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Food Science

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Β-Glucan

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Individual And Interactional Effects Of Β-Glucan, Starch, And Protein On Pasting Properties Of Oat Flours, Yanjun Liu, Theodore B. Bailey, Pamela J. White Aug 2010

Individual And Interactional Effects Of Β-Glucan, Starch, And Protein On Pasting Properties Of Oat Flours, Yanjun Liu, Theodore B. Bailey, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Seven experimental oat lines with high (6.2−7.2%), medium (5.5−5.9%), and low (4.4−5.3%) β-glucan concentrations were evaluated for contributions of β-glucan, starch, protein, and their interactions, to pasting properties of oat flours by using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, Newport Scientific, Warriewood, NSW, Australia). Significant correlations (P < 0.05) between β-glucan concentration and pasting parameters of oat slurries were obtained under autolysis without 1 h of incubation, inhibition, and amylolysis. The relative decrease of viscosity after enzymatic hydrolysis of β-glucan correlated with β-glucan concentration (P < 0.05). These data demonstrated the important contribution of β-glucan to pasting. The relative decrease of viscosity after either amylolysis or enzymatic removal of protein correlated with β-glucan concentration (P < 0.1), which might be explained by the considerable contribution of the interaction of β-glucan with starch and protein, to pasting. The viscosity decrease by hydrolysis of protein was much greater than the actual viscosity remaining after hydrolysis of both β-glucan and starch, reconfirming the importance of interactions between protein and other oat components to pasting. Optimal multiple linear regression (MLR) models were generated to predict key pasting parameters in both buffer without 1 h of incubation and silver nitrate solution by using a stepwise procedure. The β-glucan concentration alone or together with the concentration of starch, rather than protein, was selected as the predictor under certain conditions. These results illustrated the major unit contribution of β-glucan, secondary unit contribution of starch, and minimal unit contribution of protein to pasting.


In Vitro Bile-Acid Binding And Fermentation Of High, Medium, And Low Molecular Weight Β-Glucan, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White Jan 2010

In Vitro Bile-Acid Binding And Fermentation Of High, Medium, And Low Molecular Weight Β-Glucan, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The impact of β-glucan molecular weight (MW) on in vitro bile-acid binding and in vitrofermentation with human fecal flora was evaluated. β-Glucan extracted from oat line ‘N979-5-4’ was treated with lichenase (1,3−1,4-β-d-glucanase) to yield high (6.87 × 105 g/mol), medium (3.71 × 105 g/mol), and low (1.56 × 105 g/mol) MW fractions. The low MW β-glucan bound more bile acid than did the high MW β-glucan (p < 0.05). If the positive control, cholestyramine, was considered to bind bile acid at 100%, the relative bile-acid binding of the original oat flour and the extracted β-glucan with high, medium, and low MW was 15, 27, 24, and 21%, respectively. Significant effects of high, medium, and low MW β-glucans on total SCFA were observed compared to the blank without substrate (p < 0.05). There were no differences in pH changes and total gas production among high, medium, and low MW β-glucans, and lactulose. The low MW β-glucan produced greater amounts of SCFA than the high MW after 24 h of fermentation. Among the major SCFA, more propionate was produced from all MW fractions of extracted β-glucans than from lactulose. In vitro fermentation of extracted β-glucan fractions with different MW lowered pH and produced SCFA, providing potential biological function.


In Vitro Fermentation Of Oat Flours From Typical And High Β-Glucan Oat Lines, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White Aug 2009

In Vitro Fermentation Of Oat Flours From Typical And High Β-Glucan Oat Lines, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Two publicly available oat (Avena sativa) lines, “Jim” and “Paul” (5.17 and 5.31% β-glucan, respectively), and one experimental oat line “N979” (7.70% β-glucan), were used to study the effect of β-glucan levels in oat flours during simulated in vitro digestion and fermentation with human fecal flora obtained from different individuals. The oat flours were digested by using human digestion enzymes and fermented by batch fermentation under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. The fermentation progress was monitored by measuring pH, total gas, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Significant effects of β-glucan on the formation of gas and ...


Impact Of Dry Solids And Bile Acid Concentrations On Bile Acid Binding Capacity Of Extruded Oat Cereals, Ni Yao, Pamela J. White, Jean-Luc Jannink, Salid Alavi Sep 2008

Impact Of Dry Solids And Bile Acid Concentrations On Bile Acid Binding Capacity Of Extruded Oat Cereals, Ni Yao, Pamela J. White, Jean-Luc Jannink, Salid Alavi

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Extruded breakfast cereals (EBC), processed from two oat lines, N979-5-2-4 (N979) and “Jim”, with β-glucan concentrations of 8.7 and 4.9%, respectively, were used to determine the impact of dry solids (DS) and bile acid (BA) concentrations on in vitro BA binding efficiency. A full fractional factorial design with levels for BA concentrations of 0.20, 0.47, 0.95, 2.37, and 4.73 μmol/g of total EBC slurry and for DS in the slurries of 0.8, 2, 3, and 4% (w/w) was selected. The absolute amount of BA bound (μmol) was measured for each ...


In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Activity Within Flour Fractions From Oat Lines With Typical And High Β-Glucan Amounts, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White Jul 2006

In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Activity Within Flour Fractions From Oat Lines With Typical And High Β-Glucan Amounts, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Whole flours from four oat lines with different amounts of β-glucan (4.8−8.1%) were examined for their antioxidant activity and total phenolic and lignin concentrations. These data, along with the β-glucan percentages, were compared with bile acid (BA) binding. Only the lignin concentrations of the flours significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with the BA binding values. The oat flours also were fractionated into bran, protein concentrate, starch, layer above starch, and soluble β-glucan (SBG)-free flour, and their BA binding capacities were evaluated. The bran fractions were the only fractions that bound greater BA than did the whole oat flours on dry matter basis. Extraction of the soluble β-glucan to create the SBG-free flour significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the BA binding of the remaining flour. These data suggest that BA binding of the oat flours involves the synergistic interactions of the oat components, with β-glucan and lignin (insoluble fiber) having a great impact.


In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Of Flours From Oat Lines Varying In Percentage And Molecular Weight Distribution Of Β-Glucan, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White Nov 2005

In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Of Flours From Oat Lines Varying In Percentage And Molecular Weight Distribution Of Β-Glucan, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Two experimental high β-glucan oat (Avena sativa) lines (7.64 and 8.05%) and two traditional lines (4.77 and 5.26% β-glucan) were used to evaluate the effect of β-glucan quantity and molecular weight on bile acid (BA) binding. The oat flour samples were digested by an in vitro system that simulated human digestion. No significant differences among oat type were found in the overall β-glucan, starch, and pentosan digestibilities. Considering the standard, cholestyramine, as 100% bound, the relative BA binding for the oat flour samples on a dry matter basis was in the range of 7.5−14 ...