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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher Dec 2014

Flow Cytometry For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Spp. In Seed Sprouts, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Seed sprouts (alfalfa, mung bean, radish, etc.) have been implicated in several recent national and international outbreaks of salmonellosis. Conditions used for sprouting are also conducive to the growth of Salmonella. As a result, this pathogen can quickly grow to very high cell densities during sprouting without any detectable organoleptic impact. Seed sprouts typically also support heavy growth (~108 CFU g−1) of a heterogeneous microbiota consisting of various bacterial, yeast, and mold species, often dominated by non-pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. This heavy background may present challenges to the detection of Salmonella, especially if this pathogen is present ...


Short-Term Exposure To Heat Stress Attenuates Appetite And Intestinal Integrity In Growing Pigs 1, S. C. Pearce, M. V. Sanz-Fernandez, James Hollis, Lance H. Baumgard, Nicholas K. Gabler Dec 2014

Short-Term Exposure To Heat Stress Attenuates Appetite And Intestinal Integrity In Growing Pigs 1, S. C. Pearce, M. V. Sanz-Fernandez, James Hollis, Lance H. Baumgard, Nicholas K. Gabler

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Acute heat stress (HS) and heat stroke can be detrimental to the health, well-being, and performance of mammals such as swine. Therefore, our objective was to chronologically characterize how a growing pig perceives and initially copes with a severe heat load. Crossbred gilts (n=32; 63.8±2.9 kg) were subjected to HS conditions (37°C and 40% humidity) with ad libitum intake for 0, 2, 4, or 6 h (n=8/time point). Rectal temperature (Tr), respiration rates (RR), and feed intake were determined every 2 h. Pigs were euthanized at each time point and fresh ileum and ...


Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher Nov 2014

Design And Evaluation Of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Specific Identification Of Candida Albicans., H. J. Kim, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Candida albicans is an important cause of systemic fungal infections, and rapid diagnostics for identifying and differentiating C. albicans from other Candida species are critical for the timely application of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, improved patient outcomes, and pharmaceutical cost savings. In this work, two 28S rRNA-directed peptide nucleic acid-fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) probes, P-Ca726 (targeting a novel region of the ribosome) and P-CalB2208 (targeting a previously reported region), were evaluated. Hybridization conditions were optimized by using both fluorescence microscopy (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and probes were screened for specificity and discriminative ability against a panel of C. albicans ...


Intergenerational Service Learning Program Improves Aging Knowledge And Expectations And Reduces Ageism In Younger Adults, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Kara Hoerr, Marc J. Peterson, Abbie Scott, Warren D. Franke Oct 2014

Intergenerational Service Learning Program Improves Aging Knowledge And Expectations And Reduces Ageism In Younger Adults, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Kara Hoerr, Marc J. Peterson, Abbie Scott, Warren D. Franke

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This article discusses a study which evaluated the effects of an intergenerational service-learning exergaming program for older adults on younger adults’ aging knowledge, expectations, and perceptions. Eighteen college students (ages 19-26 years) served as trainers for an 8-week exergaming physical activity program for older adults (12 contact hours). Questionnaires assessing aging knowledge, ageist attitudes and aging expectations were completed at Weeks 1, 8, and 25 (follow-up); program evaluations were completed at Weeks 8 and 25. Significant improvement from Week 1 to Week 25 was found for: Aging knowledge scores (p


Factors Influencing Latino Participation In Community-Based Diabetes Education, Sarah L. Francis, Amber Noterman, Ruth E. Litchfield Oct 2014

Factors Influencing Latino Participation In Community-Based Diabetes Education, Sarah L. Francis, Amber Noterman, Ruth E. Litchfield

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

An Extension diabetes program (DP) was revised for Latinos; however, participation was limited. Factors influencing low participation rates were examined. Five Latinos interested in the DP participated in a focus group discussion. Transcripts were analyzed for themes. Preferred education programs were multi-session, local, group classes led by an engaging teacher during the summer. Participants learned of the DP through friends and Extension; preferred marketing strategies were Spanish radio, local health clinics, and Spanish-print media. Attendance barriers included scheduling conflicts. Limited use of culturally preferred marketing and scheduling conflicts were likely barriers. Culturally appropriate programs should use culturally preferred marketing strategies ...


Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation And Food Safety Knowledge, Sarah L. Francis Aug 2014

Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation And Food Safety Knowledge, Sarah L. Francis

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increase public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program comprised of online lessons and corresponding in-person workshops. PTTS participants reported increases in knowledge about food preservation food safety and recommended food preservation techniques after participating.


Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Lower Dietary Energy Density And A Better Diet Quality In Us Adults, Yong Zhu, James Hollis Apr 2014

Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Lower Dietary Energy Density And A Better Diet Quality In Us Adults, Yong Zhu, James Hollis

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19–64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003–8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States ...


Glycogen Synthase Isoforms In Synechocystis Sp. Pcc6803: Identification Of Different Roles To Produce Glycogen By Targeted Mutagenesis, Sang-Ho Yoo, Byung-Hoo Lee, Youyoun Moon, Martin H. Spalding, Jay-Lin Jane Mar 2014

Glycogen Synthase Isoforms In Synechocystis Sp. Pcc6803: Identification Of Different Roles To Produce Glycogen By Targeted Mutagenesis, Sang-Ho Yoo, Byung-Hoo Lee, Youyoun Moon, Martin H. Spalding, Jay-Lin Jane

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 belongs to cyanobacteria which carry out photosynthesis and has recently become of interest due to the evolutionary link between bacteria and plant species. Similar to other bacteria, the primary carbohydrate storage source of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is glycogen. While most bacteria are not known to have any isoforms of glycogen synthase, analysis of the genomic DNA sequence of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 predicts that this strain encodes two isoforms of glycogen synthase (GS) for synthesizing glycogen structure. To examine the functions of the putative GS genes, each gene (sll1393 or sll0945) was disrupted by double cross-over ...


Microenzymatic Evaluation Of Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Β-Glucan For High-Throughput Phenotyping, Mark A. Newell, Hyun Jung Kim, Franco G. Asoro, Adrienne M. Lauter, Pamela J. White, M. Paul Scott, Jean-Luc Jannink Mar 2014

Microenzymatic Evaluation Of Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Β-Glucan For High-Throughput Phenotyping, Mark A. Newell, Hyun Jung Kim, Franco G. Asoro, Adrienne M. Lauter, Pamela J. White, M. Paul Scott, Jean-Luc Jannink

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received significant attention for their positive and consistent health benefits when consumed as a whole grain food, attributed in part to mixed-linkage (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan (referred to as β-glucan). Unfortunately, the standard enzymatic method of measurement for oat β-glucan is costly and does not provide the high-throughput capability needed for plant breeding in which thousands of samples are measured over a short period of time. The objective of this research was to test a microenzymatic approach for high-throughput phenotyping of oat β-glucan. Fifty North American elite lines were chosen to span the range of possible ...


Variation In Electrical Conductivity Of Selected Fruit Juices During Continuous Ohmic Heating, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Vinod K. Jindal Feb 2014

Variation In Electrical Conductivity Of Selected Fruit Juices During Continuous Ohmic Heating, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Vinod K. Jindal

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Measurements and modeling of electrical conductivity (EC) of selected fruit juices were done during continuous ohmic heating. Ten-cm long acrylic heating cell with 3.8 cm internal diameter was utilized to measure the juice electrical conductivity. The variation in electrical conductivity of lab-squeezed juice of orange, pineapple and tomato fruits purchased from different retail markets were measured and modeled in terms of juice properties, such as total soluble solids and pH. EC of all juices had a linear variation with temperature as they were heated continuously to 80°C. EC of juice was affected by fruit maturity: 9-months old oranges ...


Improved Corn Ethanol Fermentation And Oil Distribution By Using Polysaccharide Hydrolyzing Enzymes, Linxing Yao, Pawarisa Luangthongkam, Tong Wang, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Tao Fei, Hui Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson, Mohan Dasari Jan 2014

Improved Corn Ethanol Fermentation And Oil Distribution By Using Polysaccharide Hydrolyzing Enzymes, Linxing Yao, Pawarisa Luangthongkam, Tong Wang, Buddhi P. Lamsal, Tao Fei, Hui Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson, Mohan Dasari

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

We determined the effects of a commercial proprietary formulation of polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzymes on ethanol fermentation performance, oil partitioning and recovery, and quality of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on a 1.5-L and 50-L fermentation scale. The enzyme was added at the start of fermentation. Whole beer was subjected to beer well incubation, distillation, and separation of thin stillage from the wet cake. The enzyme promoted faster ethanol production without affecting the final ethanol yield. The enzyme treatments resulted in 8–18% higher wet yield of thin stillage than the control, 13–21% of oil increase in thin ...