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Rheological And Ultrastructural Studies Of Wheat Kernel Behaviour Under Compression As A Function Of Water Content, A. Al Saleh, D. J. Gallant Jan 1985

Rheological And Ultrastructural Studies Of Wheat Kernel Behaviour Under Compression As A Function Of Water Content, A. Al Saleh, D. J. Gallant

Food Structure

The rhea logical behaviour of two wheat varieties (Triticum durum), cultivated at different sites, was studied by INSTRON* as a function of water content. Patterns of crushed grains were investigated by scanning electron microscopy . The apparent modulus of elasticity of the wheat grains was apparently re 1 a ted to their vitreosity. The mealy grain generally had an apparent modulus of elasticity lower than that of the vitreous one and the modulus appeared to be related to the air spaces in mealy endosperm. Humidification favoured the conversion of vitreous endosperm to the mealy state. Grain morphology and particularly the kernel ...


A Fluorescence Microscopic Study Of Cheese, S. H. Yiu Jan 1985

A Fluorescence Microscopic Study Of Cheese, S. H. Yiu

Food Structure

Fluorescence techniques were used to study the microstructure of several varieties of cheese. The size and distribution of fat globules in various cheeses were demonstrated by fluorescent staining using Nile Blue A as a marker. Acridine Orange was used as a dye to detect structural differences between casein matrices of various cheese varieties. Differences between the ripe and the less- ripe zones of Ca membert cheese were detected by staining the cheese sections with Acridine Orange and Nile Blue A separately, and then comparing the re sults of the stainings. The Nile Blue A stain ing s howed that fat ...


Microstructural Changes In Maturing Seeds Of The Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), Joe S. Hughes, Barry G. Swanson Jan 1985

Microstructural Changes In Maturing Seeds Of The Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), Joe S. Hughes, Barry G. Swanson

Food Structure

Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans were collected at weekly intervals throughout maturation and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No major structural changes were observed on the surface of the seed coat during the seven week study period. A cross-sectional examination of the seed coat revealed a substantial increase in thickness of the parenchyma cell layer in young seeds followed by a dramatic decrease in thickness as the seed approached maturity. In the cotyledons, the diameter of the storage cells and starch granules increased over time, with distinct protein bodies becoming visible only in the later stages of maturity ...


Rheological And Scanning Electron Microscopic Examination Of Skim Milk Gels Obtained By Fermenting With Ropy And Non-Ropy Strains Of Lactic Acid Bacteria, S. M. Schellhaass, H. A. Morris Jan 1985

Rheological And Scanning Electron Microscopic Examination Of Skim Milk Gels Obtained By Fermenting With Ropy And Non-Ropy Strains Of Lactic Acid Bacteria, S. M. Schellhaass, H. A. Morris

Food Structure

Physical and rheological parameters of skim milk gels fermented with slime producing (ropy) cultures and non-ropy cultures were compared. The skim milk gels were made from steamed reconstituted nonfat dry milk inoculated with 2% of a single strain starter culture and incubated at 32, 37, and 45°C until pH 4. 5 + 0.05 was attained.

Skim milk gels fermented by slime-producing strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, Streptococcus cremoris, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus exhibited similar rheological and physical characteristics. Electron micrographs of the ropy skim milk cultures showed that slime produced by the organisms was associated with the cell surface as well ...


Changes In Typical Organelles In Developing Cotyledons Of Soybean, K. Saio, K. Kondo, T. Sugimoto Jan 1985

Changes In Typical Organelles In Developing Cotyledons Of Soybean, K. Saio, K. Kondo, T. Sugimoto

Food Structure

Soybean cotyledonary cells harvested every 5-10 days at 15 to 60 days after flowering (OAF), were investigated by means of light and transmission electron microscopy. In the early developing stages (15-20 OAF) most of the cells were occupied by large, centrally located vacuoles while the cytoplasm was restricted to a thin layer against the cell wall and contained numerous ribosomes, mitochondria, plastids, small amounts of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and minute lipid bodies. At about 25 OAF, spherical organelles which contained protein, lipid and sugar (PLS bodies), appeared and then increased in number and in size. Vacuoles had protein deposits lining ...


Structure Of Coarse And Fine Fractions Of Corn Samples Ground On The Stenvert Hardness Tester, Y. Pomeranz, Z. Czuchajowska Jan 1985

Structure Of Coarse And Fine Fractions Of Corn Samples Ground On The Stenvert Hardness Tester, Y. Pomeranz, Z. Czuchajowska

Food Structure

Kernels from a pair of isogenic lines (with regard to hardness) and two commercial hybrids of dent corn (that varied in hardness) were ground on the Stenvert Hardness Tester and separated by sieving into coarse (>0.710 mm) and fine (<0.500 mm) fractions. The corn samples differed little in oil contents. The coarse particles from the hard corn samples were angular and sharp-edged; those from the soft corn samples were rounded. The yield of coarse particles was higher and they contained less oil in hard than in soft corn. Fine particles from all four corn samples had higher oil content than the coarse particles. Visual examination, observation at low magnification under a light microscope, and use of a scanning electron microscope revealed consistent differences in the extent and mode of corn kernel breakdown during grinding. Particles in the coarse fraction from hard kernels were to a large extent intact with little exposure of their contents. In the soft kernels, particles in the coarse fraction were broken extensively and their contents exposed. It is postulated that differences in the extent of mechanical breakdown and oil content are related to differences in shelf life of corn grits.


Ultrastructural Study Of Yam Tuber As Related To Postharvest Hardness, L. Sealy, S. Renaudin, D. J. Gallant, B. Bouchet, J. M. Brillouet Jan 1985

Ultrastructural Study Of Yam Tuber As Related To Postharvest Hardness, L. Sealy, S. Renaudin, D. J. Gallant, B. Bouchet, J. M. Brillouet

Food Structure

Usually, parenchyma cell walls of monocotyledons do not develop secondary walls; however a few days after harvesting, the yam tuber of Dioscorea dumetorum starts to harden. Two or three weeks Iater, hardness is so pronounced that the tubers cannot be eaten, even after a long cooking time.

Cytochemical studies using autofluorescence or some fluorescent dyes, such as phloroglucinol hydrochloride showed that the thin, and flexible cell walls of parenchyma tubers very quickly became fully lignified after harvesting. Ultrastructura 1 stud ies of the hardened ce 11 wa 11 s showed very thick secondary wa 11 s and very deep pit ...


The Microstructure Of Wheat: Its Development And Conversion Into Bread, D, B. Bechtel Jan 1985

The Microstructure Of Wheat: Its Development And Conversion Into Bread, D, B. Bechtel

Food Structure

Wheat endosperm development has been studied in numerous laboratories. The genera 1 i zed scheme of protein body formation assembled from these data indicates that storage proteins are initially formed in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The storage proteins in RER may be processed via the Golgi apparatus into vesicles that enlarge by several mechanisms into membrane-bounded protein bodies. The prote in bodies are transported through the cytoplasm to the vacuole where they fuse with the tonoplast and deposit the protein granules into the vacuoles. The protein granules fuse with one another, lose water, and eventually become transformed into the ...


Ultrastructural Studies On The Cultivation Processes And Growth And Development Of The Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus Bisporus, D. A. Wood, G. D. Craig, P. T. Atkey, R. J. Newsam, K. Gull Jan 1985

Ultrastructural Studies On The Cultivation Processes And Growth And Development Of The Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus Bisporus, D. A. Wood, G. D. Craig, P. T. Atkey, R. J. Newsam, K. Gull

Food Structure

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) , transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy have been used to study various processes in the cultivation of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus . Mushrooms are cultured on composted wheat straw. The microbial degradation processes during composting have been visualised by TEM and SEM and correlated with microbiological studies . Various modes of attack by the microorganisms on the plant cell walls can be seen. Most rapid degradation occurred on the cuticle and phloem and spread to other cell types. Microbial attack was found to be nonuniform between tissue types and individual cells. The mycelium of Agaricus bisporus colonised ...


Combining Microscopy And Physical Techniques In The Study Of Cocoa Butter Polymorphs And Vegetable Fat Blends, J. D. Hicklin, G. G. Jewell, J. F. Heathcock Jan 1985

Combining Microscopy And Physical Techniques In The Study Of Cocoa Butter Polymorphs And Vegetable Fat Blends, J. D. Hicklin, G. G. Jewell, J. F. Heathcock

Food Structure

Transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction have been used to study the cocoa butter polymorphs and blends of cocoa butter with a hydrogenated vegetable fat. The results indicate the presence of six polymorphs and confirm observations made by other workers. Vegetable fat addition affects both the molecular structure and the morphology of the crystals observed. After temperature cycling, a blend containing 50% vegetable fat developed two crystal types and differences in the X-ray pattern were apparent. Correlations could be made between the known molecular structure and the morphology observed in most of the polymorphs. In selected cases ...


Comparison Of The Microstructure Of Firm And Stem-End Softened Cucumber Pickles Preserved By Brine Fermentation, W. M. Walter Jr., H. P. Fleming, R. N. Trigiano Jan 1985

Comparison Of The Microstructure Of Firm And Stem-End Softened Cucumber Pickles Preserved By Brine Fermentation, W. M. Walter Jr., H. P. Fleming, R. N. Trigiano

Food Structure

Soft and firm stem end tissues of cucumbers fermented at a low concentration of sodium chloride were examined by a combination of light microscopy {LM), transmission electron microscopy { TEM), and scanning electron microscopy { SEM) . When compared to firm tissue, softened tissue cell walls were swollen and striated, and the middle lamellae were poorly stained by the uranyl acetate-1 ead citrate used in TEM . When the tissue was penetrated by a circu l ar punch {1.5 mm diameter), cells in soft tissue tore along the middle l arne ll ae rather than across cell walls, as did cells in firm ...


Crystal Morphology Of Cocoa Butter, D. M. Manning, P. S. Dimick Jan 1985

Crystal Morphology Of Cocoa Butter, D. M. Manning, P. S. Dimick

Food Structure

The multiple melting points of triglycerides have been known and studied for more than a century by numerous workers. The ability of fat to undergo polymorphic changes is important mainly due to its effect on product texture and appearance. Polymorphic resolidification during storage of cocoa butter into higher melting forms can destroy the smooth glossy appearance of a confectionery product. This manuscript will review the polymorphic characteristics and composition of cocoa butter from Theobroma cacao. A discussion of common fat behavior relative to tempering and bloom formation will be included. Scanning electron microscopy and polarized light microscopy aided in visually ...


Ultrastructural Ultilization Of Plants By Herbivores, L. H. Harbers Jan 1985

Ultrastructural Ultilization Of Plants By Herbivores, L. H. Harbers

Food Structure

Study of the patterns of ruminal digestion of forages enhances the nutritional knowledge of how specific plant tissues are digested and adds its own dimension by characterizing the specific cells and the complex interactions of ruminal microflora with those tissues. A common pattern of digestibility exists for mono- and dicotyledon leaves: mesophyll and phloem are degraded readily, and sclerenchyma slowly, whereas cuticle and the remaining vascular tissues are rarely utilized . Digestion of stems is limited to parenchymal tissues in monocotyledons and to cortex and parenchyma in dicotyledons. Epidermal silica and cuticle are undigestible and restrict microbial entrance. Calcium oxalate crystals ...


Particle Structure In Spray-Dried Whole Milk And In Instant Skim Milk Powder As Related To Lactose Crystallization, Zenichi Saito Jan 1985

Particle Structure In Spray-Dried Whole Milk And In Instant Skim Milk Powder As Related To Lactose Crystallization, Zenichi Saito

Food Structure

The structure of instant skim milk and whole milk powders was studied by scanning electron microscopy with special respect to lactose crystallization during storage. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to confirm the crystallization. Some samples were ashed in a plasma asher and the residues were also examined by scanning electron microscopy. The structures of instant skim milk and whole milk powder particles were well-preserved after the ashing procedure.

The crystallization of ~X-Iactose hydrate occurred in instant skim milk and whole milk powders according to moisture uptake. In instant skim milk powder, ~X-Iactose hydrate crystals were observed on the particle surface ...


The Size Distribution Of Bovine Casein Micelles: A Review, C. Holt Jan 1985

The Size Distribution Of Bovine Casein Micelles: A Review, C. Holt

Food Structure

This review considers the average size and size distribution of bovine casein micelles as measured by electron microscopy, light scattering and controlled pore glass chromatography, and the origin and biological function of the size distribution.

Recent work by electron microscopy has given average sizes in reasonable agreement with measurements on the same milk sample by light scattering . It is suggested that natural variations in averaqe micelle size and overestimation of micelle radii by light scattering methods as well as deficiencies in electron microscopical methodology were responsible for past discrepancies.

Electron microscopy and controlled pore glass chromatography provide evidence that in ...


Seed Structure And Composition Of Potential New Crops, D. W. Irving, R. Beckler Jan 1985

Seed Structure And Composition Of Potential New Crops, D. W. Irving, R. Beckler

Food Structure

Prosopis , Ol neya , and Amaranthus have potenti a l economic value as food or feed crops fo r a rid /semi- arid r egions. Ma ture seeds of these genera we r e examined using scanning e l ec tron and fluoresce nce microscopy to define a natomy and localize s t or age s truc tures in cells . Pro t ein bodies, some co nt a ini ng phytin inc lu sions , were l oca li zed in the embryos of five Prosopi s s peci es . Prosopis chilensis wa s the only one of the five Prosopis examined ...


Scanning Electron Microscopic Study Of Rockfish Preserved At Either Ambient Temperature Or By Isothermal Freeze-Fixation, L. E. Lampila, V. Mohr, D. S. Reid Jan 1985

Scanning Electron Microscopic Study Of Rockfish Preserved At Either Ambient Temperature Or By Isothermal Freeze-Fixation, L. E. Lampila, V. Mohr, D. S. Reid

Food Structure

Fresh rockfish (Bocaccio, Sebastus paucispinis) fillets were blast frozen and stored at either -5 °C or -20 °C for 60 days . At defined sampling intervals, speci mens were removed and chemically fixed at either ambient temperature or isothermally, at the respective storage temperatures (-5 °C or -20°C) . The results indicated that isothermally freeze - fixed specimens showed a degree of crushing and/or distortion of the muscle fiber, the deposition of presumed ice crystals in the cell membrane, the multi-dimensionality of connective tissue and the preservation of fine detail . In specimens fixed at ambient temperatures , structura l components had relaxed ...


The Light Microscopy Of Triglyceride Digestion, John S. Patton, Russel D. Vetter, Margit Hamosh, Bengt Borgstrom, Mats Lindstrom, Martin C. Carey Jan 1985

The Light Microscopy Of Triglyceride Digestion, John S. Patton, Russel D. Vetter, Margit Hamosh, Bengt Borgstrom, Mats Lindstrom, Martin C. Carey

Food Structure

During fat digestion (lipolysis) a number of physiochemical events can be seen directly by light microscopy. Hydrolysis of emulsified fat droplets bylipases at pHs above about 6.5 proceeds with the formation of visible product phases that may include both crystalline as well as liquid crystalline phases. The crystalline phase is primarily calcium-fatty acid soap and its formation is favored by high calcium concentrations, alkaline pHs, and inhibited by low pH and monoglycerides. The formation of liquid crystalline product phases are favored by low calcium-concentrations. monoglycerides and lipid saturated bile salt solutions. Both phases are solubilized by bile salts but ...


Development Of Microstructure In A Cream Cheese Based On Queso Blanco Cheese, Miloslav Kalab, H. Wayne Modler Jan 1985

Development Of Microstructure In A Cream Cheese Based On Queso Blanco Cheese, Miloslav Kalab, H. Wayne Modler

Food Structure

A Cream cheese was made by mixing cultured high fat cream (5~% fat) with Queso Blanco curd and by homogenizing the mix at 70°C. The final product contained 30. 01. to 33.)% fat and 54.1 to 54.5% moisture. The Queso Blanco curd was obtained by precipitating the casein and denatured whey protein from heated whole milk (b2.~ to SI8.0°C) by bringing the pH to 5.3-5.5 with citric acid, using a continuous process. The extent of denaturation of the whey protein portion varied from 5 to 100%, depending on the heat treatment of the ...


Early Research On The Fibrous Microstructure Of Meat, H. J. Swatland Jan 1985

Early Research On The Fibrous Microstructure Of Meat, H. J. Swatland

Food Structure

The older scientific literature on the histology of skeletal muscle describes the trans verse fragmentation of myofibrils to form sarcomere disks and the attachment of Z lines to the sarcolemma in contracted muscle. These phenomena may now be explained by recent research on the cytoskeletal framework of muscle fibers, particularly desmin and vinculin. The formation of sa rcomere disks might be developed as a simple method to study cytoskeletal integrity in meat. In early research, contraction bands and the disappearance of transverse striations during contraction caused considerable confusion with ordinary light microscopy. These problems were largely resolved by the use ...


Application Of Electron Spin Resonance Techniques To Model Starch Systems, L. E. Pearce, E. A. Davis, J. Gordon, W. G. Miller Jan 1985

Application Of Electron Spin Resonance Techniques To Model Starch Systems, L. E. Pearce, E. A. Davis, J. Gordon, W. G. Miller

Food Structure

Starch model systems were examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques with either 16-DOXYL-stearic acid or TEMPO spin probes in water or hexane. Room temperature starchwater- 16-DOXYL-stearic acid spectra showed strong adsorption occurred between the starch and probe. Starch-water-TEMPO spectra at room temperature did not show strong adsorption between starch and probe, but did show some slowed motion of the probe as a result of different local environments experienced by the probe within the starch granule. Starch-water-probe spectra from systems heated from 45-95° C showed no major differences from unheated samples. Also, no major spectral differences existed for each starch ...


Ultrastructural And Biochemical Investigations Of Mature Human Milk, Robert J. Carroll, Jay J. Basch, John G. Phillips, Harold M. Farrell Jr. Jan 1985

Ultrastructural And Biochemical Investigations Of Mature Human Milk, Robert J. Carroll, Jay J. Basch, John G. Phillips, Harold M. Farrell Jr.

Food Structure

The casein complexes (casein micelles) of human skim milk were evaluated by electron microscopy. Fourteen samples of human milk were obtained from seven donors whose stage of lactation varied from 1 to 23 months. Compositional and biochemical parameters were measured to evaluate the nature of these samples. For mature human milks, 2-13 months of lactation, average percentage of solids-notfat was found to be 8.32 ± 0.16. Protein compositions of the skim milks were studied by the Coomassie blue dye binding method and by SDS-gel electrophoresis; total protein and casein were found to be 0.62 ± 0.18 and 0 ...


Observations On The Air-Serum Interface Of Milk Foams, B. E. Brooker Jan 1985

Observations On The Air-Serum Interface Of Milk Foams, B. E. Brooker

Food Structure

A new rapid method for the preparation of milk foams for transmission electron microscopy is described . The air-serum interface of foams made from skimmed milk consists of a uniform electron dense layer (5 nm thick) to which casein micelles become secondarily attached . Changes in bubble volume lead to the formation of folds of excess interfacial material which project into the aqueous phase. Using collapsed bubble ghosts to study the attachment of micelles to the airserum interface it was concluded that neither disulphide bridge formation nor hydrophobic interactions were of major importance. Similar preparations of interfacial material but without casein micelles ...


Microstructure Of Spray-Dried And Freeze-Dried Microalgal Powders, L. P. Lin Jan 1985

Microstructure Of Spray-Dried And Freeze-Dried Microalgal Powders, L. P. Lin

Food Structure

Chiarella and Spirulina algae were spray-dried and freezedried under several different conditions, and the morphological changes induced were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The internal structure of the particles (granules) was revealed by cryofracturing. The cellular composition of the two algae, method of drying, cell concentration, feed conditions, temperature, and drying times all affected the external morphology of the resulting powders. In the case of spray-drying, at a temperature of 160 °C for 6 sec, the particles shrunk or collapsed; if the drying time was over 10 sec at 160 °C, similar results were observed. The cell concentration affected the ...


Effects Of Emulsifying Agents On The Microstructure And Other Characteristics Of Process Cheese - A Review, Marijana Caric, Miroslav Gantar, Miloslav Kalab Jan 1985

Effects Of Emulsifying Agents On The Microstructure And Other Characteristics Of Process Cheese - A Review, Marijana Caric, Miroslav Gantar, Miloslav Kalab

Food Structure

Sodium phosphates , polyphosphates, and citrates are melting salts (emulsifying agents) most commonly used in the manufacture of process cheese either alone or in mixtures . Their role during processing is to sequester calcium in the natural cheese, to solubilize protein and increase its hydration and swelling, to facilitate emul sification of fat , and to adjust and stabilize pH.

Changes taking place in natural cheese during processing can be studied by microscopy. Micrographs demonstrating the emulsification of fat , presence of salt crystals, and partial solubilization of protein in labo ratory- made and commercial process cheeses have been used to illustrate the various ...


Relation Between Microstructure, Destabilization Phenomena And Rheological Properties Of Whippable Emulsions, W. Buchheim, N. M. Barfod, N. Krog Jan 1985

Relation Between Microstructure, Destabilization Phenomena And Rheological Properties Of Whippable Emulsions, W. Buchheim, N. M. Barfod, N. Krog

Food Structure

The structure of spray-dried whippable emulsions (toppings) containing different types of lipid surfactants, was investigated by electron microscopy using the freeze-fracture technique. The size distribution of the lipid particles within the powders varied with the type of the surfactant used. After reconstitution of the topping powders in water. a strong destabilization phenomenon took place to an extent depending on the type of the surfactant. Simultaneously a crystallization of coalesced lipid particles occurred along with an increase in viscosity of the emulsions. The degree of crystallization was measured by p-NMR. It has been concluded that these phenomena are closely related to ...


The Application Of Light And Scanning Electron Microscopy During Flour Milling And Wheat Processing, R. Moss Jan 1985

The Application Of Light And Scanning Electron Microscopy During Flour Milling And Wheat Processing, R. Moss

Food Structure

Light and scanning electron microscopy have been employed as part of an on-going study on the effect of the milling system on flour composition and quality. Examples are given of some areas where microscopy has been particularly useful in understanding the functional changes that take place during milling or the subsequent processing of the flour . The use of heavy reduction roll pressures was shown to modify gluten protein quality as well as produce the desired increase in starch damage. The use of in-line impact machines not only disrupted flaked flour particles but also fragmented wheat germ and allowed it to ...


The Combined Effects Of The Calcium Activated Factor And Cathepsin D On Skeletal Muscle, E. A. Elgasim, M. Koohmaraie, A. F. Anglemier, W. H. Kennick, E. A. Elkhalifa Jan 1985

The Combined Effects Of The Calcium Activated Factor And Cathepsin D On Skeletal Muscle, E. A. Elgasim, M. Koohmaraie, A. F. Anglemier, W. H. Kennick, E. A. Elkhalifa

Food Structure

Myofibrils were isolated from atdeath ovin elongissimus muscles and incubated with crude calcium activated factor prepared from the same muscle and with purified cathepsin D. Myofibrils we reincubated with these enzymes separately (first incubation) and successively (second incubation). The major changes induced by cathepsin D first incubation include degradation of myofibrillar proteins with molecular weight > 200 K, myosin, actin, troponin- T and troponin 1. Also new bands appeared at the 140- 160 K, 80 K, 68 K and 30 K regions. Similar changes were obtained 1v hen myofibrils were incubated first with CAF then with cathepsin D (second incubation). On ...


Properties Of Calcium Caseinates With Disparate Performance In Imitation Cheese, K. Fleming, R. Jenness, H. A. Morris, R. Schmidt Jan 1985

Properties Of Calcium Caseinates With Disparate Performance In Imitation Cheese, K. Fleming, R. Jenness, H. A. Morris, R. Schmidt

Food Structure

Two commercial lots of calcium caseinate preparations differing in performance imitation cheese were analyzed for various characteristics. A imitation process cheese manufacturing classified the caseinates as good or poor based on appearances of the finished cheese, emulsification of fat, oiling-off during sheeting and melting properties. The sample which exhibited good functional properties in imitation cheese, had slightly higher calcium (16.4 mg/g protein), non-casein protein (2.87%) and y-casein contents, a higher formal titre (8.95 mg free amino N/g protein), lower water absorption (138 mg/100 g protein), and lower stability to added calcium (8.0 min ...


Characterisation Of Milk Proteins In Confectionery Products, J. F. Heathcock Jan 1985

Characterisation Of Milk Proteins In Confectionery Products, J. F. Heathcock

Food Structure

The proteins from milk play an important part in the structural properties of confectionery products. These properties will in turn influence texture and flavour. Electron microscopy techniques have been used to examine milk chocolate, caramel and fudge and to locate and characterise the milk proteins within their structures. Following scanning electron microscopy examination of the products at low temperature, thin sectioning and freeze-fracture were used to resolve the fine ultrastructure of casein and whey proteins.

A chocolate prepared from milk crumb could be distinguished from one made with a dry milk powder on the basis of a more even distribution ...