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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Thermal Properties Of Starch From 62 Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L.) Lines Grown In Two Locations, K.Y. Ng, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White Nov 1997

Thermal Properties Of Starch From 62 Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L.) Lines Grown In Two Locations, K.Y. Ng, Linda M. Pollak, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The variability in thermal properties among 62 S3 lines derived from a high-yielding exotic corn (Zea mays) population, Antigua 1 (PI 484990), was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The S3 lines were grown in Puerto Rico (1990–1991) and Georgia (1994). Separate single-kernel starch extractions for five kernels (five replicates) from each line grown in each location were performed, and the starch was analyzed. The DSC values reported included gelatinization onset (ToG), range (RG), enthalpy (ΔHG), and peak height index (PHI) and retrogradation onset (ToR), range (RR), enthalpy (ΔHR ...


Survey Of The Fatty Acid Composition Of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Germplasm And Characterization Of Their Epoxy And Eicosenoic Acids, Earl G. Hammond, Daniel Duvick, Tong Wang, Hortense Dodo, R. N. Pittman Oct 1997

Survey Of The Fatty Acid Composition Of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Germplasm And Characterization Of Their Epoxy And Eicosenoic Acids, Earl G. Hammond, Daniel Duvick, Tong Wang, Hortense Dodo, R. N. Pittman

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) plant introductions (732) were analyzed for fatty acid composition. Palmitate varied from 8.2 to 15.1%, stearate 1.1 to 7.2%, oleate 31.5 to 60.2%, linoleate 19.9 to 45.4%, arachidate 0.8 to 3.2%, eicosenoate 0.6 to 2.6%, behenate 1.8 to 5.4%, and lignocerate 0.5 to 2.5%. The eicosenoate was shown to be cis-11-eicosenoate. In addition, epoxy fatty acids were found in many plant introductions in percentages ranging as high as 2.5%. These were tentatively identified as chiefly 9,10-epoxy stearate and ...


Thermal Properties Of Corn Starch Extracted With Different Blending Methods: Microblender And Homogenizer, K. M. Krieger, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White Sep 1997

Thermal Properties Of Corn Starch Extracted With Different Blending Methods: Microblender And Homogenizer, K. M. Krieger, Susan A. Duvick, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Thermal properties of starch can be evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC generates data of the thermal parameters of starch, such as onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), and enthalpy of gelatinization (∆H). These parameters may help determine the functionality of specific starches and, therefore, their utility in the food industry. Thermal properties of corn starch can also be used as criteria for selection of desirable lines for breeding purposes to obtain starch with specific properties useful in industry (Meuser et al 1989).


Excretion Of Fumonisin B1, Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1, And The Fumonisin B1−Fructose Adduct In Rats, Ellen C. Hopmans, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy Jul 1997

Excretion Of Fumonisin B1, Hydrolyzed Fumonisin B1, And The Fumonisin B1−Fructose Adduct In Rats, Ellen C. Hopmans, Catherine C. Hauck, Suzanne Hendrich, Patricia A. Murphy

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The excretion of fumonisin B1 (FB1), hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1), and FB1−fructose addition products (FB1−fructose) was determined in male Fisher 344/NHsd rats. Rats were dosed by gavage with 0.69, 6.93, or 69.3 μmol/kg of body weight FB1, HFB1, or FB1−fructose. Excretion of unchanged FB1, HFB1, and HFB1 after hydrolysis was determined in urine and feces by analytical reverse phase HPLC and fluorometric detection of the o-phthaldialdehyde derivatives. Average total FB1 backbone excretion in feces was 101, 76, and 50% of the dose for FB1, HFB1, and FB1−fructose, respectively. No effect of ...


Thermal Starch Properties In Corn Belt And Exotic Corn Inbred Lines And Their Crosses, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White Jul 1997

Thermal Starch Properties In Corn Belt And Exotic Corn Inbred Lines And Their Crosses, Linda M. Pollak, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

More knowledge is needed about variability of starch functional traits in adapted and exotic germplasm and possible genetic effects of these traits before conducting rigorous inheritance studies and breeding programs for starch quality. We studied and compared the range of variability for starch functional traits in a set of Corn Belt inbred lines with a set of exotic inbred lines from Argentina, Uruguay, and South Africa. Reciprocal hybrids of some of the lines within each set were compared with their parents. Functional traits were examined by using differential scanning calorimetry on starch extracted from single kernels of genotypes. The set ...


Ingredient Selection For Plastic Composite Supports For L-(+)-Lactic Acid Biofilm Fermentation By Lactobacillus Casei Subsp. Rhamnosus, K.L. Ho, A. L. Pometto Iii, P. N. Hinz, James S. Dickson, A. Demirci Jul 1997

Ingredient Selection For Plastic Composite Supports For L-(+)-Lactic Acid Biofilm Fermentation By Lactobacillus Casei Subsp. Rhamnosus, K.L. Ho, A. L. Pometto Iii, P. N. Hinz, James S. Dickson, A. Demirci

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Plastic composite supports containing 50% agricultural products (oat hulls, soybean hulls, yeast extract, soybean flour, dried bovine erythrocytes, bovine albumin, and/or mineral salts) and 50% (wt/wt) polypropylene were produced by high-temperature twin-screw extrusion. The research employed two half sets of a five-factorial fractional design (2(5 - 1)) to evaluate the effects of different agricultural components on the properties of the plastic composite supports and to select the best plastic composite support formulation for lactic acid fermentation. The biofilm population was affected by the contact angle and relative hydrophobicity of the supports (r = 0.79 to 0.82). Lactic ...


Thermal Properties Of Starch From Selected Maize (Zea Mays L.) Mutants During Development, K.Y. Ng, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White May 1997

Thermal Properties Of Starch From Selected Maize (Zea Mays L.) Mutants During Development, K.Y. Ng, Susan A. Duvick, Pamela J. White

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The changes in thermal properties of maize starches during five stages of kernel maturity, (12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 days after pollination [DAP]), from three mutant genotypes, amylose extender (ae), sugary-2 (su2), and waxy (wx) in an OH43 background, and the OH43 genotype were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Within a genotype, DSC values of starches at 24, 30, and 36 DAP were similar to each other and often were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the values at 12 DAP, indicating possible differences in the fine structure of starch during endosperm development. For su2 starches, the gelatinization onset temperature (ToG) significantly decreased after 12 DAP and remained low throughout the study. The gelatinization range ...


Reaction With Fructose Detoxifies Fumonisin B1 While Stimulating Liver-Associated Natural Killer Cell Activity In Rats, Z. Lu, W. R. Dantzer, E. C. Hopmans, V. Prisk, Joan E. Cunnick, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich Mar 1997

Reaction With Fructose Detoxifies Fumonisin B1 While Stimulating Liver-Associated Natural Killer Cell Activity In Rats, Z. Lu, W. R. Dantzer, E. C. Hopmans, V. Prisk, Joan E. Cunnick, Patricia A. Murphy, Suzanne Hendrich

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) was reacted with fructose in an attempt to detoxify this mycotoxin. Fischer 344/N rats were initiated with diethylnitrosamine (15 mg/kg body weight) and then fed 69.3 μmol FB1/kg diet or 69.3 μmol FB1 reacted with fructose (FB1−fructose)/kg diet for 4 weeks. In comparison with the rats fed basal diet or FB1−fructose, the FB1-fed rats had significantly increased plasma cholesterol (P < 0.01), plasma alanine aminotransferase activity (P < 0.05), and endogenous hepatic prostaglandin production (P < 0.05). Placental glutathione S-transferase-positive and γ-glutamyl transferase-positive altered hepatic foci occurred only in the FB1-fed rats. Liver-associated natural killer (NK) cell activity was significantly decreased in the FB1-fed rats and increased in the group fed FB1-fructose, as compared with the basal group (P < 0.03). Therefore, modifying FB1 with fructose seems to prevent FB1-induced hepatotoxicity and promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis while stimulating liver-associated NK cell activity in rats.


Processing Feed Ingredients From Blends Of Soybean Meal, Whole Blood, And Red Blood Cells, Linfeng Wang, Rolando A. Flores, Lawrence A. Johnson Feb 1997

Processing Feed Ingredients From Blends Of Soybean Meal, Whole Blood, And Red Blood Cells, Linfeng Wang, Rolando A. Flores, Lawrence A. Johnson

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Fish meal is a high quality, but expensive and scarce, feed ingredient used in fish and poultry feeds. Blood meal, a slaughterhouse by-product, and soybean meal are high quality protein sources successfully used to partially replace fish meal in animal diets; however, the dehydration cost for blood meal makes it as expensive as fish meal. In this study, feed ingredients were developed using soybean meal and pork blood. Whole blood and red blood cells were mixed with soybean meal and processed under different conditions. The methods evaluated were mixing and then drying at temperatures of 50, 70, 90, and 110 ...


Identifying Genetic Markers And Their Role In Selecting Chemotypes In Perennial Lamiaceae, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Lester A. Wilson, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 1997

Identifying Genetic Markers And Their Role In Selecting Chemotypes In Perennial Lamiaceae, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Lester A. Wilson, Mark P. Widrlechner

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

This is a report of research progress in this project through early 1995. The results of these initial experiments have led us to propose hypotheses about the patterns of inheritance of aromatic compounds in Agastache foeniculum. We are now testing those hypotheses with larger plant populations. On request, we will be pleased to provide readers with more up-to-date information as we complete the analyses of our ongoing experiments. Until such results are subject to scientific peer review, the data presented in the following report must be considered strictly preliminary.