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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Effect Of Seed Development Stage On Sphingolipid And Phospholipid Contents In Soybean Seeds, Liping Wang, Tong Wang, Walter R. Fehr Oct 2006

Effect Of Seed Development Stage On Sphingolipid And Phospholipid Contents In Soybean Seeds, Liping Wang, Tong Wang, Walter R. Fehr

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and ceramide (Cer) are the predominant sphingolipids (SL) in soybeans. They have been recognized as functional components in plants and may have health benefits for humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in SL and phospholipid (PL) contents that occurred during seed development. Soybean seeds of three cultivars (IA1008, IA1010, and IA1014) were harvested at 5-day intervals from 28 days after flowering (DAF) to 68 DAF (mature seed). SL and PL contents of seeds were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). SL and PL contents decreased significantly ...


Hplc Quantification Of Sphingolipids In Soybeans With Modified Palmitate Content, Liping Wang, Tong Wang, Walter R. Fehr Oct 2006

Hplc Quantification Of Sphingolipids In Soybeans With Modified Palmitate Content, Liping Wang, Tong Wang, Walter R. Fehr

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Efficient separation and accurate quantification of sphingolipids (SL) are important for studying SL concentrations and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to develop effective methods for the separation and quantification of SL and to determine the relationship between palmitate and SL contents of mature soybean seeds. Methods using column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography−evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) were developed to separate and quantify glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and ceramide (Cer) in 15 soybeans lines in which palmitate content ranged from 3.7 to 40.7%. There were significant differences among the lines for GlcCer (83.4−397.6 ...


In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Activity Within Flour Fractions From Oat Lines With Typical And High Β-Glucan Amounts, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White Jul 2006

In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Activity Within Flour Fractions From Oat Lines With Typical And High Β-Glucan Amounts, Sedat Sayar, Jean-Luc Jannink, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Whole flours from four oat lines with different amounts of β-glucan (4.8−8.1%) were examined for their antioxidant activity and total phenolic and lignin concentrations. These data, along with the β-glucan percentages, were compared with bile acid (BA) binding. Only the lignin concentrations of the flours significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with the BA binding values. The oat flours also were fractionated into bran, protein concentrate, starch, layer above starch, and soluble β-glucan (SBG)-free flour, and their BA binding capacities were evaluated. The bran fractions were the only fractions that bound greater BA than did the whole oat flours on dry matter basis. Extraction of the soluble β-glucan to create the SBG-free flour significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the BA binding of the remaining flour. These data suggest that BA binding of the oat flours involves the synergistic interactions of the oat components, with β-glucan and lignin (insoluble fiber) having a great impact.


Morphology And Properties Of Soy Protein And Polylactide Blends, Jinwen Zhang, Long Jiang, Linyoung Zhu, Jay-Lin Jane, Perminus Mungara Apr 2006

Morphology And Properties Of Soy Protein And Polylactide Blends, Jinwen Zhang, Long Jiang, Linyoung Zhu, Jay-Lin Jane, Perminus Mungara

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Blends of soy protein (SP) and a semicrystalline polylactide (PLA) were prepared using a twin-screw extruder. The melt rheology, phase morphology, mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal and dynamic mechanical properties were investigated on specimens prepared by injection molding of these blends. The melt flowability of soy-based plastics was improved through blending with PLA. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a cocontinuous phase structure existed in the blends with soy protein concentrate (SPC) to PLA ratios ranging from 30:70 to 70:30. SPC/PLA blends showed fine co-continuous phase structures, while soy protein isolate (SPI)/ PLA blends presented severe phase ...


Iron Bioavailability Of Hemoglobin From Soy Root Nodules Using A Caco-2 Cell Culture Model, Amy K. Proulx, Manju B. Reddy Jan 2006

Iron Bioavailability Of Hemoglobin From Soy Root Nodules Using A Caco-2 Cell Culture Model, Amy K. Proulx, Manju B. Reddy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Heme iron has been identified in many plant sourcesmost commonly in the root nodules of leguminous plants, such as soy. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of soy root nodule (SRN) and purified soy hemoglobin (LHb) in improving iron bioavailability using an in vitro Caco-2 cell model, with ferritin response as the bioavailability index. We assessed bioavailability of iron from LHb (either partially purified (LHbA) or purified (LHbD)) with and without food matrix and compared it with that from bovine hemoglobin (BHb), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), or SRN. Bioavailability of each treatment was normalized to 100% of the FeSO4 treatment ...


Evaluation Of The Light-Sensitive Cytotoxicity Of Hypericum Perforatum Extracts, Fractions, And Pure Compounds, Laura A. Schmitt, Yi Liu, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt Jan 2006

Evaluation Of The Light-Sensitive Cytotoxicity Of Hypericum Perforatum Extracts, Fractions, And Pure Compounds, Laura A. Schmitt, Yi Liu, Patricia A. Murphy, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Hypericum perforatum (Hp) is known for possessing antidepressant and antiviral activities. Despite its use as an alternative to conventional antidepressants, the identification of the cytotoxic chemicals derived from this herb is incomplete. In this study, the cytotoxicity of Hp extracts prepared in solvents ranging in polarity, fractions of one extract, and purified compounds were examined in three cell lines. All extracts exhibited significant cytotoxicity; those prepared in ethanol (no hyperforin, 3.6 μM hypericin, and 134.6 μM flavonoids) showed between 7.7 and 77.4% cell survival (p < 0.0001 and 0.01), whereas the chloroform and hexane extracts (hyperforin, hypericin, and flavonoids not detected) showed approximately 9.0 (p < 0.0001) and 4.0% (p < 0.0001) survival. Light-sensitive toxicity was observed primarily with the ethanol extracts sequentially extracted following removal of material extracted in either chloroform or hexane. The absence of light-sensitive toxicity with the Hp extracts suggests that the hypericins were not playing a prominent role in the toxicity of the extracts.


Altering The Fatty Acid Composition Of Corn Belt Corn Through Tripsacum Introgression, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Jode W. Edwards, Pamela J. White Jan 2006

Altering The Fatty Acid Composition Of Corn Belt Corn Through Tripsacum Introgression, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Jode W. Edwards, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Breeders need sources of genes for altering the fatty acid content of oil in maize (Zea maize L.) that are not available in Corn Belt germplasm. Previously we determined lines developed from maize introgressed with genes from Tripsacum dactyloides had useful variation for fatty acid composition. We conducted this study to validate the variation, thereby showing that the trait could be transferred to Corn Belt inbreds using traditional plant breeding methods to create maize lines with altered fatty acid composition useful for an oil quality breeding program. Based on their fatty acid profiles, maize lines were selected from an open ...