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Reaction Of Fumonisin With Glucose Prevents Promotion Of Hepatocarcinogenesis In Female F344/N Rats While Maintaining Normal Hepatic Sphinganine/Sphingosine Ratios, Hongjun Liu, Yun Lu, Joseph S. Haynes, Joan E. Cunnick, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich Jul 2001

Reaction Of Fumonisin With Glucose Prevents Promotion Of Hepatocarcinogenesis In Female F344/N Rats While Maintaining Normal Hepatic Sphinganine/Sphingosine Ratios, Hongjun Liu, Yun Lu, Joseph S. Haynes, Joan E. Cunnick, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The reaction of th e primar y am ine of fumonisin B1 (FB1) with glucose was hypoth esized to detoxify th is mycotoxin. Eight y 10-day-old fema le F344/N rat s were injected intra peritoneally with dieth ylnitrosam ine (DEN; 15 mg/kg of body weig ht). At 4 wee ks of age, th e wean ed rat s were ran domly assigned to one of four tr eatm ent groups with 20 rat s each. At 9 wee ks of age, four rat s from each tr eatm ent group were kille d. At 12 wee ks, anoth ...


Selection For Greater Β-Glucan Content In Oat Grain, C. T. Cervantes-Martinez, Kenneth J. Frey, Pamela J. White, D. M. Wesenberg, J. B. Holland Jul 2001

Selection For Greater Β-Glucan Content In Oat Grain, C. T. Cervantes-Martinez, Kenneth J. Frey, Pamela J. White, D. M. Wesenberg, J. B. Holland

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Oat (Avena sativa L.) β-glucan lowers serum cholesterol in humans. Development of oat cultivars with greater groat (caryopsis) β-glucan content would increase the nutritional and economic value of the crop. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the response to phenotypic selection among individual S0 plants for greater groat β-glucan content in two genetically broad-based populations; to compare selected experimental lines to standard check cultivars; and to estimate genetic variances and heritabilities and to test for nonadditive genetic variance for β-glucan content. We measured groat β-glucan contents of check cultivars and parental lines and random S0:1 ...


Optimizing The Oil Extraction/Water Adsorption Step In Sequential Extraction Processing Of Corn, Kathrine V. Miller, Mila P. Hojilla-Evangelista, Lawrence A. Johnson Jul 2001

Optimizing The Oil Extraction/Water Adsorption Step In Sequential Extraction Processing Of Corn, Kathrine V. Miller, Mila P. Hojilla-Evangelista, Lawrence A. Johnson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The Sequential Extraction Process (SEP) uses ethanol to extract oil and protein from cracked, flaked, and dried corn, and the corn simultaneously dehydrates the ethanol. The optimum conditions to reduce zein extraction in the oil extraction/water adsorption step of SEP involved a single–pass system using 15 length/diameter ratio extraction cells, 30% hexanes: 70% ethanol, and 56C extraction temperature, which improved the efficiencies of oil extraction from the corn and moisture adsorption from the ethanol. The extract contained only 0.1% protein in the desolventized solids. The moisture content of the solvent was reduced to 1.03%, and ...


Thermal Properties And Paste And Gel Behaviors Of Starches Recovered From Accessions Used In The Germplasm Enhancement Of Maize Project, S.K. Singh, L. A. Jonhson, Pamela J. White, Jay-Lin Jane, Linda M. Pollak May 2001

Thermal Properties And Paste And Gel Behaviors Of Starches Recovered From Accessions Used In The Germplasm Enhancement Of Maize Project, S.K. Singh, L. A. Jonhson, Pamela J. White, Jay-Lin Jane, Linda M. Pollak

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The objective of this study was to screen starches recovered from the corn accessions used in the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project for unusual thermal properties and paste and gel behaviors, so that they could be exploited in corn breeding programs to enhance traits important to corn utilization. In general, the values for gelatinization temperatures and peak height indices were greater, but heat of gelatinization values were less for the starches recovered from the GEM accessions (particularly BRA 052051 (SE 32)) than for starches from commercial Dent corn hybrids (11.3 vs. 13.6 J/g). Generally, retrogradation properties ...


Seed Physiological Performance Of Soybeans With Altered Saturated Fatty Acid Contents, Tong Wang, Teresa Harp, Earl G. Hammond, Joseph S. Burris, Walter R. Fehr Mar 2001

Seed Physiological Performance Of Soybeans With Altered Saturated Fatty Acid Contents, Tong Wang, Teresa Harp, Earl G. Hammond, Joseph S. Burris, Walter R. Fehr

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds with elevated or reduced percentages of palmitate and elevated percentages of stearate were compared with seeds of typical composition in tests for germination, seedling growth rate and leachate conductivity. In general, seeds with altered compositions did well in these physiological tests, but their vigour tended to be negatively correlated with the percentages of stearate and palmitate in various lipid classes.


An Evaluation Of Edta Compounds For Iron Fortification Of Cereal-Based Foods, Richard F. Hurrell, Manju B. Reddy, Joseph Burri, James D. Cook Dec 2000

An Evaluation Of Edta Compounds For Iron Fortification Of Cereal-Based Foods, Richard F. Hurrell, Manju B. Reddy, Joseph Burri, James D. Cook

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Fe absorption was measured in adult human subjects consuming different cereal foods fortified with radiolabelled FeSO4, ferrous fumarate or NaFeEDTA, or with radiolabelled FeSO4 or ferric pyrophosphate in combination with different concentrations of Na2EDTA. Mean Fe absorption from wheat, wheat–soyabean and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) infant cereals fortified with FeSO4 or ferrous fumarate ranged from 0·6 to 2·2 %. For each infant cereal, mean Fe absorption from ferrous fumarate was similar to that from FeSO4 (absorption ratio 0·91–1·28). Mean Fe absorption from FeSO4-fortified bread rolls was 1·0 ...


Simplified Process For Soybean Glycinin And Â-Conglycinin Fractionation, Shaowen Wu, Patricia A. Murphy, Lawrence A. Johnson, Mark A. Reuber, Alfred R. Fratzke Jun 2000

Simplified Process For Soybean Glycinin And Â-Conglycinin Fractionation, Shaowen Wu, Patricia A. Murphy, Lawrence A. Johnson, Mark A. Reuber, Alfred R. Fratzke

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

A simplification of the pilot-plant scale modified Nagano method yielding two protein fractions, glycinin and â-conglycinin, by pH adjustment and ultrafiltration membrane separation was developed and compared with our pilot-plant-scale modified Nagano procedure and with a soy protein isolate pilot-plant procedure as our reference process. Two protein fractions, glycinin and â-conglycinin, were produced from our simplified process and compared to the three protein fractions, glycinin, â-conglycinin, and an intermediate protein mixture, produced with the modified Nagano method. The pilot-plant yields of glycinin, â-conglycinin, and intermediate mixture fractions from the modified Nagano method were 9.4, 10.3, and 4.8 ...


Oxidative Stability And Aromascan Analyses Of Corn Oils With Altered Fatty Acid Content, N. Shen, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak Dec 1999

Oxidative Stability And Aromascan Analyses Of Corn Oils With Altered Fatty Acid Content, N. Shen, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This project was designed to evaluate the oxidative stability of corn oils with increased total saturated fatty acid composition and to test the feasibility of using the AromaScan, an “electronic nose,” to detect the odors/aromas produced by oxidation. Corn oils with traditional (13.1%) and elevated (14.7 to 17.1%) total saturated fatty acid percentages were evaluated for their oxidative quality. Oils from five corn genotypes were extracted, refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) in the laboratory. Two replications, separated at the point of extraction, were evaluated for each genotype. The RBD corn oils (18.0 g) were stored ...


Excretion Of 14c-Fumonisin B1, 14c-Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1, And 14c-Fumonisin B1-Fructose In Rats, William R. Dantzer, Joan Hopper, Kathleen Mullin, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy Sep 1999

Excretion Of 14c-Fumonisin B1, 14c-Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1, And 14c-Fumonisin B1-Fructose In Rats, William R. Dantzer, Joan Hopper, Kathleen Mullin, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

14C-Fumonisin B1 (FB1) was produced by Fusarium proliferatum M-5991 in modified Myro liquid medium and purified to >95% purity with a specific activity of 1.7 mCi/mmol. Nine male and nine female F344/N rats were each dosed by gavage with 0.69 μmol of 14C-FB1, 14C-hydrolyzed FB1, or 14C-FB1-fructose/kg body weight. Urinary excretion of 14C-FB1 and 14C-FB1-fructose was 0.5% and 4.4% of the total dose, respectively, and was similar between male and female rats. Urinary excretion of 14C-hydrolyzed HFB1 was significantly greater (P > 0.05) in female rats as compared with male rats (17.3 ...


Inhibition Of Non-Haem Iron Absorption In Man By Polyphenolic-Containing Beverages, Richard F. Hurrell, Manju B. Reddy, James D. Cook Apr 1999

Inhibition Of Non-Haem Iron Absorption In Man By Polyphenolic-Containing Beverages, Richard F. Hurrell, Manju B. Reddy, James D. Cook

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The effects of different polyphenol-containing beverages on Fe absorption from a bread meal were estimated in adult human subjects from the erythrocyte incorporation of radio-Fe. The test beverages contained different polyphenol structures and were rich in either phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid in coffee), monomeric flavonoids (herb teas, camomile (Matricaria recutita L.)), vervain (Verbena officinalis L.), lime flower (Tilia cordata Mill.), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) and peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), or complex polyphenol polymerization products (black tea and cocoa). All beverages were potent inhibitors of Fe absorption and reduced absorption in a dose-dependent fashion depending on the content of total polyphenols ...


Estrogenic Activity Of Glycitein, A Soy Isoflavone, Tong T. Song, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy Mar 1999

Estrogenic Activity Of Glycitein, A Soy Isoflavone, Tong T. Song, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Glycitein (4‘,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone) accounts for 5−10% of the total isoflavones in soy food products. The biological activity of this compound has not been reported to date, although numerous studies have been performed with the other soy isoflavones, daidzein and genistein. Glycitein was isolated from soy germ to 99% purity. Weaning female B6D2F1 mice were dosed with glycitein (3 mg/day), genistein (3 mg/day), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) (0.03 μg/day) in 5% Tween 80 by gavage for 4 days. A control group received an equal volume of 5% Tween 80 solution daily. The uterine weight increased 150% with ...


Thermal Properties Of Starch In Corn Variants Isolated After Chemical Mutagenesis Of Inbred Line B73, F. F. Yamin, M. Lee, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White Mar 1999

Thermal Properties Of Starch In Corn Variants Isolated After Chemical Mutagenesis Of Inbred Line B73, F. F. Yamin, M. Lee, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The starch from eight ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) treated M4 families of the corn (Zea mays L.) inbred line B73 was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA), a texture analyzer (TA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with image analysis. The eight families were chosen from 144 families previously selected for having starch with unusual DSC parameters. Apparent amylose contents of the starch from the eight families generally were lower than that of the control. According to DSC, starches from mutagenized families tended to have lower onset temperature (T0) of gelatinization, enthalpy (ΔH) of ...


Allozyme Inheritance In Anise Hyssop [Agastache Foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze] (Lamiaceae), Roger G. Fuentes Granados, Mark P. Widrlechner, Lester A. Wilson Sep 1998

Allozyme Inheritance In Anise Hyssop [Agastache Foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze] (Lamiaceae), Roger G. Fuentes Granados, Mark P. Widrlechner, Lester A. Wilson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The inheritance of five allozymes was studied in anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) by analyzing the progeny of controlled crosses. The loci studied [Cat-1, Got-2, Pgm-2, Tpi-1, and Tpi-2] were scored by using starch gel electrophoresis. Segregation analyses of families polymorphic at each of these loci support the following hypotheses: Cat-1 is controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles; Got-2 is controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles coding for dimeric protein products; Pgm-2 is controlled by a single gene with codominant alleles coding for monomeric proteins; and Tpi-1 andTpi-2 are each controlled by a single gene with ...


Effects Of Pollination Method And Growing Location On Starch Thermal Properties Of Corn Hybrids, K. M. Krieger, Linda M. Pollak, Thomas J. Brumm, Pamela J. White Sep 1998

Effects Of Pollination Method And Growing Location On Starch Thermal Properties Of Corn Hybrids, K. M. Krieger, Linda M. Pollak, Thomas J. Brumm, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Starch gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn were studied to determine the effect of controlled (self) pollination versus noncontrolled pollination on analytical determinations, and the potential to eliminate the expensive and time-consuming step of self-pollinating before research screening of corn genotypes. Twenty-four hybrids were grown in two Iowa locations, Story City and Ames. At Story City, all hybrids received three pollination treatments: self-pollination; small-plot, openpollination (representing corn from small test plots); and large-plot, openpollination (representing corn from a farmer's field). Self-pollinated and small-plot, open-pollinated corn were grown in replicated two-row plots, whereas large-plot, open-pollinated corn was grown in unreplicated ...


Thermal Properties Of Starch From 62 Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L.) Lines Grown In Two Locations, K.Y. Ng, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White Nov 1997

Thermal Properties Of Starch From 62 Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L.) Lines Grown In Two Locations, K.Y. Ng, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The variability in thermal properties among 62 S3 lines derived from a high-yielding exotic corn (Zea mays) population, Antigua 1 (PI 484990), was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The S3 lines were grown in Puerto Rico (1990–1991) and Georgia (1994). Separate single-kernel starch extractions for five kernels (five replicates) from each line grown in each location were performed, and the starch was analyzed. The DSC values reported included gelatinization onset (ToG), range (RG), enthalpy (ΔHG), and peak height index (PHI) and retrogradation onset (ToR), range (RR), enthalpy (ΔHR ...


Survey Of The Fatty Acid Composition Of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Germplasm And Characterization Of Their Epoxy And Eicosenoic Acids, Earl G. Hammond, Daniel Duvick, Tong Wang, Hortense Dodo, R. N. Pittman Oct 1997

Survey Of The Fatty Acid Composition Of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Germplasm And Characterization Of Their Epoxy And Eicosenoic Acids, Earl G. Hammond, Daniel Duvick, Tong Wang, Hortense Dodo, R. N. Pittman

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) plant introductions (732) were analyzed for fatty acid composition. Palmitate varied from 8.2 to 15.1%, stearate 1.1 to 7.2%, oleate 31.5 to 60.2%, linoleate 19.9 to 45.4%, arachidate 0.8 to 3.2%, eicosenoate 0.6 to 2.6%, behenate 1.8 to 5.4%, and lignocerate 0.5 to 2.5%. The eicosenoate was shown to be cis-11-eicosenoate. In addition, epoxy fatty acids were found in many plant introductions in percentages ranging as high as 2.5%. These were tentatively identified as chiefly 9,10-epoxy stearate and ...


Thermal Properties Of Corn Starch Extracted With Different Blending Methods: Microblender And Homogenizer, K. M. Krieger, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White Sep 1997

Thermal Properties Of Corn Starch Extracted With Different Blending Methods: Microblender And Homogenizer, K. M. Krieger, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Thermal properties of starch can be evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC generates data of the thermal parameters of starch, such as onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), and enthalpy of gelatinization (∆H). These parameters may help determine the functionality of specific starches and, therefore, their utility in the food industry. Thermal properties of corn starch can also be used as criteria for selection of desirable lines for breeding purposes to obtain starch with specific properties useful in industry (Meuser et al 1989).


Excretion Of Fumonisin B1, Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1, And The Fumonisin B1−Fructose Adduct In Rats, Ellen C. Hopmans, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy Jul 1997

Excretion Of Fumonisin B1, Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1, And The Fumonisin B1−Fructose Adduct In Rats, Ellen C. Hopmans, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The excretion of fumonisin B1 (FB1), hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1), and FB1−fructose addition products (FB1−fructose) was determined in male Fisher 344/NHsd rats. Rats were dosed by gavage with 0.69, 6.93, or 69.3 μmol/kg of body weight FB1, HFB1, or FB1−fructose. Excretion of unchanged FB1, HFB1, and HFB1 after hydrolysis was determined in urine and feces by analytical reverse phase HPLC and fluorometric detection of the o-phthaldialdehyde derivatives. Average total FB1 backbone excretion in feces was 101, 76, and 50% of the dose for FB1, HFB1, and FB1−fructose, respectively. No effect of ...


Thermal Starch Properties In Corn Belt And Exotic Corn Inbred Lines And Their Crosses, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White Jul 1997

Thermal Starch Properties In Corn Belt And Exotic Corn Inbred Lines And Their Crosses, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

More knowledge is needed about variability of starch functional traits in adapted and exotic germplasm and possible genetic effects of these traits before conducting rigorous inheritance studies and breeding programs for starch quality. We studied and compared the range of variability for starch functional traits in a set of Corn Belt inbred lines with a set of exotic inbred lines from Argentina, Uruguay, and South Africa. Reciprocal hybrids of some of the lines within each set were compared with their parents. Functional traits were examined by using differential scanning calorimetry on starch extracted from single kernels of genotypes. The set ...


Ingredient Selection For Plastic Composite Supports For L-(+)-Lactic Acid Biofilm Fermentation By Lactobacillus Casei Subsp. Rhamnosus, K.L. Ho, A. L. Pometto Iii, P. N. Hinz, James S. Dickson, A. Demirci Jul 1997

Ingredient Selection For Plastic Composite Supports For L-(+)-Lactic Acid Biofilm Fermentation By Lactobacillus Casei Subsp. Rhamnosus, K.L. Ho, A. L. Pometto Iii, P. N. Hinz, James S. Dickson, A. Demirci

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Plastic composite supports containing 50% agricultural products (oat hulls, soybean hulls, yeast extract, soybean flour, dried bovine erythrocytes, bovine albumin, and/or mineral salts) and 50% (wt/wt) polypropylene were produced by high-temperature twin-screw extrusion. The research employed two half sets of a five-factorial fractional design (2(5 - 1)) to evaluate the effects of different agricultural components on the properties of the plastic composite supports and to select the best plastic composite support formulation for lactic acid fermentation. The biofilm population was affected by the contact angle and relative hydrophobicity of the supports (r = 0.79 to 0.82). Lactic ...


Thermal Properties Of Starch From Selected Maize (Zea Mays L.) Mutants During Development, K.Y. Ng, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White May 1997

Thermal Properties Of Starch From Selected Maize (Zea Mays L.) Mutants During Development, K.Y. Ng, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The changes in thermal properties of maize starches during five stages of kernel maturity, (12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 days after pollination [DAP]), from three mutant genotypes, amylose extender (ae), sugary-2 (su2), and waxy (wx) in an OH43 background, and the OH43 genotype were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Within a genotype, DSC values of starches at 24, 30, and 36 DAP were similar to each other and often were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the values at 12 DAP, indicating possible differences in the fine structure of starch during endosperm development. For su2 starches, the gelatinization onset temperature (ToG) significantly decreased after 12 DAP and remained low throughout the study. The gelatinization range ...


Reaction With Fructose Detoxifies Fumonisin B1 While Stimulating Liver-Associated Natural Killer Cell Activity In Rats, Z. Lu, W. R. Dantzer, E. C. Hopmans, V. Prisk, Joan E. Cunnick, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich Mar 1997

Reaction With Fructose Detoxifies Fumonisin B1 While Stimulating Liver-Associated Natural Killer Cell Activity In Rats, Z. Lu, W. R. Dantzer, E. C. Hopmans, V. Prisk, Joan E. Cunnick, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) was reacted with fructose in an attempt to detoxify this mycotoxin. Fischer 344/N rats were initiated with diethylnitrosamine (15 mg/kg body weight) and then fed 69.3 μmol FB1/kg diet or 69.3 μmol FB1 reacted with fructose (FB1−fructose)/kg diet for 4 weeks. In comparison with the rats fed basal diet or FB1−fructose, the FB1-fed rats had significantly increased plasma cholesterol (P < 0.01), plasma alanine aminotransferase activity (P < 0.05), and endogenous hepatic prostaglandin production (P < 0.05). Placental glutathione S-transferase-positive and γ-glutamyl transferase-positive altered hepatic foci occurred only in the FB1-fed rats. Liver-associated natural killer (NK) cell activity was significantly decreased in the FB1-fed rats and increased in the group fed FB1-fructose, as compared with the basal group (P < 0.03). Therefore, modifying FB1 with fructose seems to prevent FB1-induced hepatotoxicity and promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis while stimulating liver-associated NK cell activity in rats.


Processing Feed Ingredients From Blends Of Soybean Meal, Whole Blood, And Red Blood Cells, Linfeng Wang, Rolando A. Flores, Lawrence A. Johnson Feb 1997

Processing Feed Ingredients From Blends Of Soybean Meal, Whole Blood, And Red Blood Cells, Linfeng Wang, Rolando A. Flores, Lawrence A. Johnson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Fish meal is a high quality, but expensive and scarce, feed ingredient used in fish and poultry feeds. Blood meal, a slaughterhouse by-product, and soybean meal are high quality protein sources successfully used to partially replace fish meal in animal diets; however, the dehydration cost for blood meal makes it as expensive as fish meal. In this study, feed ingredients were developed using soybean meal and pork blood. Whole blood and red blood cells were mixed with soybean meal and processed under different conditions. The methods evaluated were mixing and then drying at temperatures of 50, 70, 90, and 110 ...


Identifying Genetic Markers And Their Role In Selecting Chemotypes In Perennial Lamiaceae, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Lester A. Wilson, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 1997

Identifying Genetic Markers And Their Role In Selecting Chemotypes In Perennial Lamiaceae, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Lester A. Wilson, Mark P. Widrlechner

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This is a report of research progress in this project through early 1995. The results of these initial experiments have led us to propose hypotheses about the patterns of inheritance of aromatic compounds in Agastache foeniculum. We are now testing those hypotheses with larger plant populations. On request, we will be pleased to provide readers with more up-to-date information as we complete the analyses of our ongoing experiments. Until such results are subject to scientific peer review, the data presented in the following report must be considered strictly preliminary.


Fatty Acid Composition Of Oil From Adapted Elite Corn Breeding Materials, Francie G. Dunlap, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak, Thomas J. Brumm Sep 1995

Fatty Acid Composition Of Oil From Adapted Elite Corn Breeding Materials, Francie G. Dunlap, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak, Thomas J. Brumm

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The fatty acid composition of corn oil can be altered to meet consumer demands for “healthful” fats (i.e., lower saturates and higher monounsaturates). To this end, a survey of 418 corn hybrids and 98 corn inbreds grown in Iowa was done to determine the fatty acid composition of readily-available, adapted, elite corn breeding materials. These materials are those used in commercial hybrid production. Eighty-seven hybrids grown in France (18 of which also were grown in lowa) were analyzed to determine environmental influence on fatty acid content. The parents of the hybrids and the inbreds were classified in one of ...


Properties Of Sugary-2 Maize Starch: Influence Of Exotic Background., M. R. Campbell, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak Jul 1995

Properties Of Sugary-2 Maize Starch: Influence Of Exotic Background., M. R. Campbell, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Genetic modifiers of maize (Zea mays L.) starch thermal properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Sugary- 2 (su2) kernels from segregating ears were identified based on textural appearance of starches following crosses between an exotic maize accession with the inbred OH43 homozygous for the su2 allele (OH43 su2). Two exotic maize accessions, PI213768 and PI451692, were used. Germs retained from su2 kernels were used to produce an F2 population of su2 plants containing 50% exotic germ plasm. With few exceptions, F2 ears from the populations were homozygous for the su2 allele. Significant (P less than or equal to ...


Genetic Variation For Starch Thermal And Functional Properties Among Nonmutant Maize Inbreds', M. R. Campbell, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White Jan 1995

Genetic Variation For Starch Thermal And Functional Properties Among Nonmutant Maize Inbreds', M. R. Campbell, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used in previous < 0.01) inbred by year interaction was present for all DSC parameters studies to detect differences in thermal properties among starches of non- with the exception of AH. Differences were observed in starch viscosities mutant maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. This study was conducted to and gel strengths for six inbreds selected for highest and lowest Tp, AH, determine the magnitude of genetic and genotype by environmental effects and range (R,). Several significant (P < 0.05) correlations occurred on starch properties among a set of exotic and domestic inbred lines. between DSC parameters and starch paste viscosities and gel strengths. Functional properties of starches from selected lines exhibiting extreme These data suggest that evaluation of starches from nonmutant genotypes DSC values also were investigated. Highly significant (P< 0.01) differences by DSC can be used to predict some functional properties. A practical for DSC starch thermal properties were seen among the lines. Starches application of DSC in breeding programs may include screening maize from exotic lines generally had lower gelatinization onset temperature germplasm for extreme DSC values or population improvement through (TO), peak temperature (Tp), and enthalpy (AH). A highly significant (P recurrent selection. The maize wet-milling industry produces a number of starch- based products important in the food industry. Genetic variability in starch structure and functional properties has led to the use of specialty starches from waxy and high-amylose genotypes (Shannon and Garwood 1984). More recently, the introduction of starches containing double mutant combinations with proper- ties similar to chemically modified starches has resulted in several patents (Katz 1991). The application of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to the study of starch was first described by Stevens and Elton (1971). This technique offers a thermodynamic approach to the study of starch gelatinization by monitoring changes in the physical and chemical properties of starches (Donovon et al 1983). Use of DSC in investigating the thermal behavior of starches has become increasingly more popular because it requires only a small sample size and is easy to operate (Sanders et al 1990). Addi- tionally, DSC is relatively rapid compared with more traditional methods of studying starch gelatinization, making it suitable for breeding programs. Extensive variations in DSC parameters have been observed among starches of single- and double-mutant genotypes of maize indicating differences in starch structure and function (Brockett et al 1988, Sanders et al 1990, Wang et al 1992). More recent studies have revealed variations in DSC parameters among non- mutant sources of maize starch. Krueger et al (1987), for example, found differences in DSC parameters among two maize inbred lines and suggested that AH and peak height index (PHI) could be used as a means of identifying maize genotypes. White et al (1990) reported variability in thermal properties by DSC in genetically variable maize populations. The largest differences were observed for gelatinization onset (T.), range (Rn), and total enthalpy (AH). In addition, Li et al (1994) found large variations in DSC values among several exotic populations of maize, sug- gesting that selection among these on the basis of DSC values would identify genotypes having desired starch properties.


Dosage Effect At The Sugary-2 Locus On Maize Starch Structure And Function., M. R. Campbell, Pamela J. White Jan 1994

Dosage Effect At The Sugary-2 Locus On Maize Starch Structure And Function., M. R. Campbell, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Structural characteristics and functional properties of starches isolated from kernels of a sugary-2 (su2) dosage series were examined to determine whether the normal allele (Su2) was completely dominant to the recessive allele (su2). Differential scanning calorimetry revealed intermediate values for gelatinization onset, gelatinization peak, range, total enthalpy, and retrogradation among genotypes possessing one and two mutant su2 alleles. No effect of gene dosage on amylose content was observed, but X-ray diffraction patterns revealed an intermediate degree of crystallinity relative to normal and mutant genotypes upon addition of two su2 alleles. Development of a peak at 19 degrees 2(theta) became ...


Effect Of Planting Date On Maize Starch Thermal Properties., M. R. Campbell, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White Jan 1994

Effect Of Planting Date On Maize Starch Thermal Properties., M. R. Campbell, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Starches isolated from kernels of two maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds and their F1 progeny, grown after four planting dates, were evaluated for differences in thermal properties. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to compare onset (To) and peak (Tp) temperature, range (Rn), and total enthalpy ((Delta)H) values of gelatinization. Amylose content (%AM) of samples was determined colorimetrically, and image analysis was used to determine average diameters of granules. Significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) increases for Tp and (Delta)H were observed with later planting dates. Significant genotypic differences also were seen for To, Tp ...


Toxicity Of Fusarium Proliferatum-Fermented Nixtamalized Corn-Based Diets Fed To Rats: Effect Of Nutritional Status, Suzanne Hendrich, Kathrine A. Miller, Terrance M. Wilson, Patricia A. Murphy Oct 1993

Toxicity Of Fusarium Proliferatum-Fermented Nixtamalized Corn-Based Diets Fed To Rats: Effect Of Nutritional Status, Suzanne Hendrich, Kathrine A. Miller, Terrance M. Wilson, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Male F344/ N rats were fed corn, nixtamalized corn, Fusarium proli feratum- fermented (FP) corn to provide 50 mg/kg fumonisin B1 (FB1), or nixtamalized FP corn (NFP), with and without supplemented nutrients. Nixtamalization of FP corn almost completely hydrolyzed FB1 and produced 7-10 mg/kg hydrolyzed fumonisin (HFB1). Relative liver weight was significantly increased in nutrient-supplemented rats fed FP or NFP corn. Plasma cholesterol increased in rats fed FP or NFP corn. Plasma glutamate­ pyruvate transaminase was elevated in allrats fed FP corn and in nutrient-supplemented rats fed NFP corn. All rats fed FP corn and nutrient-supplemented rats fed ...