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Food Science

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Anti-inflammatory

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Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt Feb 2012

Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Among the nine Echinacea species, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida, have been widely used to treat the common cold, flu and other infections. In this study, ethanol extracts of these three Echinaceaspecies and E. paradoxa, including its typical variety, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, were screened in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells to assess potential anti-inflammatory activity. E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, rich in polyenes/polyacetylenes, was an especially efficient inhibitor of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 46%, 32%, 53% and 26%, respectively, when tested at 20 μg ...


Enrichment Of Echinacea Angustifolia With Bauer Alkylamide 11 And Bauer Ketone 23 Increased Anti-Inflammatory Potential Through Interference With Cox-2 Enzyme Activity, Carlie A. Lalone, Nan Huang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Man-Yu Yum, Navrozedeep Singh, Cathy Hauck, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Marian L. Kohut, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt Jan 2010

Enrichment Of Echinacea Angustifolia With Bauer Alkylamide 11 And Bauer Ketone 23 Increased Anti-Inflammatory Potential Through Interference With Cox-2 Enzyme Activity, Carlie A. Lalone, Nan Huang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Man-Yu Yum, Navrozedeep Singh, Cathy Hauck, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Marian L. Kohut, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 were previously found to be partially responsible forEchinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS-induced PGE2 production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with ...


Hypericum In Infection: Identification Of Anti-Viral And Anti-Inflammatory Constituents, Diane F. Birt, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Jingqiang Wei, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Eve S. Wurtele, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Wendy J. Maury, Jason P. Price Aug 2009

Hypericum In Infection: Identification Of Anti-Viral And Anti-Inflammatory Constituents, Diane F. Birt, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Jingqiang Wei, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Eve S. Wurtele, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Wendy J. Maury, Jason P. Price

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum, and Prunella botanical supplements for human-health benefit, emphasizing anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pain activities. This mini-review reports on ongoing studies on Hypericum. The Center uses the genetically diverse, well-documented Hypericum populations collected and maintained at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS), and the strength of research in synthetic chemistry at Iowa State University to tap natural diversity, to help discover key constituents and interactions among constituents that impact bioactivity and toxicity. The NCRPIS has acquired more than 180 distinct populations of Hypericum, with a ...


Endogenous Levels Of Echinacea Alkylamides And Ketones Are Important Contributors To The Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide Production In Cultured Macrophages, Carlie A. Lalone, Ludmila Rizshsky, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Avery K.S. Solco, Man-Yu Yum, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Patricia A. Murphy, Meehye Kim, Diane F. Birt Jan 2009

Endogenous Levels Of Echinacea Alkylamides And Ketones Are Important Contributors To The Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide Production In Cultured Macrophages, Carlie A. Lalone, Ludmila Rizshsky, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Avery K.S. Solco, Man-Yu Yum, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Patricia A. Murphy, Meehye Kim, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Because of the popularity of Echinacea as a dietary supplement, researchers have been actively investigating which Echinacea constituent or groups of constituents are necessary for immunemodulating bioactivities. Our prior studies indicate that alkylamides may play an important role in the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation, employed to elucidate interacting anti-inflammatory constituents from ethanol extracts of Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea tennesseensis, identified fractions containing alkylamides and ketones as key anti-inflammatory contributors using lipopolysaccharideinduced PGE2 production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production and parallel cytotoxicity screens were also employed ...


Rosmarinic Acid In Prunella Vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide In Raw 264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Nan Huang, Cathy Hauck, Man-Yu Yum, Ludmila Rizshsky, Mark P. Widrlechner, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Patricia A. Murphy, Philip M. Dixon, Basil J. Nikolau, Diane F. Birt Jan 2009

Rosmarinic Acid In Prunella Vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide In Raw 264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Nan Huang, Cathy Hauck, Man-Yu Yum, Ludmila Rizshsky, Mark P. Widrlechner, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Patricia A. Murphy, Philip M. Dixon, Basil J. Nikolau, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Prunella vulgaris has been used therapeutically for inflammation-related conditions for centuries, but systematic studies of its anti-inflammatory activity are lacking and no specific active components have been identified. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of four P. vulgaris accessions were applied to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages, and the ethanol extracts significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production at 30 μg/mL without affecting cell viability. Extracts from different accessions of P. vulgaris were screened for anti-inflammatory activity to identify accessions with the greatest activity. The inhibition of PGE2 and NO production by ...


Characterizing The Metabolic Fingerprint And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Hypericum Gentianoides, Matthew L. Hillwig, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Diane F. Birt, Eve S. Wurtele Jan 2008

Characterizing The Metabolic Fingerprint And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Hypericum Gentianoides, Matthew L. Hillwig, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Diane F. Birt, Eve S. Wurtele

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

In this paper we characterize the metabolic fingerprint and first reported anti-inflammatory activity of Hypericum gentianoides. H. gentianoides has a history of medical use by Native Americans, but it has been studied very little for biological activity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography−electrospray ionization−mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analyses of a methanol extract show that H. gentianoides contains a family of over nine related compounds that have retention times, mass spectra, and a distinctive UV absorption spectra characteristic of certain acyl-phloroglucinols. These metabolites are abundant relative to other secondary products present in H. gentianoides, accounting for approximately 0.2 ...


Echinacea Species And Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Carlie A. Lalone, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Jaehood Bae, Norma Leyva, Yi Liu, Avery K.S. Solco, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Ok-Kyung Kim, Kwon Ii Seo, Mark P. Widrlechner, Diane F. Birt Jan 2007

Echinacea Species And Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Carlie A. Lalone, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Jaehood Bae, Norma Leyva, Yi Liu, Avery K.S. Solco, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Ok-Kyung Kim, Kwon Ii Seo, Mark P. Widrlechner, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts diluted in media to a concentration of 15 μg/mL from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea significantly inhibited PGE2 production. In further studies, PGE2 production was significantly reduced by all synthesized alkamides assayed at 50 μM, by Bauer alkamides 8, 12A analogue, and 14, Chen alkamide 2, and Chen alkamide 2 analogue at 25 μM and by Bauer alkamide 14 ...


Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E2 Production By Anti-Inflammatory Hypericum Perforatum Extracts And Constituents In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Avery K.S. Solco, Philip M. Dixon, Kathleen Delate, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Diane F. Birt Jan 2007

Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E2 Production By Anti-Inflammatory Hypericum Perforatum Extracts And Constituents In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Avery K.S. Solco, Philip M. Dixon, Kathleen Delate, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Hypericum perforatum (Hp) is commonly known for its antiviral, antidepressant, and cytotoxic properties, but traditionally Hp was also used to treat inflammation. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity of different Hp extractions and accessions and constituents present within Hp extracts were characterized. In contrast to the antiviral activity of Hp, the anti-inflammatory activity observed with all Hp extracts was light-independent. When pure constituents were tested, the flavonoids, amentoflavone, hyperforin, and light-activated pseudohypericin, displayed anti-inflammatory activity, albeit at concentrations generally higher than the amount present in the Hp extracts. Constituents that were present in the Hp extracts at concentrations ...