Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Glucose Reaction With Fumonisin B1 Partially Reduces Its Toxicity In Swine, Guillermo Fernandez-Surumay, Gary D. Osweiler, Michael Yaeger, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy Nov 2004

Glucose Reaction With Fumonisin B1 Partially Reduces Its Toxicity In Swine, Guillermo Fernandez-Surumay, Gary D. Osweiler, Michael Yaeger, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Acute and subacute intraperitoneal doses of fumonisin B1 (FB1) were administered to test the efficacy of the FB1-glucose reaction products in detoxifying FB1 in swine. In the acute study at 11 µmol of FB1/kg of body weight, five of six pigs administered FB1 and four of six pigs administered FB1- glucose died from acute pulmonary edema. Analysis of weight gain, serum aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, and pathological evaluation did not provide evidence of protection against FB1 toxicity by the FB1-glucose reaction products. In the subacute study at 5.5 µmol of FB1/kg of body weight, one ...


Modulation Of Methyl Group Metabolism By Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes And All-Trans-Retinoic Acid, Kristin M. Nieman, Matthew J. Rowling, Timothy A. Garrow, Kevin Schalinske Oct 2004

Modulation Of Methyl Group Metabolism By Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes And All-Trans-Retinoic Acid, Kristin M. Nieman, Matthew J. Rowling, Timothy A. Garrow, Kevin Schalinske

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The hepatic enzyme glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) plays a major role in the control of methyl group and homocysteine metabolism. Because disruption of these vital pathways is associated with numerous pathologies, understanding GNMT control is important for evaluating methyl group regulation. Recently, gluconeogenic conditions have been shown to modulate homocysteine metabolism and treatment with glucocorticoids and/or all-trans-retinoic acid (RA)-induced active GNMT protein, thereby leading to methyl group loss. This study was conducted to determine the effect of diabetes, alone and in combination with RA, on GNMT regulation. Diabetes and RA increased GNMT activity 87 and 148 ...


Rapid Screening To Identify Unusual Thermal Starch Traits From Bulked Corn Kernels, E. Lenihan, S. Duvick, Pamela J. White Jul 2004

Rapid Screening To Identify Unusual Thermal Starch Traits From Bulked Corn Kernels, E. Lenihan, S. Duvick, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used routinely to screen for starch thermal properties. In early generations of line development, the established analysis separately evaluates starch extracted from five, single corn kernels. A thermal property trait carried by a recessive gene would appear 25% of the time; thus, if five separate kernels were evaluated, the likelihood of detecting an unusual thermal trait is high. The objective of the current work was to expedite selection by examining five kernels at a time, instead of one, hypothesizing that we would be able to detect different thermal properties in this blend. Corn lines, all ...


Human Fecal Metabolism Of Soyasaponin I, Jiang Hu, Yan L. Zheng, Walter Hyde, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy Apr 2004

Human Fecal Metabolism Of Soyasaponin I, Jiang Hu, Yan L. Zheng, Walter Hyde, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The metabolism of soyasaponin I (3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl]olean-12-ene-3beta,22beta,24-triol) by human fecal microorganisms was investigated. Fresh feces were collected from 15 healthy women and incubated anaerobically with 10 mmol soyasaponin I/g feces at 37 degrees C for 48 h. The disappearance of soyasaponin I in this in vitro fermentation system displayed apparent first-order rate loss kinetics. Two distinct soyasaponin I degradation phenotypes were observed among the subjects: rapid soyasaponin degraders with a rate constant k = 0.24 +/- 0.04 h(-)(1) and slow degraders with a k = 0.07 +/- 0.02 h(-)(1). There were no significant differences ...


Improved Fractionation Of Glycinin And B-Conglycinin And Partitioning Of Phytochemicals, David A. Rickert, Lawrence A. Johnson, Patricia A. Murphy Feb 2004

Improved Fractionation Of Glycinin And B-Conglycinin And Partitioning Of Phytochemicals, David A. Rickert, Lawrence A. Johnson, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Glycinin-rich and â-conglycinin-rich products are prepared by soy protein fractionation. Physicochemical characteristics of these proteins affect their unique, important functionality in food systems and industrial applications. Soybean isoflavones and saponins are phytochemicals with potential health benefits. Objectives of this protein fractionation research were to (1) improve protein and phytochemical extraction from defatted soy flakes and recovery in product fractions and (2) evaluate phytochemical partitioning and profile changes during fractionation. Extraction environments (pH, ethanol concentration, temperature, and water-to-flake ratio) were each varied during bench-scale optimization. Optimized conditions of 45 °C and 10:1 water-to-flake ratio were compared with previous conditions of ...


Gelatinization Properties Of Starches From Three Successive Generations Of Six Exotic Corn Lines Grown In Two Locations, Y. Ji, L. M. Pollak, S. Duvick, K. Seetharaman, Philip Dixon, Pamela J. White Jan 2004

Gelatinization Properties Of Starches From Three Successive Generations Of Six Exotic Corn Lines Grown In Two Locations, Y. Ji, L. M. Pollak, S. Duvick, K. Seetharaman, Philip Dixon, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The objectives of this research were to evaluate the intra- and interpopulation variability in gelatinization properties of starches from exotic corn lines and their derivatives when grown 1) during two successive years in the same location; and 2) in both temperate and tropical environments. Six novel exotic corn lines (two 100% exotic and four 25% exotic derived from a breeding cross developed by crossing an exotic hybrid with Corn Belt lines) were selected for this research because their starches have significantly different (and potentially useful) thermal properties from those found in starch from normal Corn Belt corn. The Sn (n ...


Low-Cost Oil-Processing Techniques, Tong Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson, W. Wijeratne Jan 2004

Low-Cost Oil-Processing Techniques, Tong Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson, W. Wijeratne

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Advances in edible oil refining have been discussed in previous chapters of this book. These recent developments in physical-, chemical-, and adsorption-based refining techniques and related equipment designs will allow higher quantities of natural and bioactive compounds to be retained in the oil during refining compared with the use of conventional refining processes. This chapter summarizes recent research on mechanical extraction, minimum refining, and frying applications of soybean oil. The soybean is the dominant oilseed crop produced in the world due to its favorable agronomic characteristics, high-quality protein, and versatile edible oil. Soybeans constitute over one-half of all oilseeds produced ...


Extrusion-Based Oilseed Processing Methods, Wilmot B. Wijeratne, Tong Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson Jan 2004

Extrusion-Based Oilseed Processing Methods, Wilmot B. Wijeratne, Tong Wang, Lawrence A. Johnson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Oilseeds occupy an important place in global agriculture by providing vegetable oils and high-protein meals for food, feed, and industrial uses. The leading oilseed crops by volume of world production are soybean, cottonseed, peanut, sunflower, rapeseed (canola), copra (coconut), and palm. The combined world production of these major oilseed crops in 2001–2002 was 324 million metric tons (MT) (1). Soybeans constitute the largest share of the world oilseed supply, accounting for 57% of global production in 2001–2002. The United States, Brazil, Argentina, People’s Republic of China, and India dominate world soybean production. Together, these countries account for ...