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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Antioxidant Activity Of Phytosterols, Oryzanol, And Other Phytosterol Conjugates, Tong Wang Dec 2002

Antioxidant Activity Of Phytosterols, Oryzanol, And Other Phytosterol Conjugates, Tong Wang

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Antioxidant activity of phytosterols, oryzanol, ferulic acid ester of sterols, corn fiber oil, and rice bran oil was investigated. Commercial soybean oil and distilled soybean oil FAME were used as substrates for both oxidative stability determination and viscosity analysis after the oil was oxidized. At low concentration, these materials did not improve the oxidative stability of the oil substrates, although the viscosity tended to be reduced slightly. The antipolymerization activity of steryl ferulate was higher at higher concentration than at lower concentration, and steryl ferulate was more effective than oryzanol. Rice bran oil showed very good antioxidant and antipolymerization activities.


Characterization Of Fumonisin B1-Glucosereaction Kinetics And Products, Yun Lu, Laura Clifford, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Gary Osweiler, Patricia A. Murphy Jun 2002

Characterization Of Fumonisin B1-Glucosereaction Kinetics And Products, Yun Lu, Laura Clifford, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Gary Osweiler, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The reaction of fumonisin B1 with the reducing sugar D-glucose can block the primary amine group of fumonisin B1 and may detoxify this mycotoxin. A method to separate hundred milligram quantities of fumonisin B1-glucose reaction products from the excess D-glucose with a reversed-phase C18 cartridge was developed. Mass spectrometry revealed that there were four primary products in this chain reaction when fumonisin B1 was heated with D-glucose at 65 C for 48 h: N-methyl-fumonisin B1, N-carboxymethyl-fumonisin B1, N-(3-hydroxyacetonyl)-fumonisin B1, and N-(2-hydroxy, 2-car- boxyethyl)-fumonisin B1. The N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 (fumonisin B1-glucose Schiff’s base) was detected ...


Correlated Responses To Selection For Greater B-Glucan Content In Two Oat Populations, C.T. Cervantes-Martinez, K.J. Frey, Pamela J. White, D.M. Wesenberg, J.B. Holland May 2002

Correlated Responses To Selection For Greater B-Glucan Content In Two Oat Populations, C.T. Cervantes-Martinez, K.J. Frey, Pamela J. White, D.M. Wesenberg, J.B. Holland

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Oat (Avena sativa L.) β-glucan lowers serum cholesterol in humans. Thus, enhancing its content in oat cultivars for human consumption is desirable. Phenotypic selection for greater β-glucan content was effective in two broad-based oat populations, BG1 and BG2. The initial and selected cycles of each of these populations were evaluated in 1996 and 1997 at two Iowa locations to determine the correlated responses of agronomic and grain quality traits to selection for greater β-glucan content. Correlated responses were generally unfavorable for agronomic performance, but favorable in terms of human nutritional value of oat grain. Mean protein content increased by 5 ...


Quantification Of The Group B Soyasaponins By High-Performanceliquid Chromatography, Jiang Hu, Sun-Ok Lee, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy Mar 2002

Quantification Of The Group B Soyasaponins By High-Performanceliquid Chromatography, Jiang Hu, Sun-Ok Lee, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the isolation and quantitative determination of the group B soyasaponins, including 2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran- 4-one (DDMP)-conjugated soyasaponins Rg, f3g, and f3a, and their non-DDMP counterparts, soyasaponins V, I, and II, respectively, with formononetin used as the internal standard. The limits of quantification for soy products were 0.11-4.86 µmol/g. The within-day and between-days assay coefficients of variation were <9.8 and < 14.3%, respectively. The group B soyasaponin concentrations in 46 soybean varieties ranged from 2.50 to 5.85 µmol/g. Soy ingredients (soybean flour, toasted soy hypocotyls, soy protein isolates, textured vegetable protein, soy protein concentrates, and Novasoy) and soy foods (commercial soy milk, tofu, and tempeh) contained the group B soyasaponins from 0.20 to 114.02 µmol/g. There was no apparent correlation between isoflavone and soyasaponin concentrations in the soy products examined.


Irreversible Thiol Oxidation In Carbonic Anhydrase Iii: Protection By S-Glutathiolation And Detection In Aging Rats, Robert J. Mallis, Michael J. Hamann, Wei Zhao, Tiequan Zhang, Suzanne Hendrich, James A. Thomas Mar 2002

Irreversible Thiol Oxidation In Carbonic Anhydrase Iii: Protection By S-Glutathiolation And Detection In Aging Rats, Robert J. Mallis, Michael J. Hamann, Wei Zhao, Tiequan Zhang, Suzanne Hendrich, James A. Thomas

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Proteins with reactive sulfhydryls are central to many important metabolic reactions and also contribute to a variety of signal transduction systems. In this re- port, we examine the mechanisms of oxidative dam- age to the two reactive sulfhydryls of carbonic anhy- drase III. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxy radicals, or hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced irreversibly oxidized forms, primarily cysteine sulfinic acid or cys- teic acid, of carbonic anhydrase III if glutathione (GSH) was not present. When GSH was approximate- ly equimolar to protein thiols, irreversible oxidation was prevented. H2O2 and peroxyl radicals both gener- ated S-glutathiolated carbonic anhydrase III via par- ...


Characterization And Utilization Of Soy Flour Produced From Extrusion-Expelling Processing, Tong Wang, Deland J. Myers, Adrianna A. Heywood Jan 2002

Characterization And Utilization Of Soy Flour Produced From Extrusion-Expelling Processing, Tong Wang, Deland J. Myers, Adrianna A. Heywood

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The number of extrusion-expelling (E-E) plants, often referred to as "mini-mills", built to process soybeans produced in local areas has been increasing. E-E processing is a mechanical processing, and it has several advantages over conventional processing methods. E-E mills, such as the Express System (Insta-Pro Div., Triple "F", Inc., Des Moines, Iowa), are relatively small, with capacities ranging from 6 to 120 tons/day. They require low initial capital investment ($150,000-200,000) and have relatively low operating costs ($25/ton) as described by Nabil Said (inform 9:139-144,1998). E-E mills can be used for processing identity-preserved (IP) soybeans ...