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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Genome-Wide Association Study For Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Beta-Glucan Concentration Using Germplasm Of Worldwide Origin, Mark A. Newell, Franco G. Asoro, M. Paul Scott, Pamela J. White, William D. Beavis, Jean-Luc Jannink Dec 2012

Genome-Wide Association Study For Oat (Avena Sativa L.) Beta-Glucan Concentration Using Germplasm Of Worldwide Origin, Mark A. Newell, Franco G. Asoro, M. Paul Scott, Pamela J. White, William D. Beavis, Jean-Luc Jannink

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits followed by selection has become a common approach for selection in crop plants. The QTL are most often identified by linkage mapping using experimental F2, backcross, advanced inbred, or doubled haploid families. An alternative approach for QTL detection are genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that use pre-existing lines such as those found in breeding programs. We explored the implementation of GWAS in oat (Avena sativa L.) to identify QTL affecting β-glucan concentration, a soluble dietary fiber with several human health benefits when consumed as a whole grain. A total of 431 lines ...


Consumer-Centered Extension Education Website Increases Usage, Sarah L. Francis, Peggy Martin, Kristin Taylor Oct 2012

Consumer-Centered Extension Education Website Increases Usage, Sarah L. Francis, Peggy Martin, Kristin Taylor

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Concern about young families' ability to cope with rising food prices resulted in creating Spend Smart. Eat Smart (SSES), a website focused on budgetfriendly nutrition information for limited resource audiences (LRA). SSES was redesigned using LRAs needs and preferences to increase use by LRAs. SSES usage increased after it was revised to incorporate interactivity and more consumerfriendly design elements.


Solid-State Fermentation Of Soybean And Corn Processing Coproducts For Potential Feed Improvement, Junyi Lio, Tong Wang Aug 2012

Solid-State Fermentation Of Soybean And Corn Processing Coproducts For Potential Feed Improvement, Junyi Lio, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Two agro-industrial coproducts, soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), were used as substrates to evaluate the effect of coculturing three different fungi, Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, on enzyme production by solid-state fermentation (SSF). When soybean fiber was used as the substrate, a maximum xylanase activity of 757.4 IU/g and a cellulase activity of 3.2 IU/g were achieved with the inoculation and incubation of T. reesei and P. chrysosporium for 36 h, followed by A. oryzae for an additional 108 h. This inoculation scheme also resulted in the highest ...


Modifying Vegetable Oil For Encaustic Painting, Linxing Yao, Barbara Walton, Tong Wang Aug 2012

Modifying Vegetable Oil For Encaustic Painting, Linxing Yao, Barbara Walton, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The work depicted in this article results from collaboration among lipid scientists and an artist. The collaboration started seven years ago when Barbara Walton, an art professor at Iowa State University (ISU) in Ames, USA, read a news story about soywax candles with clean-burning properties characterized by a lipid professor at ISU, Tong Wang.


Interactional Effects Of Β-Glucan, Starch, And Protein In Heated Oat Slurries On Viscosity And In Vitro Bile Acid Binding, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White Jun 2012

Interactional Effects Of Β-Glucan, Starch, And Protein In Heated Oat Slurries On Viscosity And In Vitro Bile Acid Binding, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Three major oat components, β-glucan, starch, and protein, and their interactions were evaluated for the impact on viscosity of heated oat slurries and in vitro bile acid binding. Oat flour from the experimental oat line “N979” (7.45% β-glucan) was mixed with water and heated to make oat slurry. Heated oat slurries were treated with α-amylase, lichenase, and/or proteinase to remove starch, β-glucan, and/or protein. Oat slurries treated with lichenase or lichenase combined with α-amylase and/or proteinase reduced the molecular weight of β-glucan. Heat and enzymatic treatment of oat slurries reduced the peak and final viscosities compared ...


Influence Of Dietary Phytochemicals And Microbiota On Colon Cancer Risk., Ruth S. Macdonald, Kelly Wagner May 2012

Influence Of Dietary Phytochemicals And Microbiota On Colon Cancer Risk., Ruth S. Macdonald, Kelly Wagner

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Colon cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in the United States. Lifestyle and dietary patterns influence colon cancer risk both positively and negatively. Among the dietary factors, several plant-derived compounds have been found to afford colon cancer protection. These compounds potentially influence all aspects of colonic cellular regulation and develop complex interrelationships with the colonic microbiome. Increasing understanding of the role of microorganisms in determining the colonic environment has led to awareness of this important interrelationship among dietary factors and the microbial population. Plant-derived polyphenols are active mediators of cellular events, target key carcinogenic pathways, and ...


A Proposed Method Of Test For Spoilage Of Fruits And Vegetables, Kristopher R. Lineberry, Michael Pate, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher May 2012

A Proposed Method Of Test For Spoilage Of Fruits And Vegetables, Kristopher R. Lineberry, Michael Pate, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This document is intended to provide all procedures and background needed for testing fruits and vegetables for deter- mination of spoilage progression during storage. This method of testing was developed for research into the effect of household refrigeration storage conditions on the shelf life of fruits and vegetables (Pate and Brehm-Stecher 2005). Instructions start with the procurement of the produce and sample preparation prior to placement within the environ- mental chamber. Data collection procedures used throughout the experiments are specified and a checklist for visually identifying physical attributes of “spoilage” and “freshness” are developed. Procedures for the counting of microorgan- ...


Impact Of High Hydrostatic Pressure And Heat Treatments On Milk Gel Properties: A Comparative Rheological Study, Anas Al-Nabulsi, Reyad Shaker, Tareq Osaili, Stephanie Clark, Federico Harte, Gustavo Barbosa-Canovas Apr 2012

Impact Of High Hydrostatic Pressure And Heat Treatments On Milk Gel Properties: A Comparative Rheological Study, Anas Al-Nabulsi, Reyad Shaker, Tareq Osaili, Stephanie Clark, Federico Harte, Gustavo Barbosa-Canovas

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (483 and 676 MPa at 20°C for 5 min) and heat treatment (63°C for 30 min and 72°C for 15 s) of milk on the rheological properties of coagulant-induced milk gels were investigated. The rheological properties of gels were determined using a dynamic Physica Rheometer and Texture Analyzer. Milk turbidity was measured by a spectrophotometer. The gels produced from a pressure of 483 MPa had higher storage modulus (G*) and firmer gel at cutting compared to heated milks. Increasing the pressure to 676 MPa caused a reduction in G*, less firm ...


Supplementation Of Laying-Hen Feed With Palm Tocos And Algae Astaxanthin For Egg Yolk Nutrient Enrichment, Laurie Ann Walker, Tong Wang, Hongwei Xin, David Dolde Feb 2012

Supplementation Of Laying-Hen Feed With Palm Tocos And Algae Astaxanthin For Egg Yolk Nutrient Enrichment, Laurie Ann Walker, Tong Wang, Hongwei Xin, David Dolde

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Adding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols are potent antioxidants that provide health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed would result in an increased nutrient content in egg yolk with minimum changes in functional properties. Laying hens (Hy-Line W-36 breed) were fed four diets with different supplementation levels of palm toco concentrate and algae biomass containing astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Egg yolks were analyzed for physical, chemical, and functional properties. The feed with the highest nutrient concentration was also studied for stability of these antioxidants ...


Tissue-Specific Alterations Of Methyl Group Metabolism With Dna Hypermethylation In The Zucker (Type 2) Diabetic Fatty Rat., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske Feb 2012

Tissue-Specific Alterations Of Methyl Group Metabolism With Dna Hypermethylation In The Zucker (Type 2) Diabetic Fatty Rat., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

BackgroundAltered methyl group and homocysteine metabolism were tissue-specific, persistent, and preceded hepatic DNA hypomethylation in type 1 diabetic rats. Similar metabolic perturbations have been shown in the Zucker (type 2) diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat in the pre-diabetic and early diabetic stages, but tissue specificity and potential impact on epigenetic marks are unknown, particularly during pathogenesis.

Methods ZDF (fa/fa) and lean (+/?) control rats were killed at 12 and 21 weeks of age, representing early and advanced diabetic conditions. Blood and tissues were analysed with respect to methyl group and homocysteine metabolism, including DNA methylation.

Results At 12 weeks, hepatic ...


Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt Feb 2012

Bauer Ketones 23 And 24 From Echinacea Paradoxa Var. Paradoxa Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide, Prostaglandin E2 And Cytokines In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Xiaozhu Zhang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Catherine C. Hauck, Luping Qu, Mark P. Widrlechner, Basil J. Nikolau, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Among the nine Echinacea species, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida, have been widely used to treat the common cold, flu and other infections. In this study, ethanol extracts of these three Echinaceaspecies and E. paradoxa, including its typical variety, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, were screened in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells to assess potential anti-inflammatory activity. E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, rich in polyenes/polyacetylenes, was an especially efficient inhibitor of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 46%, 32%, 53% and 26%, respectively, when tested at 20 μg ...


Synthesis Of Oleoylethanolamide Using Lipase, Xiaosan Wang, Xingguo Wang, Tong Wang Jan 2012

Synthesis Of Oleoylethanolamide Using Lipase, Xiaosan Wang, Xingguo Wang, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

An effective process for the enzymatic synthesis of oleoylethanolamide is described in this study. The process included purification of a commercial oleic acid product and then optimization of the reaction between the purified oleic acid and ethanolamine in the presence of hexane and a lipase. Under the optimal amidation reaction conditions identified, oleoylethanolamide was obtained with 96.6% purity. The synthesis was also conducted on a large scale (50 mmol of each of the reactants), and oleoylethanolamide purity and yield after crystallization purification were 96.1 and 73.5%, respectively. Compared to the previous studies, the current method of preparing ...


Legumes, Donna M. Winham Jan 2012

Legumes, Donna M. Winham

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Legumes have been part of the human diet for thousands of years. With their multiple health benefits, they deserve a central role in contemporary cuisine as well. The seed-bearing pod of legumes makes them distinguishable from other plant families. The oilseeds, such as soybeans and peanuts, are categorized separately from the grain legumes or beans, such as pinto, kidney, lima, cowpeas, fava, chickpeas (garbanzo beans), len­tils, and dry peas. Scientific research linking grain legume consumption to positive health, nutrition, and longevity outcomes continues to emerge.