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Food Science

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

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Genome-Wide Association Study For Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Beta-Glucan Concentration Using Germplasm Of Worldwide Origin, Mark A. Newell, Franco G. Asoro, M. Paul Scott, Pamela J. White, William D. Beavis, Jean-Luc Jannink Dec 2012

Genome-Wide Association Study For Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Beta-Glucan Concentration Using Germplasm Of Worldwide Origin, Mark A. Newell, Franco G. Asoro, M. Paul Scott, Pamela J. White, William D. Beavis, Jean-Luc Jannink

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits followed by selection has become a common approach for selection in crop plants. The QTL are most often identified by linkage mapping using experimental F2, backcross, advanced inbred, or doubled haploid families. An alternative approach for QTL detection are genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that use pre-existing lines such as those found in breeding programs. We explored the implementation of GWAS in oat (Avena sativa L.) to identify QTL affecting β-glucan concentration, a soluble dietary fiber with several human health benefits when consumed as a whole grain. A total of 431 lines ...


Rosmarinic Acid In Prunella Vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide In Raw 264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Nan Huang, Cathy Hauck, Man-Yu Yum, Ludmila Rizshsky, Mark P. Widrlechner, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Patricia A. Murphy, Philip M. Dixon, Basil J. Nikolau, Diane F. Birt Jan 2009

Rosmarinic Acid In Prunella Vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide In Raw 264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Nan Huang, Cathy Hauck, Man-Yu Yum, Ludmila Rizshsky, Mark P. Widrlechner, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Patricia A. Murphy, Philip M. Dixon, Basil J. Nikolau, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Prunella vulgaris has been used therapeutically for inflammation-related conditions for centuries, but systematic studies of its anti-inflammatory activity are lacking and no specific active components have been identified. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of four P. vulgaris accessions were applied to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages, and the ethanol extracts significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production at 30 μg/mL without affecting cell viability. Extracts from different accessions of P. vulgaris were screened for anti-inflammatory activity to identify accessions with the greatest activity. The inhibition of PGE2 and NO production by ...


Selection For Nutritional Function And Agronomic Performance In Oat, A A. Chernyshova, Pamela J. White, Marvin P. Scott, Jean-Luc Jannink Nov 2007

Selection For Nutritional Function And Agronomic Performance In Oat, A A. Chernyshova, Pamela J. White, Marvin P. Scott, Jean-Luc Jannink

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The soluble fiber (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan has been identified as an active component of oat (Avena sativa L.) that lowers serum cholesterol, reduces the risk of heart disease and colon cancer, and alleviates the symptoms of diabetes. Those beneficial effects may be caused by the ability of β-glucan to generate viscosity in the digestive system. The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic components of variance for β-glucan content and oat slurry viscosity in a population derived from the cross of high β-glucan with elite agronomic oat lines. Twelve high β-glucan inbred lines were crossed with ...


Digestion Residues Of Typical And High-Β-Glucan Oat Flours Provide Substrates For In Vitro Fermentation, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White Jun 2007

Digestion Residues Of Typical And High-Β-Glucan Oat Flours Provide Substrates For In Vitro Fermentation, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

In vitro fermentabilities of the oat flour digestion residues (ODR) from two commercial oat lines with 4.7 and 5.3% β-glucan and from two high-β-glucan experimental lines with 7.6 and 8.1% β-glucan were evaluated and compared with fermentations of lactulose, purified oat β-glucan (POBG), and purified oat starch (POS). Substrates were fermented by using an in vitro batch fermentation system under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. The progress of the fermentation was studied by following the change in pH of the fermentation medium, production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gases, and consumption of carbohydrates. The substrate ...


Improving The Fatty Acid Composition Of Corn Oil By Using Germplasm Introgression, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick Feb 2007

Improving The Fatty Acid Composition Of Corn Oil By Using Germplasm Introgression, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The general public has shown increasing interest in consuming oils that are beneficial to health. Thus, oil from corn (Zea mays L.), along with most major edible oils, has been the target of genetic alterations to improve the fatty acid composition. The fatty acid profile goals vary, depending upon the intended use for the oil. We have targeted the development of corn oil with 1) low total saturated fatty acids, 2) high total saturated fatty acids, and 3) mid-oleic acid, in each case via two different sources: exotic germplasm identified through an international program to broaden the corn germplasm base ...


In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Activity Within Flour Fractions From Oat Lines With Typical And High Β-Glucan Amounts, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White Jul 2006

In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Activity Within Flour Fractions From Oat Lines With Typical And High Β-Glucan Amounts, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Whole flours from four oat lines with different amounts of β-glucan (4.8−8.1%) were examined for their antioxidant activity and total phenolic and lignin concentrations. These data, along with the β-glucan percentages, were compared with bile acid (BA) binding. Only the lignin concentrations of the flours significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with the BA binding values. The oat flours also were fractionated into bran, protein concentrate, starch, layer above starch, and soluble β-glucan (SBG)-free flour, and their BA binding capacities were evaluated. The bran fractions were the only fractions that bound greater BA than did the whole oat flours on dry matter basis. Extraction of the soluble β-glucan to create the SBG-free flour significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the BA binding of the remaining flour. These data suggest that BA binding of the oat flours involves the synergistic interactions of the oat components, with β-glucan and lignin (insoluble fiber) having a great impact.


In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Of Flours From Oat Lines Varying In Percentage And Molecular Weight Distribution Of Β-Glucan, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White Nov 2005

In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Of Flours From Oat Lines Varying In Percentage And Molecular Weight Distribution Of Β-Glucan, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Two experimental high β-glucan oat (Avena sativa) lines (7.64 and 8.05%) and two traditional lines (4.77 and 5.26% β-glucan) were used to evaluate the effect of β-glucan quantity and molecular weight on bile acid (BA) binding. The oat flour samples were digested by an in vitro system that simulated human digestion. No significant differences among oat type were found in the overall β-glucan, starch, and pentosan digestibilities. Considering the standard, cholestyramine, as 100% bound, the relative BA binding for the oat flour samples on a dry matter basis was in the range of 7.5−14 ...


Glucose Reaction With Fumonisin B1 Partially Reduces Its Toxicity In Swine, Guillermo Fernandez-Surumay, Gary D. Osweiler, Michael Yaeger, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy Nov 2004

Glucose Reaction With Fumonisin B1 Partially Reduces Its Toxicity In Swine, Guillermo Fernandez-Surumay, Gary D. Osweiler, Michael Yaeger, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Acute and subacute intraperitoneal doses of fumonisin B1 (FB1) were administered to test the efficacy of the FB1-glucose reaction products in detoxifying FB1 in swine. In the acute study at 11 µmol of FB1/kg of body weight, five of six pigs administered FB1 and four of six pigs administered FB1- glucose died from acute pulmonary edema. Analysis of weight gain, serum aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, and pathological evaluation did not provide evidence of protection against FB1 toxicity by the FB1-glucose reaction products. In the subacute study at 5.5 µmol of FB1/kg of body weight, one ...


Structure And Function Of Starch From Advanced Generations Of New Corn Lines, Y. Ji, K. Wong, J. Hasjim, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Jay-Lin Jane, Pamela J. White Nov 2003

Structure And Function Of Starch From Advanced Generations Of New Corn Lines, Y. Ji, K. Wong, J. Hasjim, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Jay-Lin Jane, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Objectives of this research were to evaluate functions and structures of starches from exotic × adapted inbred lines and exotic lines, to confirm that the functional traits continue into the next generation of inbreeding, and to establish relationships between the fine structure and functional properties of the starches. Several lines were characterized from the successive generations of exotic crosses and exotic inbreds containing kernels with unusual, and potentially useful, thermal properties as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, gelatinization onset temperature <60 °C or range of gelatinization temperature >14 °C). The frequency of these traits increased with succeeding generations, when selection of the plants was based on the ...


Thermal And Structural Properties Of Unusual Starches From Developmental Corn Lines, Y. Ji, K. Seetharaman, K. Wong, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Jay-Lin Jane, Pamela J. White Mar 2003

Thermal And Structural Properties Of Unusual Starches From Developmental Corn Lines, Y. Ji, K. Seetharaman, K. Wong, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Jay-Lin Jane, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Starches from exotic corn lines were screened by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to find thermal properties that were significantly different from those exhibited by starches from normal Corn Belt lines. Two independent gelatinization transitions, one corresponding to the melting of a peak at ∼66 °C and the other to a peak melting at ∼69 °C, were found in some starches. The melting characteristics were traced to two separate types of granules within the endosperm. Strong correlations were found between DSC properties and proportion of large granules with equivalent diameter ≥17 μm. Starches with a lower peak onset gelatinization temperature ...


Selection For Greater Β-Glucan Content In Oat Grain, C. T. Cervantes-Martinez, Kenneth J. Frey, Pamela J. White, D. M. Wesenberg, J. B. Holland Jul 2001

Selection For Greater Β-Glucan Content In Oat Grain, C. T. Cervantes-Martinez, Kenneth J. Frey, Pamela J. White, D. M. Wesenberg, J. B. Holland

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Oat (Avena sativa L.) β-glucan lowers serum cholesterol in humans. Development of oat cultivars with greater groat (caryopsis) β-glucan content would increase the nutritional and economic value of the crop. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the response to phenotypic selection among individual S0 plants for greater groat β-glucan content in two genetically broad-based populations; to compare selected experimental lines to standard check cultivars; and to estimate genetic variances and heritabilities and to test for nonadditive genetic variance for β-glucan content. We measured groat β-glucan contents of check cultivars and parental lines and random S0:1 ...