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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Characterization Of Corn Grains For Dry-Grind Ethanol Production, Sathaporn Srichuwong, Jelena Gutesa, Michael Blanco, Susan A. Duvick, Jay-Lin Jane, C. A. Gardner Dec 2009

Characterization Of Corn Grains For Dry-Grind Ethanol Production, Sathaporn Srichuwong, Jelena Gutesa, Michael Blanco, Susan A. Duvick, Jay-Lin Jane, C. A. Gardner

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affected the enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and the ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples showed greater enzyme digestibility than did the uncooked starch isolated from the same source by wet-milling process. The greater digestibility of starch in uncooked dry-grind corn correlated with a physical damage of starch granules. In contrast, starch in cooked dry-grind corn samples displayed less enzyme digestibility than did the cooked isolated ...


Greater Apparent Absorption Of Flavonoids Is Associated With Lesser Human Fecal Flavonoid Disappearance Rates, Andrean L. Simons, Mathieu Renouf, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich Nov 2009

Greater Apparent Absorption Of Flavonoids Is Associated With Lesser Human Fecal Flavonoid Disappearance Rates, Andrean L. Simons, Mathieu Renouf, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

-OH-flavonoids disappeared more rapidly from human fecal incuba- tions and were less absorbable by humans than flavonoids without 5-OH moieties. Anaerobic fecal disappearance rates over 24 h were determined for 15 flavonoids in samples from 20 men and 13 women. In these anaerobic fecal mixtures, flavonoids with 5,7,40-OH groups, genistein, apigenin, naringenin, luteolin, kaempferol, and quercetin (disappearance rate, k = 0.46 ( 0.10 h-1), and methoxylated flavonoids, hesperetin and glycitein (k = 0.24 ( 0.21 h-1), disappeared rapidly compared with flavonoids lacking 5-OH (e.g., daidzein, k = 0.07 ( 0.03 h-1). Apparent absorption of flavonoids that disappeared ...


In Vitro Fermentation Of Oat Flours From Typical And High Β-Glucan Oat Lines, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White Aug 2009

In Vitro Fermentation Of Oat Flours From Typical And High Β-Glucan Oat Lines, Hyun Jung Kim, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Two publicly available oat (Avena sativa) lines, “Jim” and “Paul” (5.17 and 5.31% β-glucan, respectively), and one experimental oat line “N979” (7.70% β-glucan), were used to study the effect of β-glucan levels in oat flours during simulated in vitro digestion and fermentation with human fecal flora obtained from different individuals. The oat flours were digested by using human digestion enzymes and fermented by batch fermentation under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. The fermentation progress was monitored by measuring pH, total gas, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. Significant effects of β-glucan on the formation of gas and ...


Hypericum In Infection: Identification Of Anti-Viral And Anti-Inflammatory Constituents, Diane F. Birt, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Jingqiang Wei, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Eve S. Wurtele, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Wendy J. Maury, Jason P. Price Aug 2009

Hypericum In Infection: Identification Of Anti-Viral And Anti-Inflammatory Constituents, Diane F. Birt, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Jingqiang Wei, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Eve S. Wurtele, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Wendy J. Maury, Jason P. Price

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum, and Prunella botanical supplements for human-health benefit, emphasizing anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pain activities. This mini-review reports on ongoing studies on Hypericum. The Center uses the genetically diverse, well-documented Hypericum populations collected and maintained at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS), and the strength of research in synthetic chemistry at Iowa State University to tap natural diversity, to help discover key constituents and interactions among constituents that impact bioactivity and toxicity. The NCRPIS has acquired more than 180 distinct populations of Hypericum, with a ...


Association Of Oxidative Stress, Iron, And Centralized Fat Mass In Healthy Postmenopausal Women, Betsy L. Crist, D. Lee Alekel, Laura M. Ritland, Laura N. Hanson, Ulrike Genschel, Manju B. Reddy Jun 2009

Association Of Oxidative Stress, Iron, And Centralized Fat Mass In Healthy Postmenopausal Women, Betsy L. Crist, D. Lee Alekel, Laura M. Ritland, Laura N. Hanson, Ulrike Genschel, Manju B. Reddy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Objective: Centralized adiposity, insulin resistance, excess iron, and elevated oxidative stress place postmenopausal women at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship among excess iron, oxidative stress, and centralized fat mass in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: The parent project recruited healthy women for a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial designed to examine the effect of soy isoflavones on bone. At baseline ( n = 122), we measured three antioxidant enzymes, iron status indices (serum ferritin among others), oxidative stress indices (oxidized low-density lipoprotein [oxLDL], urinary isoprostanes [PGF2α], protein carbonyls, DNA damage), and waist, hip ...


Quantification Of Ferritin From Staple Food Crops, Rebbecca J. Lukac, Maneesha R. Aluru, Manju B. Reddy Mar 2009

Quantification Of Ferritin From Staple Food Crops, Rebbecca J. Lukac, Maneesha R. Aluru, Manju B. Reddy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Ferritin-iron has been shown to be as bioavailable as ferrous sulfate in humans. Thus, biofortification to breed crops with high ferritin content is a promising strategy to alleviate the global iron deficiency problem. Although ferritin is present in all food crops, its concentration varies between species and varieties. Therefore, a successful ferritin biofortification strategy requires a method to rapidly measure ferritin concentrations in food crops. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and reliable ELISA using an anti-ferritin polyclonal antibody to detect ferritin in various crops. Crude seed extracts were found to have 10.2 +/- 1.0 ...


Effect Of Low-Shear Extrusion On Corn Fermentation And Oil Partition, Hui Wang, Tong Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson Mar 2009

Effect Of Low-Shear Extrusion On Corn Fermentation And Oil Partition, Hui Wang, Tong Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

To study oil distribution in fermentation liquid and solids for the purpose of recovering oil from corn stillage by centrifugation, a low-shear single-screw extruder was used to treat corn for dry-grind ethanol fermentation. Five different treatments for corn were used, and their effects on ethanol fermentation, oil distribution, and oil extractability were studied. Extruded corn with different particles sizes had similar ethanol yields (33% based on corn) because the starch was equally gelatinized by extrusion. Pretreatment with larger particle size before extrusion tended to have higher free oil than pretreatment with smaller particle sizes, but the effect was not dramatic ...


Soy Protein Isolate Extruded With High Moisture Retains High Nutritional Quality, Ruth S. Macdonald, Joseph Pryzbyszewski, Fu-Hung Hsieh Mar 2009

Soy Protein Isolate Extruded With High Moisture Retains High Nutritional Quality, Ruth S. Macdonald, Joseph Pryzbyszewski, Fu-Hung Hsieh

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

High-moisture extrusion of soy protein isolate generates a highly palatable meat substitute. No systematic evaluation of the nutritional quality of soy processed in this manner has been performed. This study compared the growth rate of male and female mice fed diets containing soy protein isolate without extrusion or with high-moisture extrusion. Other measures of overall growth and animal health were examined. Minor differences in the parameters were observed. Overall, the extruded soy protein was equally nutritious as the unextruded soy protein for the animals. Hence, high-moisture extrusion may be considered a useful method to generate high-quality protein foods. A longer ...


Structure And Function Of Starch And Resistant Starch From Corn With Different Doses Of Mutant Amylose-Extender And Floury-1 Alleles, Ni Yao, Alix V. Paez, Pamela J. White Mar 2009

Structure And Function Of Starch And Resistant Starch From Corn With Different Doses Of Mutant Amylose-Extender And Floury-1 Alleles, Ni Yao, Alix V. Paez, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Four corn types with different doses of mutant amylose-extender (ae) and floury-1 (fl1) alleles, in the endosperm, including no. 1, aeaeae; no. 2, fl1fl1fl1; no. 3, aeaefl1; and no. 4,fl1fl1ae, were developed for use in making Hispanic food products with high resistant starch (RS) content. The RS percentages in the native starch (NS) of 1−4 were 55.2, 1.1, 5.7, and 1.1%, respectively. All NS were evaluated for pasting properties with a rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA) and for thermal properties with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). NS 1 had a low peak viscosity (PV) caused by ...


Simple Adhesive-Tape-Based Sampling Of Tomato Surfaces Combined With Rapid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization For Salmonella Detection, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher Mar 2009

Simple Adhesive-Tape-Based Sampling Of Tomato Surfaces Combined With Rapid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization For Salmonella Detection, Bledar Bisha, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

A simple adhesive-tape-based method for sampling of tomato surfaces was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization for rapid culture-independent detection of Salmonella strains. Tapes could also be placed face-down on selective agar for on-tape enrichment of captured Salmonella cells. Overlay of cell-charged tapes with small volumes of liquid enrichment media enabled subsequent detection of tape-captured Salmonella via flow cytometry.


Soy Isoflavones Have An Antiestrogenic Effect And Alter Mammary Promoter Hypermethylation In Healthy Premenopausal Women1, Wenyi Qin, Weizhu Zhu, Huidong Shi, John E. Hewett, Rachel L. Ruhlen, Ruth S. Macdonald, George E. Rottinghaus, Yin-Chieh Chien, Edward R. Sauter Feb 2009

Soy Isoflavones Have An Antiestrogenic Effect And Alter Mammary Promoter Hypermethylation In Healthy Premenopausal Women1, Wenyi Qin, Weizhu Zhu, Huidong Shi, John E. Hewett, Rachel L. Ruhlen, Ruth S. Macdonald, George E. Rottinghaus, Yin-Chieh Chien, Edward R. Sauter

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would have dose related estrogenic and methylation effects. 34 healthy premenopausal women were prospectively enrolled and randomized in double-blind fashion to receive either 40 mg or 140 mg isoflavones daily through one menstrual cycle. Breast specific (NAF) and systemic (serum) estrogenic effects were assessed measuring the estrogenic marker complement (C)3 and changes in cytology, while methylation effects were evaluated in mammary ductoscopy (MD) specimens using methylation specific PCR assessment of five genes (p16, RASSF1A, RARβ2, ER, and CCND2) associated with breast carcinogenesis. Serum genistein significantly increased post treatment in women consuming both isoflavone doses ...


Thermogravimetric Quantification Of Biodiesel Produced Via Alkali Catalyzed Transesterification Of Soybean Oil, Priyanka Chand, Ch. Venkat Reddy, John G. Verkade, Tong Wang, David Grewell Feb 2009

Thermogravimetric Quantification Of Biodiesel Produced Via Alkali Catalyzed Transesterification Of Soybean Oil, Priyanka Chand, Ch. Venkat Reddy, John G. Verkade, Tong Wang, David Grewell

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as a potential screening method for monitoring biodiesel production by transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. Soybean oil and commercially available biodiesel were mixed in varying proportions by weight as standards. In addition, mixtures of different biodiesel/soybean oil ratios were also created by periodically interrupting base-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. The mixtures produced by both approaches were analyzed with TGA over a temperature range of 25−500 °C. The results were then compared with analytical data obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ...


Kernel Composition, Starch Structure, And Enzyme Digestibility Of Opaque-2 Maize And Quality Protein Maize, Jovin Hasjim, Sathaporn Srichuwong, Marvin P. Scott, Jay-Lin Jane Feb 2009

Kernel Composition, Starch Structure, And Enzyme Digestibility Of Opaque-2 Maize And Quality Protein Maize, Jovin Hasjim, Sathaporn Srichuwong, Marvin P. Scott, Jay-Lin Jane

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Objectives of this study were to understand how opaque-2 (o2) mutation and quality protein maize (QPM) affect maize kernel composition and starch structure, property, and enzyme digestibility. Kernels of o2 maize contained less protein (9.6-12.5%) than those of the wild-type (WT) counterparts (12.7-13.3%). Kernels of a severe o2 mutant B46o2 also contained less starch (66.9%) than those of B46wt (73.0%). B46o2 and QPM starches contained less amylose (28.0 and 26.0%, respectively) than others (31.9-33.7%). The B46o2 starch also consisted of amylopectin with the fewest branch chains of DP 13-24. Thus ...


Molecular Structure Of Selected Tuber And Root Starches And Effect Of Amylopectin Structure On Their Physical Properties, Sang-Ho Yoo, Chandani Perera, Jianfu Shen, Liyang Ye, Dong-Soon Suh, Jay-Lin Jane Jan 2009

Molecular Structure Of Selected Tuber And Root Starches And Effect Of Amylopectin Structure On Their Physical Properties, Sang-Ho Yoo, Chandani Perera, Jianfu Shen, Liyang Ye, Dong-Soon Suh, Jay-Lin Jane

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The objectives of this study were to characterize starches isolated from potato, canna, fern, and kudzu, grown in Hangzhou, China, for potential food and nonfood applications and to gain understandings of the structures and properties of tuber and root starches. Potato and canna starches with B-type X-ray patterns had larger proportions of amylopectin (AP) long branch chains (DP g37) than did fern (C-type) and kudzu (CA-type) starches. The analysis of Naegeli dextrins suggested that fern and kudzu starches had more branch points, R-(1,6)-D-glycosidic linkages, located within the double-helical crystalline lamella than did the B-type starches. Dispersed molecular ...


Rosmarinic Acid In Prunella Vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide In Raw 264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Nan Huang, Cathy Hauck, Man-Yu Yum, Ludmila Rizshsky, Mark P. Widrlechner, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Patricia A. Murphy, Philip M. Dixon, Basil J. Nikolau, Diane F. Birt Jan 2009

Rosmarinic Acid In Prunella Vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide In Raw 264.7 Mouse Macrophages, Nan Huang, Cathy Hauck, Man-Yu Yum, Ludmila Rizshsky, Mark P. Widrlechner, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Patricia A. Murphy, Philip M. Dixon, Basil J. Nikolau, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Prunella vulgaris has been used therapeutically for inflammation-related conditions for centuries, but systematic studies of its anti-inflammatory activity are lacking and no specific active components have been identified. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of four P. vulgaris accessions were applied to RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages, and the ethanol extracts significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) production at 30 μg/mL without affecting cell viability. Extracts from different accessions of P. vulgaris were screened for anti-inflammatory activity to identify accessions with the greatest activity. The inhibition of PGE2 and NO production by ...


Endogenous Levels Of Echinacea Alkylamides And Ketones Are Important Contributors To The Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide Production In Cultured Macrophages, Carlie A. Lalone, Ludmila Rizshsky, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Avery K.S. Solco, Man-Yu Yum, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Patricia A. Murphy, Meehye Kim, Diane F. Birt Jan 2009

Endogenous Levels Of Echinacea Alkylamides And Ketones Are Important Contributors To The Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E2 And Nitric Oxide Production In Cultured Macrophages, Carlie A. Lalone, Ludmila Rizshsky, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Avery K.S. Solco, Man-Yu Yum, Basil J. Nikolau, Eve S. Wurtele, Patricia A. Murphy, Meehye Kim, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Because of the popularity of Echinacea as a dietary supplement, researchers have been actively investigating which Echinacea constituent or groups of constituents are necessary for immunemodulating bioactivities. Our prior studies indicate that alkylamides may play an important role in the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation, employed to elucidate interacting anti-inflammatory constituents from ethanol extracts of Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea tennesseensis, identified fractions containing alkylamides and ketones as key anti-inflammatory contributors using lipopolysaccharideinduced PGE2 production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production and parallel cytotoxicity screens were also employed ...


Sample Preparation: The Forgotten Beginning, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Charles Young, Lee-Ann Jaykus, Mary Lou Tortorello Jan 2009

Sample Preparation: The Forgotten Beginning, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Charles Young, Lee-Ann Jaykus, Mary Lou Tortorello

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Advances in molecular technologies and automated instrumentation have provided many opportunities for improved detection and identification of microorganisms; however, the upstream sample preparation steps needed to apply these advances to foods have not been adequately researched or developed. Thus, the extent to which these advances have improved food microbiology has been limited. The purpose of this review is to present the current state of sample preparation, to identify knowledge gaps and opportunities for improvement, and to recognize the need to support greater research and development efforts on preparative methods in food microbiology. The discussion focuses on the need to push ...


Effect Of Enzymatic Tempering Of Wheat Kernels On Milling And Baking Performance, J. Yoo, Buddhi P. Lamsal, E. Haque, J. M. Faubion Jan 2009

Effect Of Enzymatic Tempering Of Wheat Kernels On Milling And Baking Performance, J. Yoo, Buddhi P. Lamsal, E. Haque, J. M. Faubion

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This study examined the effect of cell-wall-degrading enzymes added to temper water on wheat milling performance and flour quality. An enzyme cocktail consisting of cellulase, xylanase, and pectinase and five independent variables (enzyme concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature, tempered wheat moisture content, and tempering water pH) were manipulated in a response surface methodology (RSM) central composite design. A single pure cultivar of hard red winter wheat was tempered under defined conditions and milled on a Ross experimental laboratory mill. Some treatment combinations affected flour yield from the break rolls more than that from the reduction rolls. However, a maximum for ...