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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Seed Microstructure And Its Relationship To Water Uptake In Isogenic Lines And A Cultivar Of Dry Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), George N. Agbo, George L. Hosfield, Mark A. Uebersax, Karen Klomparens Jan 1987

Seed Microstructure And Its Relationship To Water Uptake In Isogenic Lines And A Cultivar Of Dry Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), George N. Agbo, George L. Hosfield, Mark A. Uebersax, Karen Klomparens

Food Structure

Comparisons using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were made among seeds of the isogenic bean strains, 'Nep - 2' and 'San Fernando' and 'Sanilac', a navy bean cultivar, to ascertain interrelationships between seed microstructure and water absorption characteristics. During a 90 min soaking period 1:1 (v /v) tap and distilled water, 'San Fernando' hydrated at the s lowest rate and imbibed water at only 60% and 78% of the percentages of water imbibed by 'Sanilac' and 'Nep-2', respec tively. Among the three bean genotypes, 'Sanilac' hydrated the most rapidly and imbibed the most water (5 2.9% ). 'Nep - 2' was intermediate ...


The Size Distribution And Shape Of Curd Granules In Traditional Swiss Hard And Semi-Hard Cheeses, M. Ruegg, U. Moor Jan 1987

The Size Distribution And Shape Of Curd Granules In Traditional Swiss Hard And Semi-Hard Cheeses, M. Ruegg, U. Moor

Food Structure

Curd granule junction patterns in hard (Emmentaler, Gruyere, Sbrinz) and semi-hard cheeses (Appenzeller , Tilsiter, Raclette) were visualized on slices and examined using light microscopy and digital image analysis. Horizontal and vertical sections were cut in different zones of the loaves, in order to obtain information on the orientation of the flattened curd granules.

The frequency histograms of the cross section areas could in most cases adequately be described as a log-normal distribution. The median values ranged from 0.97 to 1.15 mm2 and, from 1.31 to 1.68 mm2 for hard and semi-hard cheeses, respectively.

An elliptical form ...


An Electron Spin Resonance Study Of Stearic Acid Interactions In Model Wheat Starch And Gluten Systems, L. E. Pearce, E. A. Davis, J. Gordon, W. G. Miller Jan 1987

An Electron Spin Resonance Study Of Stearic Acid Interactions In Model Wheat Starch And Gluten Systems, L. E. Pearce, E. A. Davis, J. Gordon, W. G. Miller

Food Structure

Electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to examine interactions of 16- Doxyl stearic acid in wheat starch-water (starch:water "'1: 1), vital wheat gluten-water and glut en-starch-water model systems, Immobilization of the 16-Doxyl stearic acid, shown by broadIine ESR powder patterns , occurred in wheat starch model systems. In contrast to the starch systems, 16-Doxylstearic acid in gluten-water systems did not display broad line powder patterns. Broadened 3- line ESR spectra were recorded for the gluten-water-16- 0oxyl stearic acid, Th is result was probably due to s pin probe which was bound, and spin probe which was bound in different water ...


Cellular Rupture And Release Of Protoplasm And Protein Bodies From Bean And Pea Cotyledons During Imbibition, Stephen C. Spaeth, Joe S. Hughes Jan 1987

Cellular Rupture And Release Of Protoplasm And Protein Bodies From Bean And Pea Cotyledons During Imbibition, Stephen C. Spaeth, Joe S. Hughes

Food Structure

Imbibition is a critical phase in germination and processing of legume seeds because cellular disruption during imbibition may influence seedling vigor and processing quality Cellular disruption of cotyledonary surfaces of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and peas (Pisum sacivum L.) and the cellular contents released during imbibition were examined with scanning electron microscopy. Two types of c e llular disruption we r e observed during imbibition: ruptures and fractures. Individual cells and small groups of cells on t he surfnces of cotyledons ruptured after immersion in water. Ruptured cells had flaps of cell walls which remained attached to intact portions of ...


Effects Of Drying Techniques On Milk Powders Quality And Microstructure: A Review, Marijana Caric, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1987

Effects Of Drying Techniques On Milk Powders Quality And Microstructure: A Review, Marijana Caric, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

The quality of milk powders is markedly affected by the composition and properties of the milk, the manufacturing procedures, thermal processing during manufacture and, in particular, the drying technique itself. A variety of physico-chemical analytical methods, including scanning electron microscopy, has been used to obtain information on the effects of the various factors on the microstructure of the milk powders. Roller-drying, which has recently lost its commercial importance, produces a sheet of dried milk that is powdered in a hammer mill. The resulting powder consists of compact particles with sharp edges. Powders obtained by spray-drying are in the form of ...


Influence Of Delignifying Agents On Tissue Structure In Bermudagrass Stems, D. E. Akin, L. L. Rigsby, F. E. Barton, P. Gelfand, D. S. Himmelsbach, W. R. Windham Jan 1987

Influence Of Delignifying Agents On Tissue Structure In Bermudagrass Stems, D. E. Akin, L. L. Rigsby, F. E. Barton, P. Gelfand, D. S. Himmelsbach, W. R. Windham

Food Structure

Permanganate, dioxane, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide, which delignify plant materials, were evaluated for their disruptive action on plant structure, the ir modification of histological reactions for Iignins, and their change in in vitro digestibility by rumen microorganisms of yollng-Tsecond internode from top) and old (fourth and fifth internodes) bermudagrass stems. Epidermis, sclerenchymaring, and vascular tissue (except phloem) gave positive reactions with acid phloroglucinol (AP) or chlorinesulfite (CS) in all samples , whereas cortex and parenchyma in older stems gave a positive reaction with CS. Treatment with delignifying agents reduced the reactions for lignin, with permanganate- treated tissues having the least reaction ...


Textural Properties And Structure Of Starch-Reinforced Surimi Gels As Affected By Heat-Setting, J. M. Kim, C. M. Lee, L. A. Hufnagel Jan 1987

Textural Properties And Structure Of Starch-Reinforced Surimi Gels As Affected By Heat-Setting, J. M. Kim, C. M. Lee, L. A. Hufnagel

Food Structure

The gel forming behavior of red hake (Urophycis chuss) surimi with and without starch and its relationship to the structure of the gel matrix were studied. For surimi gels without starch, a combination of preheat- setting at 40 C and cooking at 90 C resulted in significantly greater gel strength than cooking alone. However, preheat - setting of gels containing wheat or potato starch had no significant effect on gel strength demonstrating an opposite trend in gel strength due to the differences in swelling power, water holding ability and gelatinization temperature between potato and wheat starches. This difference in gel forming ...


Physical And Molecular Properties Of Lipid Polymorphs - A Review, K. Sato Jan 1987

Physical And Molecular Properties Of Lipid Polymorphs - A Review, K. Sato

Food Structure

The physical and molecular properties of the polymorphism of stearic acid, oleic acid and SOS (1.3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol) are comparatively discussed. Temperature dependence of Gibbs energy (G-T relation) of three polymorphs of stearic acid; A, B and C, revealed close relationships to each other. The molecular structures subtly differed in these polymorphs. In contrast, three plymorphs of oleic acid, b , and y exhibited remarkably different characteristics. G-T relation showed more diversified features: in particular, the melting points of 9 and B differ by 3 C. An order-disorder transformation occured between 9 and y, as a result of conformational disordering the ...


Effect Of Clotting In Stomachs Of Infants On Protein Digestibility Of Milk, S. Nakai, E. Li-Chan Jan 1987

Effect Of Clotting In Stomachs Of Infants On Protein Digestibility Of Milk, S. Nakai, E. Li-Chan

Food Structure

Differences in clotting between human and cow's milk in the stomachs of infants are discussed. Gastric pH, after ingesting milk, of an infant up to 6 months of age stays at a pH range of 4-5, near the isoelectric point of casein, and never reaches the value of 2, which is found in adults. Pepsin C (or gastricsin) can hydrolyze proteins at this pH range. Gastric emptying time is shorter with human milk than with cow's milk which appears to be correlated to the smaller size of human milk clots. Elimination of a readily coagulable fraction of casein ...


Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy In Food Research: Some Observations, I. Heertje, P. Van Der Vlist, J. C. G. Blonk, H. A. C. M. Hendrickx, G. J. Brakenhoff Jan 1987

Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy In Food Research: Some Observations, I. Heertje, P. Van Der Vlist, J. C. G. Blonk, H. A. C. M. Hendrickx, G. J. Brakenhoff

Food Structure

Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM) has advantages over conventional light microscopy and electron microscopy. In particular the possibility to perform optical sectioning, allowing the disturbance free observation of the three-dimensional internal structure, offers new possibilities in microstructural studies of food systems. The technique is further considered to be very valuable in the study of dynamic processes and transport phenomena. Preliminary results are discussed of an investigation into the microstructure of fat spreads, mayonnaise, cheese and rising dough using this CSLM technique.


The Microstructure And Rehydration Properties Of The Phoenix Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Sajor Caju) Dried By Three Alternative Processes, Brigitte Li-Shing-Tat, Pavel Jelen Jan 1987

The Microstructure And Rehydration Properties Of The Phoenix Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Sajor Caju) Dried By Three Alternative Processes, Brigitte Li-Shing-Tat, Pavel Jelen

Food Structure

The aim of this investigation was to observe the effects of three drying methods on the microstructure and rehydration properties of the Phoenix Oyster mushroom. Mushrooms were dried at 55C by air-, freeze- and vacuum-drying pilot plant processes. At the microstructural level, the hyphae of the air-dried samples were more flattened and collapsed than the vacuum - and freeze dried samples. The Basidia were distorted by all three treatments to a certain extent, but there seemed to be less damage on the gill surface of the vacuum-dried samples. Appearance, rehydration time and capacity were similar for freeze- and vacuum-dried mushrooms; air-dried ...


Microstructural Studies Of Texturized Vegetable Protein Products: Effects Of Oil Addition And Transformation Of Raw Materials In Various Sections Of A Twin Screw Extruder, S. Gwiazda, A. Noguchi, K. Saio Jan 1987

Microstructural Studies Of Texturized Vegetable Protein Products: Effects Of Oil Addition And Transformation Of Raw Materials In Various Sections Of A Twin Screw Extruder, S. Gwiazda, A. Noguchi, K. Saio

Food Structure

In high-temperature short- time extrusion cooking with a twin screw extruder , effects of oil addition to defatted soybean flour and microstructural transformation of full - fat soybean flour during cooking , were investigated by use of a light microscope. At levels up to 15% , soybean oil was distributed in the protein and carbohydrate matrix as small, spherical drops under the experimental conditions used in this study. However , oil contents above 15% significantly prevented formation of well-aligned fibrous structures in the extrudates . During extrusion cooking , the starting materials began to break down by shearing and kneading forces in the feed section but gross ...


Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies Of The Cellular Changes In Raw, Fermented And Dried Cocoa Beans, A. S. Lopez, P. S. Dimick, R. M. Walsh Jan 1987

Scanning Electron Microscopy Studies Of The Cellular Changes In Raw, Fermented And Dried Cocoa Beans, A. S. Lopez, P. S. Dimick, R. M. Walsh

Food Structure

Cocoa beans are submitted to a curing process of fermentation and drying to develop flavor precursors . The beans must have reached maturity; otherwise, no amount of processing can produce the desired flavor . Early work with cacao cell cultures showed that only when the cells have "matured" co uld a chocolate or cocoa flavor result from further processing. Fermentation is therefore required because unfermented beans may develop little chocolate flavor when roasted . likewise , the outcome of excessive fermentation may also result in unwanted flavor . Thus , the first major post - harvesting phase t o have an impact on flavor development is that ...


Internal Porosity Of Corn Extrudate Air Cell Wall, Samuel H. Cohen, Charles A. Voyle Jan 1987

Internal Porosity Of Corn Extrudate Air Cell Wall, Samuel H. Cohen, Charles A. Voyle

Food Structure

Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe structures within the air cell wall of a corn-based extrudate. Modified fixation and embedding techniques were employed to obtain optimum thin sections. Photomicrographs from these sections showed minute air cells measuring approximately 5 um or less. The size of air cells might impose a limiting factor on the infusion of particulate materials throughout the extrudate matrix.


Microbial Cell Division And Separation: Effect Of Citrate On The Growth Of Group N Streptococci, S. Ito, T. Kobayashi, K. Ozaki, T. Morichi, M. Saitoh Jan 1987

Microbial Cell Division And Separation: Effect Of Citrate On The Growth Of Group N Streptococci, S. Ito, T. Kobayashi, K. Ozaki, T. Morichi, M. Saitoh

Food Structure

In the presence of citrate, some strains of lactic streptococci grow as long chains of innumerable cells. The results with citrate-negative and citrate-resistant variants suggest that citrate is involved in the cell separation system of the streptococci. Observations of the long chains under scanning and transmission electron microscopes suggest that citrate inhibits a certain step near the final cell separation, or that citrate can stimulate initiation of cell division at multiple sites, thereby leading to the cells in long chains.


The Morphology Of Black Tea Cream, R. D. Bee, M. J. Izzard, R. S. Harbron, J. M. Stubbs Jan 1987

The Morphology Of Black Tea Cream, R. D. Bee, M. J. Izzard, R. S. Harbron, J. M. Stubbs

Food Structure

The colloidal precipitate known as tea cream, which separates when a hot aqueous infusion of black tea is cooled, is investigated by electron microscopic (EM) techniques of shadowing, sectioning, freeze-etching and scanning and also by optical microscopy. These indicate tea cream to be an association colloid, the morphology of which depends on overall solids concentration. Dilute infusions (0.1% w/w) produce macromolecular aggregates of about 50 run, but at higher tea solids concentrations secondary aggregation of the initial particles results in ill-defined clusters of approximately 1 um in diameter. At 5% w/w, clear , spherical liquid droplets, typically 1-2 ...


Textural Properties And Microstructure Of Process Cheese Food Rework, Miloslav Kalab, Joseph Yun, Suk Hing Yiu Jan 1987

Textural Properties And Microstructure Of Process Cheese Food Rework, Miloslav Kalab, Joseph Yun, Suk Hing Yiu

Food Structure

Process cheese food was made using sodium citrate (2.7%) or trisodium phosphate (TSP, 2.7%) as emulsifying agents. No precooked cheese (rework) was used in some samples whereas in others the rework (20%) consisted of a cheese blend emulsified with sodium citrate (2.7%) and (a) briefly heated to 82 degrees C, (b) heated to 82 degrees C for 1 h, (c) heated to 82 degrees C for 5 h, and (d) heated to 82 degrees C for 5 h, frozen at -10 degrees C for 24 h, and thawed at +4 degrees C. Heating for extended periods of ...


Structural Binding Properties Of Silvercarp (Hypophtalmichthys Molitrix) Muscle Affected By Nacl And Cacl2 Treatments, Ilan Shomer, Zwi G. Weinberg, Roza Vasiliver Jan 1987

Structural Binding Properties Of Silvercarp (Hypophtalmichthys Molitrix) Muscle Affected By Nacl And Cacl2 Treatments, Ilan Shomer, Zwi G. Weinberg, Roza Vasiliver

Food Structure

The texture of restructured muscle products is well known to be strongly affected by various salts. In the present work the effects of NaCl and CaCl2 on the ultrastructure of both fresh and cooking salted silvercarp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) muscle were examined, in order to elucidate the heat-initiated binding phenomenon. Sodium chloride at 0.3 and 1.5% caused swelling and fusion of the myofibrils and loss of arrayed structure. Calcium chloride at all the tested concentrations resulted in shrinkage of myofibrils, The present study demonstrated two main effects of salts on the ultrastructure of fish muscles: (i) swelling of myofibrils ...


The Influence Of Ingredients And Processing Variables On The Quality And Microstructure Of Hokkien, Cantonese And Instant Noodles, R. Moss, P. J. Gore, I. C. Murray Jan 1987

The Influence Of Ingredients And Processing Variables On The Quality And Microstructure Of Hokkien, Cantonese And Instant Noodles, R. Moss, P. J. Gore, I. C. Murray

Food Structure

Light and scanning electron microscopy have been used as a part of a research program designed to study the influence of flour quality and processing variables on three of the noodle types that are popular in South East Asia . The noodles selected for study were Cantonese, Hokkien and modern instant. They represent the range of cooking and processing variables that are commonly encountered in these products . Flour particle size and the choice of alkaline ingredients influence protein development during the sheeting process . A continuous protein matrix is required in t he raw noodle if it is to have good eating ...


Effect Of Ionizing Irradiation And Storage On Mushroom Ultrastructure Ii. The Stipe And The Upper Part Of The Cap Of Agaricus Bisporus (Lge. Imbach), A. Keresztes, E. Kovacs Jan 1987

Effect Of Ionizing Irradiation And Storage On Mushroom Ultrastructure Ii. The Stipe And The Upper Part Of The Cap Of Agaricus Bisporus (Lge. Imbach), A. Keresztes, E. Kovacs

Food Structure

After having investigated t he ultra structural effects of ionizing irradiation used for shelf -life extension , on the gills of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus previously , it was of interest to examine how other parts of the fruit body were affected by t he same treatment . Samples were taken from the lower and upper parts of the stipe and from the upper part of t he cap of the control , stored , and irradiate d (2.5 kGy ) t he n stored A. bisporus fruit bodies. Transmission electron microscopy sh owed that irradiated samples generally retained plasm- content , which dramatically decreased ...


Product Morphology Of Fatty Products, I. Heertje, M. Leunis, W. J.M. Van Zeyl, E. Berends Jan 1987

Product Morphology Of Fatty Products, I. Heertje, M. Leunis, W. J.M. Van Zeyl, E. Berends

Food Structure

In order to relate composition, processing and product properties of fat spreads, a proper description of the microstructure of these products is required . A technique for the observation of the three-dimensional product structure has been developed which allows free observation of the solid crystalline matrix by removing the liquid oil phase from a fat spread with a solvent system. To perform the different preparation steps required in a reproducible and efficient way, a special sample holder was constructed. Application of preformed sintered bronze elements allows free penetration of the organic solvents. In general, reproducible results are obtained with retention of ...


The Crystallization Of Calcium Phosphate At The Surface Of Mould-Ripened Cheeses, B. E. Brooker Jan 1987

The Crystallization Of Calcium Phosphate At The Surface Of Mould-Ripened Cheeses, B. E. Brooker

Food Structure

Samples of several different types of mouldripened cheese were examined by light and electron microscopy for evidence of calcium phosphate crystallization near their surfaces , which, it was predicted , should result from the pH changes that take place in the rind during ripening . Transmission electron microscopy showed that characteristic convoluted crystals appeared in the rind as mould growth developed and that there was good evidence that at least some of the crystal nucleation was taking place inside effete hyphae. Light microscopy showed that this coincided with the appearance of birefringent, phosphate-rich crystals in the cheese rind which were tentatively identified as ...


The Effects Of Polysorbate 80 On The Fat Emulsion In Ice Cream Mix: Evidence From Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies, H. D. Goff, M. Liboff, W. K. Jordan, J. E. Kinsella Jan 1987

The Effects Of Polysorbate 80 On The Fat Emulsion In Ice Cream Mix: Evidence From Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies, H. D. Goff, M. Liboff, W. K. Jordan, J. E. Kinsella

Food Structure

Emulsifiers are used in ice cream to produce a dry, smooth textured product with desireable melting properties. They function by promoting a partial destabilization of the fat emulsion. Polyoxythylene sorbitan monooleate is used very commonly in the ice cream industry for this purpose. The objective of this research was to examine by transmission electron microscopy the differences in the fat globules in typical ice cream mix emulsions prepared with and without 0.08% polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate.

Ice cream mix was combined 3:1 with a 2% solultion of ultralow gelling temperature agarose at 20 degrees C, fixed with 4% glutaraldehyde ...


Fluorescence And Light Microscopic Analysis Of Digested Oat Bran, S. H. Yiu, R. Mongeau Jan 1987

Fluorescence And Light Microscopic Analysis Of Digested Oat Bran, S. H. Yiu, R. Mongeau

Food Structure

The Structural and chemical compositions of digested oat bran were analyzed by fluorescence and other types of light microscopy. The digestion of oat bran was carried out under two conditions - in vitro, by incubation with human saliva, and in vivo, by feeding rats with an oat-bran supplemented diet. Comparison of the digestive breakdown among different structural components of oat bran was conducted by microscopically examining samples obtained from the tents of the large intestine (LIC) of the rats. Results of the examinations revealed that the (1-3) (1-4) - B - D - glucan - rich cell wall of the subaleurone layer, along with its ...