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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Revising An Extension Education Website For Limited Resource Audiences Using Social Marketing Theory, Sarah L. Francis, Peggy Martin, Kristin Taylor Dec 2011

Revising An Extension Education Website For Limited Resource Audiences Using Social Marketing Theory, Sarah L. Francis, Peggy Martin, Kristin Taylor

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Spend Smart Eat Smart (SSES), a unique website combining nutrition and food buying education for limited resource audiences (LRAs), was revised using social marketing theory to make it more appealing and relevant to LRAs (25-40 years). Focus groups and surveys identified the needs and preferences of LRAs. Needs were cooking, basic health, and budget-friendly nutrition ideas. Preferences were limited text, more videos, graphics, and color. Usability testing of the revised site indicated users perceived the information valuable and the design appealing. By incorporating the needs and preferences of LRAs, SSES is now perceived as appealing as well as relevant.


Genetic Modification Of Low Phytic Acid 1-1 Maize To Enhance Iron Content And Bioavailability, Maneesha R. Aluru, Steve R. Rodermel, Manju B. Reddy Nov 2011

Genetic Modification Of Low Phytic Acid 1-1 Maize To Enhance Iron Content And Bioavailability, Maneesha R. Aluru, Steve R. Rodermel, Manju B. Reddy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

High phytate content in staple food crops is a major barrier to successful iron biofortification. We have exploited the low phytic acid 1-1 (lpa1-1) mutant of maize to generate transgenic plants with up-to 70 μg/g seed iron through the endosperm-specific overexpression of soybean ferritin, resulting in more than 2-fold improvement in iron bioavailability. The levels of bioavailable seed iron achieved in this study greatly exceed any achieved thus far and closely approach values estimated to have a nutritional impact on target populations. Gene expression studies reveal a large induction of the YS1 transporter in leaves and severe repression of ...


Optimizing The Molecular Weight Of Oat Β-Glucan For In Vitro Bile Acid Binding And Fermentation, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White Sep 2011

Optimizing The Molecular Weight Of Oat Β-Glucan For In Vitro Bile Acid Binding And Fermentation, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

A previous study showed β-glucan with low molecular weight (MW, 1.56 × 105 g/mol) bound more bile acid and produced greater amounts of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) than did β-glucan with high MW (Mn = 6.87 × 105 g/mol). In the current study, β-glucan extracted from oat flour was fractionated into six different MW levels (high MW, 7.09 × 105; low level 1 (L1), 3.48 × 105; L2, 2.42 × 105; L3, 1.61 × 105; L4, 0.87 × 105; and L5, 0.46 × 105 g/mol) and evaluated to find the optimum MW affecting in vitro bile acid ...


Rapid Identification Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Methicillin Resistance By Flow Cytometry Using A Peptide Nucleic Acid Probe, Nabin K. Shrestha, Nikole M. Scalera, Deborah A. Wilson, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Gary W. Procop Sep 2011

Rapid Identification Of Staphylococcus Aureus And Methicillin Resistance By Flow Cytometry Using A Peptide Nucleic Acid Probe, Nabin K. Shrestha, Nikole M. Scalera, Deborah A. Wilson, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Gary W. Procop

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

A total of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates incubated for 2 h in the presence or absence of oxacillin were analyzed by flow cytometry after labeling with an S. aureus-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe. Two defined ratios, the paired signal count ratio (PSCR) and the gate signal count ratio (GSCR), differentiated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) with sensitivities of 100% each and specificities of 96% and 100%, respectively.


Development Of New Method For Extraction Of Α-Zein From Corn Gluten Meal Using Different Solvents, Timothy J. Anderson, Buddhi P. Lamsal Jul 2011

Development Of New Method For Extraction Of Α-Zein From Corn Gluten Meal Using Different Solvents, Timothy J. Anderson, Buddhi P. Lamsal

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

A modified procedure for the extraction of α-zein from corn gluten meal was developed and compared against a commercial extraction method. The modification involved raising the concentration of alcohol in solvent and removing the precipitate by centrifugation. Five organic solvent mixtures were compared using the modified extraction procedure developed along with the reductant sodium bisulfite and NaOH. The modified procedure precipitated most of the non-α-zein protein solids by increasing the concentration of alcohol. The supernatant had α-zein-rich fraction, resulting in higher yield of α-zein than the commercial method when cold precipitated. The commercial extraction procedure had a zein yield of ...


Efficacy Of A Mycotoxin Binder Against Dietary Fumonisin, Deoxynivalenol, And Zearalenone In Rats, Qiang Zhang, My Truong, Koen Meynen, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich Jun 2011

Efficacy Of A Mycotoxin Binder Against Dietary Fumonisin, Deoxynivalenol, And Zearalenone In Rats, Qiang Zhang, My Truong, Koen Meynen, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

It was hypothesized that a mycotoxin binder, Grainsure E, would inhibit adverse effects of a mixture of fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone in rats. For 14 and 28 days, 8–10 Sprague–Dawley rats were fed control diet, Grainsure E (0.5%), toxins (7 μg fumonisin B1/g, 8 μg of deoxynivalenol/g and 0.2 μg of zearalenone/g), toxins (12 μg of fumonisin B1/g, 9 μg of deoxynivalenol/g, and 0.2 μg of zearalenone/g + Grainsure E), or pair-fed to control for food intake of toxin-fed rats. After 28 days, decreased body weight gain was prevented ...


Lunasin And Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor Concentrations Of Protein Extracts From Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybeans, Juliana Maria L. Nobrega De Moura, Blanca Hernandez-Ledesma, Neiva M. De Almeida, Chia-Chien Hsieh, Ben O. De Lumen, Lawrence A. Johnson May 2011

Lunasin And Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor Concentrations Of Protein Extracts From Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Soybeans, Juliana Maria L. Nobrega De Moura, Blanca Hernandez-Ledesma, Neiva M. De Almeida, Chia-Chien Hsieh, Ben O. De Lumen, Lawrence A. Johnson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Lunasin and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) are two soybean peptides to which health-promoting properties have been attributed. Concentrations of these peptides were determined in skim fractions produced by enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded full-fat soybean flakes (an alternative to extracting oil from soybeans with hexane) and compared with similar extracts from hexane-defatted soybean meal. Oil and protein were extracted by using countercurrent twostage EAEP of soybeans at 1:6 solids-to-liquid ratio, 50C, pH 9.0, and 120 rpm for 1 h. Protein-rich skim fractions were produced from extruded full-fat soybean flakes using different enzyme strategies in EAEP: 0 ...


The Effect Of Soy Food Intake On Mineral Status In Premenopausal Women, Ying Zhou, D. Lee Alekel, Philip M. Dixon, Mark Messina, Manju B. Reddy May 2011

The Effect Of Soy Food Intake On Mineral Status In Premenopausal Women, Ying Zhou, D. Lee Alekel, Philip M. Dixon, Mark Messina, Manju B. Reddy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Background: Soy foods have been substituted for meat in recent years because of proposed health benefits. Research indicates, however, that soy protein and phytate in soy products inhibit the absorption of divalent cations. Methods: Our study was primarily designed to determine the effect of consuming two to three servings per day of soy foods, providing *19 g protein and *36 mg isoflavones, on iron and zinc status in premenopausal women during a 10-weeks period. As secondary outcomes, we also tested the effect of soy foods on biochemical markers of bone and thyroid hormones. Nonsmoking women (18–28 years) without chronic ...


Lesser In Vitro Anaerobic Cecal Isoflavone Disappearance Was Associated With Greater Apparent Absorption Of Daidzein And Genistein In Golden Syrian Hamsters, Mathieu Renouf, Suzanne Hendrich Apr 2011

Lesser In Vitro Anaerobic Cecal Isoflavone Disappearance Was Associated With Greater Apparent Absorption Of Daidzein And Genistein In Golden Syrian Hamsters, Mathieu Renouf, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Our hypothesis in this study was that in vitro disappearance of isoflavones from fecal or cecal contents of Golden Syrian hamsters paralleled the apparent absorption of these compounds, comparable with previous findings from in vitro human fecal incubations. Two studies were conducted to test this idea: one on in vitro fecal (study 1, n = 20/sex) and the other on in vitrocecal contents (study 2, n = 10/sex) ability to degrade isoflavones. According to HPLC analysis, urinary isoflavone excretion was significantly less by 2–4 fold in males compared with females in both studies. Fecal isoflavone excretion was not ...


Phytic Acid Protects Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neuron Apoptosis In Normal And Iron Excess Conditions In A Cell Culturemodel, Qi Xu, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Manju B. Reddy Jan 2011

Phytic Acid Protects Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neuron Apoptosis In Normal And Iron Excess Conditions In A Cell Culturemodel, Qi Xu, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Manju B. Reddy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Iron may play an important role in Parkinson’s disease (PD) since it can induce oxidative stress-dependent neurodegeneration. The objective of this study was to determine whether the iron chelator, phytic acid (IP6) can protect against 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA-) induced apoptosis in immortalized rat mesencephalic dopaminergic cells under normal and iron-excess conditions. Caspase-3 activity was increased about 6-fold after 6-OHDA treatment (compared to control; P < .001) and 30 μmol/L IP6 pretreatment decreased it by 38% (P < .05). Similarly, a 63% protection (P < .001) against 6-OHDA induced DNA fragmentation was observed with IP6 pretreatment. Under iron-excess condition, a 6-fold increase in caspase-3 activity (P < .001) and a 42% increase in DNA fragmentation (P < .05) with 6-OHDA treatment were decreased by 41% (P < .01) and 27% (P < .05), respectively, with 30 μmol/L IP6. Together, our data suggest that IP6 protects against 6-OHDA-induced cell apoptosis in both normal and iron-excess conditions, and IP6 may offer neuroprotection in PD.


Assessment Of Critical Thinking Skills In A Low-Income Population: Development Of A Methodology, Ingrid K. Richards Adams, Suzanne Hendrich, Cheryl Olmstead Hausafus Jan 2011

Assessment Of Critical Thinking Skills In A Low-Income Population: Development Of A Methodology, Ingrid K. Richards Adams, Suzanne Hendrich, Cheryl Olmstead Hausafus

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Developing critical thinking skills in adults empowers them to make sound decisions. Seventy-one parents in a low-income preschool program took part in a study to develop their critical thinking skills. A two-group (experimental, control) randomized, pretest-posttest design was used. The experimental group participated in two 45-minute sessions about vegetables and physical activity. The development of a methodology to assess critical thinking included a context-specific definition, problem solving, and the use of scenarios. After the intervention, parents in the experimental group showed improvement in problem solving, especially in areas of problem identification, gathering relevant information to solve the problem, and providing ...


Recovery And Characterization Of Α-Zein From Corn Fermentation Coproducts, Ilankovan Paraman, Buddhi P. Lamsal Jan 2011

Recovery And Characterization Of Α-Zein From Corn Fermentation Coproducts, Ilankovan Paraman, Buddhi P. Lamsal

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Zeins were isolated from corn ethanol coproduct distiller’s dried grains (DDG) and fractionated into α- and β γ-rich fractions. The effects of the ethanol production process, such as fermentation type, protease addition, and DDG drying temperature on zein recovery, were evaluated. Yield, purity, and molecular properties of recovered zein fractions were determined and compared with zein isolated from corn gluten meal (CGM). Around 29−34% of the total zein was recovered from DDG, whereas 83% of total zein was recovered from CGM. Process variations of cooked and raw starch hydrolysis and fermentation did not affect the recovery, purity, and ...


Inhibition Of Azoxymethane-Induced Preneoplastic Lesions In The Rat Colon By A Cooked Stearic Acid Complexed High-Amylose Cornstarch, Yinsheng Zhao, Jovin Hasjim, Li Li, Jay-Lin Jane, Suzanne Hendrich, Diane F. Birt Jan 2011

Inhibition Of Azoxymethane-Induced Preneoplastic Lesions In The Rat Colon By A Cooked Stearic Acid Complexed High-Amylose Cornstarch, Yinsheng Zhao, Jovin Hasjim, Li Li, Jay-Lin Jane, Suzanne Hendrich, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This study evaluated a novel stearic acid complexed high-amylose cornstarch (SAC) for the prevention of preneoplastic lesions in the colon of azoxymethane (AOM)-treated Fisher 344 rats fed resistant starches at 50–55% of the diet for 8 weeks. Uncooked SAC (r-SAC) diet was compared with raw normal-cornstarch diet (r-CS) or raw high-amylose cornstarch diet (r-HA), and water-boiled CS (w-CS) was compared with w-HA and w-SAC, respectively. w-SAC markedly reduced mucin-depleted foci (MDF) numbers compared with w-HA or w-CS. r-HA significantly decreased aberrant crypt foci (ACF) numbers compared with r-CS or r-SAC. Increased cecum weight and decreased cecum pH were ...


Zein Extraction From Corn, Corn Products, And Coproducts And Modifications For Various Applications: A Review, Timothy James Anderson, Buddhi P. Lamsal Jan 2011

Zein Extraction From Corn, Corn Products, And Coproducts And Modifications For Various Applications: A Review, Timothy James Anderson, Buddhi P. Lamsal

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Corn can be fractioned to produce starch, fiber, oil, and protein in relatively pure forms. The corn kernel contains 9–12% protein, but half of this is an industrially useful protein called zein. Dry milled corn (DMC), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are all coproducts from corn that contain zein and are used for zein extraction. Because it is insoluble in water, zein has found uses in many products such as coatings, plastics, textiles, and adhesives. Newer applications are taking advantage of zein's biological properties for supporting growing cells, delivering drugs, producing ...