall average diameter (dys), increases with advancing lactation from about 1.8 ~min colostrum to 4.0 ~min mature milk. Membrane materials originating from the milk fat globule membrane, plasma membrane, secretory vesicles and other sources can be found in milk serum. These particles have also been called lipoprotein particles. Their size ranges from about 10 - 400 nm. New results concerning the ...