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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Androidal Fat Dominates In Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk In Postmenopausalwomen, O. A. Matvienko, D. L. Alekel, S. N. Bhupathiraju, Heike Hofmann, L. M. Ritland, M. B. Reddy, M. D. Van Loan, C. D. Perry Nov 2010

Androidal Fat Dominates In Predicting Cardiometabolic Risk In Postmenopausalwomen, O. A. Matvienko, D. L. Alekel, S. N. Bhupathiraju, Heike Hofmann, L. M. Ritland, M. B. Reddy, M. D. Van Loan, C. D. Perry

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and homocysteine. We collected data on 224 healthy postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis (45.8–65 y, median BMI 24.5) who consumed placebo or soy isoflavones (80 or 120 mg/d) for 36 months and used longitudinal analysis to examine the contribution of isoflavone treatment, androidal fat mass, other biologic factors, and dietary quality to cardiometabolic outcomes. Except ...


Deactivation Of Soybean Agglutinin By Enzymatic And Other Physical Treatments, Yating Ma, Tong Wang Nov 2010

Deactivation Of Soybean Agglutinin By Enzymatic And Other Physical Treatments, Yating Ma, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The main objective of this study was to eliminate the hemagglutination activity of an antinutritional factor in soybeans, soybean agglutinin (SBA). A series of experiments was designed to enzymatically modify SBA structure and to use other physical treatments to reduce activity. SBA extract was prepared from soy flour and used as the substrate for all treatments. Deglycosylation by enzyme decreased activity of SBA by 21%, but not to the level of denaturation by heat or by denaturing reagents (47−77% residual activity). Single enzymes, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, thermolysin, and endoproteinase Glu-C, did not hydrolyze native SBA, but they hydrolyzed ...


Combination Of Adhesive-Tape-Based Sampling And Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella On Fresh Produce, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher Oct 2010

Combination Of Adhesive-Tape-Based Sampling And Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization For Rapid Detection Of Salmonella On Fresh Produce, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This protocol describes a simple approach for adhesive-tape-based sampling of tomato and other fresh produce surfaces, followed by on-tape fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for rapid culture-independent detection of Salmonella spp. Cell-charged tapes can also be placed facedown on selective agar for solid-phase enrichment prior to detection. Alternatively, low-volume liquid enrichments (liquid surface miniculture) can be performed on the surface of the tape in non-selective broth, followed by FISH and analysis via flow cytometry. To begin, sterile adhesive tape is brought into contact with fresh produce, gentle pressure is applied, and the tape is removed, physically extracting microbes present on ...


High Quality Proteins Can Impact Circulating Homocysteine Levels., Kevin L. Schalinske Oct 2010

High Quality Proteins Can Impact Circulating Homocysteine Levels., Kevin L. Schalinske

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The amino acid composition of a protein can tell you a lot about it’s health implications. For example a protein source high in sulfur amino acids (methionine and cysteine) can affect methionine metabolism and, ultimately, health. Cysteine is a conditionally essential amino acid, because it can be synthesized endogenously from methionine. Thus, when a dietary protein provides enough methionine beyond the need for cellular protein synthesis, the remaining surplus can be used to synthesize cysteine. Therefore, when a dietary protein has a cysteine concentration in balance with methionine, the need to utilize methionine for its synthesis is reduced. This ...


Effects Of Kernel Breakage And Fermentation On Corn Germ Integrity And Oil Quality, Hui Wang, Tong Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson Sep 2010

Effects Of Kernel Breakage And Fermentation On Corn Germ Integrity And Oil Quality, Hui Wang, Tong Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

To investigate the ability of corn germ to withstand the fuel ethanol fermentation process without major damage to germ integrity and germ oil quality, five treatments were designed to explore degerming before fermentation (front-end) and after fermentation (tail-end), and the feasibility of breaking the kernel with minimum shear forces (wet-split). Germ from low-shear (wet-split) tail-end degerming maintained its integrity during the process. The wet-grind pretreatment caused 22% germ damage, and the subsequent fermentation caused 18% additional germ damage. The germ recovered after fermentation showed physical strength similar to that of those isolated by wet means before fermentation. The oils extracted ...


Individual And Interactional Effects Of Β-Glucan, Starch, And Protein On Pasting Properties Of Oat Flours, Yanjun Liu, Theodore B. Bailey, Pamela J. White Aug 2010

Individual And Interactional Effects Of Β-Glucan, Starch, And Protein On Pasting Properties Of Oat Flours, Yanjun Liu, Theodore B. Bailey, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Seven experimental oat lines with high (6.2−7.2%), medium (5.5−5.9%), and low (4.4−5.3%) β-glucan concentrations were evaluated for contributions of β-glucan, starch, protein, and their interactions, to pasting properties of oat flours by using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, Newport Scientific, Warriewood, NSW, Australia). Significant correlations (P < 0.05) between β-glucan concentration and pasting parameters of oat slurries were obtained under autolysis without 1 h of incubation, inhibition, and amylolysis. The relative decrease of viscosity after enzymatic hydrolysis of β-glucan correlated with β-glucan concentration (P < 0.05). These data demonstrated the important contribution of β-glucan to pasting. The relative decrease of viscosity after either amylolysis or enzymatic removal of protein correlated with β-glucan concentration (P < 0.1), which might be explained by the considerable contribution of the interaction of β-glucan with starch and protein, to pasting. The viscosity decrease by hydrolysis of protein was much greater than the actual viscosity remaining after hydrolysis of both β-glucan and starch, reconfirming the importance of interactions between protein and other oat components to pasting. Optimal multiple linear regression (MLR) models were generated to predict key pasting parameters in both buffer without 1 h of incubation and silver nitrate solution by using a stepwise procedure. The β-glucan concentration alone or together with the concentration of starch, rather than protein, was selected as the predictor under certain conditions. These results illustrated the major unit contribution of β-glucan, secondary unit contribution of starch, and minimal unit contribution of protein to pasting.


Exotic Corn Lines With Increased Resistant Starch And Impact On Starch Thermal Characteristics, Kim A. Rohlfing, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White May 2010

Exotic Corn Lines With Increased Resistant Starch And Impact On Starch Thermal Characteristics, Kim A. Rohlfing, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Ten parent corn lines, including four mutants (dull sugary2, amyloseextender sugary2, amylose-extender dull, and an amylose-extender with introgressed Guatemalen germplasm [GUAT ae]) and six lines with introgressed exotic germplasm backgrounds, were crossed with each other to create 20 progeny crosses to increase resistant starch (RS) as a dietary fiber in corn starch and to provide materials for thermal evaluation. The resistant starch 2 (RS2) values from the 10 parent lines were 18.3–52.2% and the values from the 20 progeny crosses were 16.6–34.0%. The %RS2 of parents was not additive in the offspring but greater ...


A Critical Thinking Approach Increases Offerings Of Dark Green Leafy, Yellow / Orange, Cruciferous Vegetables, And Tomatoes In The Diets Of Low-Income Children, Ingrid K. Richards Adams, Cheryl Olmstead Hausafus, Suzanne Hendrich Mar 2010

A Critical Thinking Approach Increases Offerings Of Dark Green Leafy, Yellow / Orange, Cruciferous Vegetables, And Tomatoes In The Diets Of Low-Income Children, Ingrid K. Richards Adams, Cheryl Olmstead Hausafus, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

To evaluate the effectiveness of a critical thinking (CT) educational approach for Head Start parents in increasing offerings of dark green leafy, yellow/orange, cruciferous vegetables, tomatoes (specific vegetables), in their children’s diets. A two-group (experimental, control) randomized, pretest-posttest design was used. The experimental group participated in two 45-minute sessions on vegetables based on the CT approach. A CT definition, model, curriculum and lesson plans were developed. Significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups in mean posttest scores for vegetable knowledge 3.72 (SE 0.26) and 2.99 (SE 0.26), for critical thinking 2 ...


Battling Obesity With Resistant Starch, Suzanne Hendrich Mar 2010

Battling Obesity With Resistant Starch, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

f everyone in the United States simply adopted the U.S. Dietary Guidelines of 2005 (http://www. cnpp.usda.gov/GAs2005Guidelines .htm), obesity would be on its way out. Exercising 30-90 minutes a day, eating at least half of our grains as whole grains, and eating four servings of fruits and five servings of vegetables 'a day are simple prac­ tices that are advised because of their ability to improve energy bal­ ance, keeping us from gaining weight and helping us to lose weight if we need to.


The Role Of Plasmalogen In The Oxidative Stability Of Neutral Lipids And Phospholipids, Guang Wang, Tong Wang Feb 2010

The Role Of Plasmalogen In The Oxidative Stability Of Neutral Lipids And Phospholipids, Guang Wang, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The role of ethanolamine plasmalogen extracted from bovine brain (BBEP) in maintaining oxidative stability of bulk soybean oil and liposome made with egg phospholipids (PL) was studied. In a purified soybean oil (PSO), the addition of 200 and 1000 ppm of BBEP promoted lipid oxidation at rates of 0.037 and 0.071 (all rates in ln (PV) h−1, and PV stands for peroxide value), whereas soy lecithin (SL) added in the same amount showed a trend similar to the PSO blank, which had an oxidation rate of 0.025. The PSO with BBEP was susceptible to cupric ion ...


Antilisterial Effects Of Gravinol-S Grape Seed Extract At Low Levels In Aqueous Media And Its Potential Application As A Produce Wash., Bledar Bisha, Natalia Weinsetel, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Aubrey F. Mendonca Feb 2010

Antilisterial Effects Of Gravinol-S Grape Seed Extract At Low Levels In Aqueous Media And Its Potential Application As A Produce Wash., Bledar Bisha, Natalia Weinsetel, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Aubrey F. Mendonca

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Grape seed extract (GSE) is a rich source of proanthocyanidins, a class of natural antioxidants reported to have wide-ranging bioactivity as anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial agents. The ability of GSE to rapidly inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in vitro and the generally recognized as safe status of GSE make this extract an attractive candidate for control of Listeria in or on foods. Previously, GSE has been used at relatively high concentrations (1%) in complex food matrices and in combination with other antimicrobials. We sought to characterize the antilisterial effects of a commercial GSE preparation (Gravinol-S) alone at much lower concentrations (0.00015 ...


In Vitro Bile-Acid Binding And Fermentation Of High, Medium, And Low Molecular Weight Β-Glucan, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White Jan 2010

In Vitro Bile-Acid Binding And Fermentation Of High, Medium, And Low Molecular Weight Β-Glucan, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The impact of β-glucan molecular weight (MW) on in vitro bile-acid binding and in vitrofermentation with human fecal flora was evaluated. β-Glucan extracted from oat line ‘N979-5-4’ was treated with lichenase (1,3−1,4-β-d-glucanase) to yield high (6.87 × 105 g/mol), medium (3.71 × 105 g/mol), and low (1.56 × 105 g/mol) MW fractions. The low MW β-glucan bound more bile acid than did the high MW β-glucan (p < 0.05). If the positive control, cholestyramine, was considered to bind bile acid at 100%, the relative bile-acid binding of the original oat flour and the extracted β-glucan with high, medium, and low MW was 15, 27, 24, and 21%, respectively. Significant effects of high, medium, and low MW β-glucans on total SCFA were observed compared to the blank without substrate (p < 0.05). There were no differences in pH changes and total gas production among high, medium, and low MW β-glucans, and lactulose. The low MW β-glucan produced greater amounts of SCFA than the high MW after 24 h of fermentation. Among the major SCFA, more propionate was produced from all MW fractions of extracted β-glucans than from lactulose. In vitro fermentation of extracted β-glucan fractions with different MW lowered pH and produced SCFA, providing potential biological function.


Homocysteine Metabolism And Its Relation To Health And Disease., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske Jan 2010

Homocysteine Metabolism And Its Relation To Health And Disease., Kelly T. Williams, Kevin Schalinske

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Homocysteine is a metabolic intermediate in methyl group metabolism that is dependent on a number of nutritional B-vitamin cofactors. An emerging aspect of homocysteine metabolism is its relation to health and disease. Perturbations of homocysteine metabolism, particularly intracellular and subsequently circulating accumulation of homocysteine (i.e., hyperhomocysteinemia), are associated with vascular disease risk, as well as other pathologies. However, intervention with B-vitamin supplementation has been shown to successfully restore normal homocysteine concentrations, but without concomitant reductions in disease risk. Thus, the mechanistic relation between homocysteine balance and disease states, as well as the value of homocysteine management, remains an area ...


31p Nmr Phospholipid Profiling Of Soybean Emulsion Recovered From Aqueous Extraction, Linxing Yao, Stéphanie Jung Jan 2010

31p Nmr Phospholipid Profiling Of Soybean Emulsion Recovered From Aqueous Extraction, Linxing Yao, Stéphanie Jung

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The quantity and composition of phospholipids in full-fat soybean flour, flakes, and extruded flakes and in the cream fraction recovered after aqueous extraction (AEP) and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (EAEP) of these substrates were studied with 31P NMR. Extruded flakes had significantly more phosphatidic acid (PA) than flakes and flour prior to aqueous extraction. The PA content of the cream recovered after AEP and EAEP of extruded flakes was similar to that of the starting material, whereas the PA content of the creams from flour and flakes significantly increased. Changes in the PA content could be explained by the action ...


Enrichment Of Echinacea Angustifolia With Bauer Alkylamide 11 And Bauer Ketone 23 Increased Anti-Inflammatory Potential Through Interference With Cox-2 Enzyme Activity, Carlie A. Lalone, Nan Huang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Man-Yu Yum, Navrozedeep Singh, Cathy Hauck, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Marian L. Kohut, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt Jan 2010

Enrichment Of Echinacea Angustifolia With Bauer Alkylamide 11 And Bauer Ketone 23 Increased Anti-Inflammatory Potential Through Interference With Cox-2 Enzyme Activity, Carlie A. Lalone, Nan Huang, Ludmila Rizshsky, Man-Yu Yum, Navrozedeep Singh, Cathy Hauck, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Marian L. Kohut, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Bauer alkylamide 11 and Bauer ketone 23 were previously found to be partially responsible forEchinacea angustifolia anti-inflammatory properties. This study further tested their importance using the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 mouse macrophages in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E. angustifolia extracts, phytochemical enriched fractions, or pure synthesized standards. Molecular targets were probed using microarray, qRT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme assays. Fractions with these phytochemicals were more potent inhibitors of LPS-induced PGE2 production than E. angustifolia extracts. Microarray did not detect changes in transcripts with ...