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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Isoflavone Glycitein Diminished Plasma Cholesterol In Female Golden Syrian Hamsters, Sun-Ok Lee, Mathieu Renouf, Zhong Ye, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich Nov 2007

Isoflavone Glycitein Diminished Plasma Cholesterol In Female Golden Syrian Hamsters, Sun-Ok Lee, Mathieu Renouf, Zhong Ye, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The soybean isoflavones, daidzein, genistein, and glycitein, were hypothesized to act as cholesterol- lowering components, separate from soy protein. Pure synthetic daidzein, genistein, or glycitein (0.9 mmol/kg diet) or a casein-based control diet was fed to groups of 10 female Golden Syrian hamsters for 4 weeks. Hamsters fed glycitein had significantly lower plasma total (by 15%) and non-HDL (by 24%) cholesterol compared with those fed casein (P < 0.05). Daidzein and genistein’s effects on these lipids did not differ from the effects of either casein or glycitein. Plasma HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were not significantly affected by dietary treatments. The percentage of urinary recovery of the ingested dose of each isoflavone was glycitein > daidzein > genistein (33.2%, 4.6%, 2.2%, respectively), with the apparent absorption of glycitein significantly greater than that of the other isoflavones. These data suggest that glycitein’s greater cholesterol-lowering ...


Selection For Nutritional Function And Agronomic Performance In Oat, A A. Chernyshova, Pamela J. White, Marvin P. Scott, Jean-Luc Jannink Nov 2007

Selection For Nutritional Function And Agronomic Performance In Oat, A A. Chernyshova, Pamela J. White, Marvin P. Scott, Jean-Luc Jannink

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The soluble fiber (1→3),(1→4)-β-D-glucan has been identified as an active component of oat (Avena sativa L.) that lowers serum cholesterol, reduces the risk of heart disease and colon cancer, and alleviates the symptoms of diabetes. Those beneficial effects may be caused by the ability of β-glucan to generate viscosity in the digestive system. The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic components of variance for β-glucan content and oat slurry viscosity in a population derived from the cross of high β-glucan with elite agronomic oat lines. Twelve high β-glucan inbred lines were crossed with ...


Genistein Affects Her2 Protein Concentration, Activation And Promoter Regulation Via Estrogen Receptor-And Non-Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Mechanisms, Mary S. Sakla, Pete J. Ansell, Nader S. Shenouda, Dennis B. Lubahn, Ruth S. Macdonald Oct 2007

Genistein Affects Her2 Protein Concentration, Activation And Promoter Regulation Via Estrogen Receptor-And Non-Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Mechanisms, Mary S. Sakla, Pete J. Ansell, Nader S. Shenouda, Dennis B. Lubahn, Ruth S. Macdonald

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The HER2 proto-oncogene, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, is overexpressed in 20–30% of breast cancers. Genistein, the main soy isoflavone, interacts with estrogen receptors (ER) and it is also a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Previously, our laboratory found that genistein delayed mammary tumor onset in transgenic mice that overexpress HER2 gene. Our goal was to define the mechanism through which genistein affects mammary tumorigenesis inHER2 overexpressing mice. We hypothesized that genistein inhibits HER2 activation and expression through ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Genistein inhibited total HER2 protein expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in BT-474, an ERα ...


Characterization Of Ssiiia-Deficient Mutants Of Rice: The Function Of Ssiiia And Pleiotropic Effects By Ssiiia Deficiency In The Rice Endosperm, Naoka Fujita, Mayumi Yoshida, Tomonori Kondo, Kaori Saito, Yoshinori Utsumi, Takashi Tokunaga, Aiko Nishi, Hikaru Satoh, Jin-Hee Park, Jay-Lin Jane, Akio Miyao, Hirohiko Hirochika, Yasunori Nakamura Aug 2007

Characterization Of Ssiiia-Deficient Mutants Of Rice: The Function Of Ssiiia And Pleiotropic Effects By Ssiiia Deficiency In The Rice Endosperm, Naoka Fujita, Mayumi Yoshida, Tomonori Kondo, Kaori Saito, Yoshinori Utsumi, Takashi Tokunaga, Aiko Nishi, Hikaru Satoh, Jin-Hee Park, Jay-Lin Jane, Akio Miyao, Hirohiko Hirochika, Yasunori Nakamura

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Starch synthase IIIa (SSIIIa)-deficient rice (Oryza sativa) mutants were generated using retrotransposon insertion and chemical mutagenesis. The lowest migrating SS activity bands on glycogen-containing native polyacrylamide gel, which were identified to be those for SSIIIa, were completely absent in these mutants, indicating that they are SSIIIa null mutants. The amylopectin B2 to B4 chains with degree of polymerization (DP) ≥ 30 and the Mr of amylopectin in the mutant were reduced to about 60% and 70% of the wild-type values, respectively, suggesting that SSIIIa plays an important part in the elongation of amylopectin B2 to B4 chains. Chains with ...


Digestion Residues Of Typical And High-Β-Glucan Oat Flours Provide Substrates For In Vitro Fermentation, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White Jun 2007

Digestion Residues Of Typical And High-Β-Glucan Oat Flours Provide Substrates For In Vitro Fermentation, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

In vitro fermentabilities of the oat flour digestion residues (ODR) from two commercial oat lines with 4.7 and 5.3% β-glucan and from two high-β-glucan experimental lines with 7.6 and 8.1% β-glucan were evaluated and compared with fermentations of lactulose, purified oat β-glucan (POBG), and purified oat starch (POS). Substrates were fermented by using an in vitro batch fermentation system under anaerobic conditions for 24 h. The progress of the fermentation was studied by following the change in pH of the fermentation medium, production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gases, and consumption of carbohydrates. The substrate ...


Phytosterol Pygeum Africanum Regulates Prostate Cancer In Vitro And In Vivo, Nader S. Shenouda, Mary S. Sakla, Leslie G. Newton, Cynthia Besch-Williford, Norman M. Greenberg, Ruth S. Macdonald, Dennis B. Lubahn May 2007

Phytosterol Pygeum Africanum Regulates Prostate Cancer In Vitro And In Vivo, Nader S. Shenouda, Mary S. Sakla, Leslie G. Newton, Cynthia Besch-Williford, Norman M. Greenberg, Ruth S. Macdonald, Dennis B. Lubahn

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Background

Prostate cancer is an important public health problem. It is an excellent candidate disease for chemo-prevention because prostate cancer is typically slow growing and is usually diagnosed in elderly males. Pygeum africanum (Prunus africana or Rosaceae) is an African prune (plum) tree found in tropical Africa. An extract from the bark of Pygeum africanum has been used in Europe as a prevention and treatment of prostate disorders including benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). More recently in the USA, the phytotherapeutic preparations of Pygeum africanum and Saw palmetto have been marketed for prostate health including prostate cancer prevention and treatment.

Methods ...


Fermentation And Lactic Acid Addition Enhance Iron Bioavailability Of Maize, Amy K. Proulx, Manju B. Reddy Mar 2007

Fermentation And Lactic Acid Addition Enhance Iron Bioavailability Of Maize, Amy K. Proulx, Manju B. Reddy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Maize is one of the most important cereal crops for human consumption, yet it is of concern due to its low iron bioavailability. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of processing on iron bioavailability in common maize products and elucidate better processing techniques for enhancing iron bioavailability. Maize products were processed to represent different processing techniques: heating (porridge), fermentation (ogi), nixtamalization (tortillas), and decortication (arepas). Iron and phytate contents were evaluated. Iron bioavailability was assessed using the Caco-2 cell model. Phytate content of maize products was significantly reduced by decortication (25.6%, p ) 0.003) and ...


Improving The Fatty Acid Composition Of Corn Oil By Using Germplasm Introgression, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick Feb 2007

Improving The Fatty Acid Composition Of Corn Oil By Using Germplasm Introgression, Pamela J. White, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The general public has shown increasing interest in consuming oils that are beneficial to health. Thus, oil from corn (Zea mays L.), along with most major edible oils, has been the target of genetic alterations to improve the fatty acid composition. The fatty acid profile goals vary, depending upon the intended use for the oil. We have targeted the development of corn oil with 1) low total saturated fatty acids, 2) high total saturated fatty acids, and 3) mid-oleic acid, in each case via two different sources: exotic germplasm identified through an international program to broaden the corn germplasm base ...


High-Amylose Corn Exhibits Better Antioxidant Activity Than Typical And Waxy Genotypes, Wende Li, Chunliang Wei, Pamela J. White, Trust Beta Jan 2007

High-Amylose Corn Exhibits Better Antioxidant Activity Than Typical And Waxy Genotypes, Wende Li, Chunliang Wei, Pamela J. White, Trust Beta

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rich in antioxidative phytochemicals is associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cataract, and aged-related functional decline. For example, phenolic acids are among the main antioxidative phytochemicals in grains that have been shown to be beneficial to human health. Corn (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food in several parts of the world; thus, the antioxidant activity of several corn types was evaluated. The 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl free radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances ...


Preparation And Characteristics Of Enzyme-Resistant Pyrodextrins From Corn S, Janusz Kapusniak, Jay-Lin Jane Jan 2007

Preparation And Characteristics Of Enzyme-Resistant Pyrodextrins From Corn S, Janusz Kapusniak, Jay-Lin Jane

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Corn starch was modified by pyroconversion at 130°C in the presence of acid catalyst in a sealed container to produce non-digestible pyrodextrins. The effect of reaction time on the dextrinization process was investigated. Physicochemical properties of the pyrodextrins were analyzed, and the effect of the structure of pyrodextrins on the digestibility was evaluated. The pyrodextrin, prepared by heating corn starch with hydrochloric acid (0.1%, dry starch basis) at 130°C for 180 min, was well-soluble (97% at 25°C) and contained only one fraction of average molecular weight of 2.2 x 104 g/mol. The enzyme resistance ...


Echinacea Species And Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Carlie A. Lalone, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Jaehood Bae, Norma Leyva, Yi Liu, Avery K.S. Solco, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Ok-Kyung Kim, Kwon Ii Seo, Mark P. Widrlechner, Diane F. Birt Jan 2007

Echinacea Species And Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Carlie A. Lalone, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Jaehood Bae, Norma Leyva, Yi Liu, Avery K.S. Solco, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Ok-Kyung Kim, Kwon Ii Seo, Mark P. Widrlechner, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts diluted in media to a concentration of 15 μg/mL from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea significantly inhibited PGE2 production. In further studies, PGE2 production was significantly reduced by all synthesized alkamides assayed at 50 μM, by Bauer alkamides 8, 12A analogue, and 14, Chen alkamide 2, and Chen alkamide 2 analogue at 25 μM and by Bauer alkamide 14 ...


Oil And Tocopherol Content And Composition Of Pumpkin Seed Oil In 12 Cultivars, David G. Stevenson, Fred J. Eller, Liping Wang, Jay-Lin Jane, Tong Wang, George E. Inglett Jan 2007

Oil And Tocopherol Content And Composition Of Pumpkin Seed Oil In 12 Cultivars, David G. Stevenson, Fred J. Eller, Liping Wang, Jay-Lin Jane, Tong Wang, George E. Inglett

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

No abstract provided.


Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E2 Production By Anti-Inflammatory Hypericum Perforatum Extracts And Constituents In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Avery K.S. Solco, Philip M. Dixon, Kathleen Delate, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Diane F. Birt Jan 2007

Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E2 Production By Anti-Inflammatory Hypericum Perforatum Extracts And Constituents In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Matthew L. Hillwig, Avery K.S. Solco, Philip M. Dixon, Kathleen Delate, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Hypericum perforatum (Hp) is commonly known for its antiviral, antidepressant, and cytotoxic properties, but traditionally Hp was also used to treat inflammation. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity of different Hp extractions and accessions and constituents present within Hp extracts were characterized. In contrast to the antiviral activity of Hp, the anti-inflammatory activity observed with all Hp extracts was light-independent. When pure constituents were tested, the flavonoids, amentoflavone, hyperforin, and light-activated pseudohypericin, displayed anti-inflammatory activity, albeit at concentrations generally higher than the amount present in the Hp extracts. Constituents that were present in the Hp extracts at concentrations ...


Starch Structures And Physicochemical Properties Of A Novel Β-Glucan Enriched Oat Hydrocolloid Product With And Without Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction, David G. Stevenson, Fred J. Eller, Jay-Lin Jane, George E. Inglett Jan 2007

Starch Structures And Physicochemical Properties Of A Novel Β-Glucan Enriched Oat Hydrocolloid Product With And Without Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction, David G. Stevenson, Fred J. Eller, Jay-Lin Jane, George E. Inglett

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Starch structures and physicochemical properties of C-trim30, a β-glucan-enriched oat product (32% β-glucan), with or without supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCD) were studied to evaluate suitability for commercial applications and potential to degrade starch to increase β-glucan concentration. Scanning electron micrographs showed C-trim30 was composed of 200-300 μm long, porous particles. HPSEC equipped with MALLS and RI detectors showed C-trim30 had three peaks, corresponding to amylopectin with weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.0x108, breakdown amylopectin product (Mw 1.1x107) and amylose (Mw 1.7x106). β-glucans were not observed due to HPSEC column ...