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Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Reduced Risk Of Overweight And Obesity But Not Metabolic Syndrome In Us Adults: Nhanes 2003-2006, Yong Zhu, James H. Hollis Sep 2013

Soup Consumption Is Associated With A Reduced Risk Of Overweight And Obesity But Not Metabolic Syndrome In Us Adults: Nhanes 2003-2006, Yong Zhu, James H. Hollis

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

A limited number of studies have found that soup consumption is related to a lower risk of overweight and obesity in Asian and European populations, however, these studies do not provide a consistent picture regarding the association between soup consumption and markers of metabolic syndrome. To date, no study examining the relationship between soup and body weight or metabolic syndrome have been conducted in the US population. The present study used a sample of 4158 adults aged 19–64 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2003 and 2006. The frequency of soup consumption was determined ...


Increasing The Number Of Masticatory Cycles Is Associated With Reduced Appetite And Altered Postprandial Plasma Concentrations Of Gut Hormones, Insulin And Glucose, Yong Zhu, Walter H. Hsu, James Hollis Jul 2013

Increasing The Number Of Masticatory Cycles Is Associated With Reduced Appetite And Altered Postprandial Plasma Concentrations Of Gut Hormones, Insulin And Glucose, Yong Zhu, Walter H. Hsu, James Hollis

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

To determine the influence of masticatory efficiency on postprandial satiety and glycaemic response, twenty-one healthy males were recruited for this randomised cross-over trial. The participants consumed a fixed amount of pizza provided in equal-sized portions by chewing each portion either fifteen or forty times before swallowing. Subjective appetite was measured by appetite questionnaires at regular intervals for 3 h after the meal and plasma samples were collected for the measurement of selected satiety-related hormones, glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) concentrations. An ad libitum meal was provided shortly after the last blood sample was drawn and the amount eaten ...


The Impact Of Food Viscosity On Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response And Gastric Emptying Rate, Yong Zhu, Walter H. Hsu, James Hollis Jun 2013

The Impact Of Food Viscosity On Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response And Gastric Emptying Rate, Yong Zhu, Walter H. Hsu, James Hollis

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following ...


In Vitro Digestion Rate And Estimated Glycemic Index Of Oat Flours From Typical And High Β-Glucan Oat Lines, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White May 2013

In Vitro Digestion Rate And Estimated Glycemic Index Of Oat Flours From Typical And High Β-Glucan Oat Lines, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The in vitro starch digestion rate and estimated glycemic index (GI) of oat flours and oat starches from typical and high β-glucan oat lines were evaluated along with the impact of heating on starch digestion. Flour from oat lines ('Jim', 'Paul', IA95, and N979 containing 4.0, 5.3, 7.4, and 7.7% β-glucan, respectively) was digested by pepsin and porcine pancreatin. To determine the impact of heating on starch digestion, oat slurries were prepared by mixing oat flour and water (1:8 ratio) and heating for 10 min prior to digestion. Viscosity, as measured on a Rapid Visco ...


Impact Of The Molecular Weight, Viscosity, And Solubility Of Β-Glucan On In Vitro Oat Starch Digestibility, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White Mar 2013

Impact Of The Molecular Weight, Viscosity, And Solubility Of Β-Glucan On In Vitro Oat Starch Digestibility, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The impacts of the molecular weight (MW), viscosity, and solubility of β-glucan on the rate of in vitro starch digestion and estimated glycemic index (GI) were evaluated. Extracted oat starch and β-glucan suspensions with high, medium, and low MW were heated to gelatinize the starch. The viscosity increased and the solubility decreased with an increase in the MW of β-glucan. The in vitro starch hydrolysis of the mixtures and a control, white bread, increased as the digestion time increased. As the MW of β-glucan increased, the starch hydrolysis decreased during in vitro digestion. The in vitro estimated GI of the ...


Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy J. Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. Mcclelland Jan 2013

Analysis Of Resistant Starches In Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Timothy J. Anderson, Yongfeng Ai, Roger W. Jones, Robert S. Houk, Jay-Lin Jane, Yinsheng Zhao, Diane F. Birt, John F. Mcclelland

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch ...


Echinacea Sanguinea And Echinacea Pallida Extracts Stimulate Glucuronidation And Basolateral Transfer Of Bauer Alkamides 8 And 10 And Ketone 24 And Inhibit P-Glycoprotein Transporter In Caco-2 Cells, Zhiyi Qiang, Catharine Hauck, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Manju B. Reddy, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich Jan 2013

Echinacea Sanguinea And Echinacea Pallida Extracts Stimulate Glucuronidation And Basolateral Transfer Of Bauer Alkamides 8 And 10 And Ketone 24 And Inhibit P-Glycoprotein Transporter In Caco-2 Cells, Zhiyi Qiang, Catharine Hauck, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Manju B. Reddy, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit the P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the permeation rate of Bauer alkamides by passive diffusion across Caco-2 cells corresponded with compound hydrophilicity (alkamide 8 > 10 > 11), independent of the plant extract matrix. Both ...


The Immuno-Regulatory Impact Of Orally-Administered Hypericum Perforatum Extract On Balb/C Mice Inoculated With H1n1 Influenza A Virus, Nan Huang, Navrozedeep Singh, Kyoungjin Yoon, Christina M. Loiacono, Marian L. Kohut, Diane F. Birt Jan 2013

The Immuno-Regulatory Impact Of Orally-Administered Hypericum Perforatum Extract On Balb/C Mice Inoculated With H1n1 Influenza A Virus, Nan Huang, Navrozedeep Singh, Kyoungjin Yoon, Christina M. Loiacono, Marian L. Kohut, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) ethanol extract has been found to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in cultured macrophages. Therefore, it may be able to protect the host from excessive inflammation during viral infection. In the current study, the immune-regulatory effect of H. perforatum extract was evaluated in A549 lung epithelial cells and BALB/c mice exposed to Influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus. In A549 cells, the extract (30 µg/mL) significantly inhibited influenza virus induced monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and interferon-γ induced protein 10 kD (IP-10), but dramatically increased interleukin-6 (IL-6). In mice inoculated ...


Iron Bioavailability Of Maize Hemoglobin In A Caco-2 Cell Culture Model, Anastasia L. Bodnar, Amy K. Proulx, M. Paul Scott, Alyssa Beavers, Manju B. Reddy Jan 2013

Iron Bioavailability Of Maize Hemoglobin In A Caco-2 Cell Culture Model, Anastasia L. Bodnar, Amy K. Proulx, M. Paul Scott, Alyssa Beavers, Manju B. Reddy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

: Maize (Zea mays) is an important staple crop in many parts of the world but has low iron bioavailability, in part due to its high phytate content. Hemoglobin is a form of iron that is highly bioavailable, and its bioavailability is not inhibited by phytate. It was hypothesized that maize hemoglobin is a highly bioavailable iron source and that biofortification of maize with iron can be accomplished by overexpression of maize globin in the endosperm. Maize was transformed with a gene construct encoding a translational fusion of maize globin and green fluorescent protein under transcriptional control of the maize 27 ...


Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, Venkatesh Mani, James H. Hollis, Nicholas K. Gabler Jan 2013

Dietary Oil Composition Differentially Modulates Intestinal Endotoxin Transport And Postprandial Endotoxemia, Venkatesh Mani, James H. Hollis, Nicholas K. Gabler

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Background: Intestinal derived endotoxin and the subsequent endotoxemia can be considered major predisposing factors for diseases such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, obesity and diabetes. Dietary fat has been shown to increase postprandial endotoxemia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary oils on intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia using swine as a model. We hypothesized that oils rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) would augment, while oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) would attenuate intestinal endotoxin transport and circulating concentrations.

Methods: Postprandial endotoxemia was measured in twenty four pigs following a porridge ...