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Cost Assessment Of Five Different Maize Grain Handling Techniques To Reduce Postharvest Losses From Insect Contamination, Bernard Darfour, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2020

Cost Assessment Of Five Different Maize Grain Handling Techniques To Reduce Postharvest Losses From Insect Contamination, Bernard Darfour, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Farmers in developing nations encounter high postharvest losses mainly attributable to the lack of modern techniques for threshing, cleaning, grading, and grain storage. Mechanized handling of grain in developing countries is rare, although the technology is effective against insects and pest infestations. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of five grain handling techniques that have the ability to reduce postharvest losses from insect infestation. The five methods were metal silo plus all accessories (m. silo + acc.), metal silo only (m. silo), woven polypropylene plus phosphine (w. PP. + Phos.), woven polypropylene only (w. PP.), and Purdue Improved Crop Storage bags ...


Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar Oct 2019

Nutrition At The Crossroads: Food At The Intersection Of Environmental, Economic, And Social Sustainability, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Laetitia Palmade, Elif Kongar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Societies around the world are at a critical juncture. As the planetary population grows, there are increasing demands for expanding available food, more nutritious and healthy foods, and contemporaneously the need for greater efficiencies and decreased impacts upon the environment.

The sustainability of food production systems is a complex issue that requires a global and multidisciplinary approach, combining not only agronomy, ecology, nutrition, epidemiology, processing, energy use, but also marketing and sociology. It is within this context that this special issue aims to illustrate, through review articles, case studies, as well as modeling and simulation studies, some means of understanding ...


Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren Aug 2019

Screening Of Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds For Detection Of Disease In Cattle: Development Of Lab-Scale Method, Devin L. Maurer, Christine K. Ellis, Tyler C. Thacker, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Pauline Nol, Kurt C. Vercauteren

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The primary hurdle for diagnosis of some diseases is the long incubation required to culture and confirm the presence of bacteria. The concept of using microbial VOCs as “signature markers” could provide a faster and noninvasive diagnosis. Finding biomarkers is challenging due to the specificity required in complex matrices. The objectives of this study were to (1) build/test a lab-scale platform for screening of microbial VOCs and (2) apply it to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis; the vaccine strain of M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin; and M. kansasii to demonstrate detection times greater those typically required for culture. SPME-GC-MS was used for ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Maize Storage For Small And Middle Sized Farmers, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2019

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) And Life Cycle Assessment (Lca) Of Maize Storage For Small And Middle Sized Farmers, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Maize is the most widely cultivated cereal crop worldwide, currently ranked the third most important crop globally after wheat and rice. It is a key staple food in many developing countries. However, maize is produced on a seasonal basis, usually harvest once per year. To maintain a constant supply throughout the year, maize should be properly stored. But this may entail high cost and high-energy consumption, which can contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, three storage capacities (25,000 bu, 250,000 bu and 2,500,000 bu) of maize were evaluated for economic analysis and ...


Postmortem Biochemical And Textural Changes In The Patinopecten Yessoensis Adductor Muscle (Pyam) During Iced Storage, Xin Xiong, Baoyu He, Di Jiang, Xiufang Dong, Aeneas Koosis, Chenxu Yu, Hang Qi Jun 2019

Postmortem Biochemical And Textural Changes In The Patinopecten Yessoensis Adductor Muscle (Pyam) During Iced Storage, Xin Xiong, Baoyu He, Di Jiang, Xiufang Dong, Aeneas Koosis, Chenxu Yu, Hang Qi

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Postmortem characteristics of Patinopecten yessoensis adductor muscle (PYAM) were evaluated by biochemical, chemical and textural changes during iced storage for 14 days. Triphosphate (ATP) and its breakdown products, K-value, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), color, texture, protein degradation and cathepsin activities were monitored. K-value increased linearly from 5.9 ± 0.9% at day 0 to 28.1 ± 2.4% at day 2 and 70.2 ± 1.8% at day 12. Spoilage indicator TVB-N (mg/100 g) increased from 10.0 ± 0.6 to 34.6 ± 3.1 at day 12. Textural parameters (e.g., hardness, chewiness ...


The Effect Of Biochar Addition On The Biogas Production Kinetics From The Anaerobic Digestion Of Brewers’ Spent Grain, Marta Dudek, Kacper Świechowski, Piotr Manczarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Apr 2019

The Effect Of Biochar Addition On The Biogas Production Kinetics From The Anaerobic Digestion Of Brewers’ Spent Grain, Marta Dudek, Kacper Świechowski, Piotr Manczarski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biochar (BC) addition is a novel and promising method for biogas yield increase. Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is an abundant organic waste with a large potential for biogas production. In this research, for the first time, we test the feasibility of increasing biogas yield and rate from BSG digestion by adding BC, which was produced from BSG via torrefaction (low-temperature pyrolysis). Furthermore, we explore the digestion of BSG with the presence BCs produced from BSG via torrefaction (low-temperature pyrolysis). The proposed approach creates two alternative waste-to-energy and waste-to-carbon type utilization pathways for BSG: (1) digestion of BSG waste to ...


Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater Apr 2019

Overview Of Some Recent Advances In Improving Water And Energy Efficiencies In Food Processing Factories, Nooshin Nikmaram, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Rapid development of food factories in both developed and developing countries, owing to continued growth in the world population, plays a critical role in the food supply chain, including environmental issues such as pollution, emissions, energy and water consumption, and thus food system sustainability. The objective of this study was to briefly review various environmental aspects of food processing operations, including aquatic, atmospheric, and solid waste generation, and also to discuss several strategies that many companies are using to reduce these negative impacts as well as to improve water and energy efficiency. To obtain higher energy efficiencies in food processing ...


Influence Of Amino Acid Supplementations In Juvenile Yellow Perch Fed Plant Protein Combinations, Aaron J. Von Eschen, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater Apr 2019

Influence Of Amino Acid Supplementations In Juvenile Yellow Perch Fed Plant Protein Combinations, Aaron J. Von Eschen, Michael L. Brown, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in combination with soy protein concentrate (SPC) with and without an essential amino acid (EAA) complex were assessed as protein alternatives in juvenile Yellow Perch Perca flavescens diets. Diets contained 5% FM, 40% SPC, and 20% or 40% DDGS each with or without EAA. No mortalities or health assessment differences were observed during the trial and all fish readily accepted the experimental diets. Diets supplemented with EAA produced greater weight gain, improved feed conversion, and apparent protein digestibility. Performance was consistently improved for fish fed diets containing amino acid supplements. Based on these results ...


Techno-Economic Analysis Of Extruding-Expelling Of Soybeans To Produce Oil And Meal, Ming-Hsun Chen, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2019

Techno-Economic Analysis Of Extruding-Expelling Of Soybeans To Produce Oil And Meal, Ming-Hsun Chen, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Mechanical expelling (pressing) is a common and developed technique used to separate soybean oil from soybean protein and fiber. Due to the relatively higher oil content in the expelled meal compared to solvent-extracted soybean meal, the mechanical process is often used for specific purposes in industry, such as targeted livestock feed applications. For improving oil recovery and profits, two-stage mechanical process combining extrusion before the expelling process has been introduced and adapted by industrial applications. To examine the viability of this improved two-stage extruding-expelling process, techno-economic analysis was performed by using SuperPro Designer for simulation of the soybean extruding-expelling process ...


Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Plant-Based Blends Using Graded Levels Of High Protein Fermented Soybean Meal (Fsbm), Parisa Fallahi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, K. Muthukumarappan Jan 2019

Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing Of Plant-Based Blends Using Graded Levels Of High Protein Fermented Soybean Meal (Fsbm), Parisa Fallahi, Kurt A. Rosentrater, K. Muthukumarappan

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Fast-paced growth in global aquaculture has elevated concerns about the high costs of fish farming production and potential water pollution. Thus, finding eco-friendly and more sustainable alternative protein sources for fish diets is of vital importance to the industry. A twin-screw extrusion processing study was performed using three ingredient blends formulated with graded levels of high protein fermented soybean meal (FSBM) (0, 80% and 100% db fishmeal replacement) along with calculated amounts of other ingredients to meet the rainbow trout diets’ requirements. Increasing the FSBM content from 0% to 100% resulted in a substantial increase in brightness, greenness, and yellowness ...


Evaluation Of Volatile Metabolites Emitted In-Vivo From Cold-Hardy Grapes During Ripening Using Spme And Gc-Ms: A Proof-Of-Concept, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Jan 2019

Evaluation Of Volatile Metabolites Emitted In-Vivo From Cold-Hardy Grapes During Ripening Using Spme And Gc-Ms: A Proof-Of-Concept, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research, we propose a novel concept for a non-destructive evaluation of volatiles emitted from ripening grapes using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). This concept is novel to both the traditional vinifera grapes and the cold-hardy cultivars. Our sample models are cold-hardy varieties in the upper Midwest for which many of the basic multiyear grape flavor and wine style data is needed. Non-destructive sampling included a use of polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) chambers temporarily enclosing and concentrating volatiles emitted by a whole cluster of grapes on a vine and a modified 2 mL glass vial for a vacuum-assisted sampling of volatiles from ...


Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel Jan 2019

Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for one-third of the total area grown in the state of Iowa. It is generally accepted that the wine aroma profile plays a crucial role in developing a local, sustainable brand. However, the identity of Brianna/Frontenac Gris-based wine aromas and their link to the grape berry chemistry at harvest is unknown. This study aims to preliminarily characterize ...


Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel Jan 2019

Biogenic Volatiles Emitted From Four Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars During Ripening, Somchai Rice, Devin L. Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this research dataset, we summarize for the first time volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in vivo from ripening wine grapes. We studied four cold-hardy cultivars grown in the Midwestern U.S.: St. Croix, Frontenac, Marquette, and La Crescent. These cultivars have gained popularity among local growers and winemakers, but still very little is known about their performance compared with long-established V. viniferagrapes. Volatiles were collected using two novel approaches: biogenic emissions from grape clusters on a vine and single grape berries. A third approach was headspace collection of volatiles from crushed grapes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to collect ...


Developing And Testing Gluten-Free Spaghetti Using Quinoa, Cindy Caratini, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2019

Developing And Testing Gluten-Free Spaghetti Using Quinoa, Cindy Caratini, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The goal of this study was to make quinoa pasta only with flour and water using extrusion processing and to compare quinoa spaghetti with commercial spaghetti from Barilla containing gluten thanks to physico-chemical tests. First, using a KitchenAid, several tests were carried out in order to find the recipe with a suitable proportion of water and quinoa flour. After the moisture content has been found, three formulations with the same moisture content (38%) were selected using several percentage of pre-gelatinization (20%, 30% and 40%) in order to compare the influence of level of pre-gelatinization on dough properties. The pre-gelatinization was ...


Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel Dec 2018

Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this work, for the first time, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) were quantified on a laboratory scale. The analyzed CRDF was generated from the torrefaction of municipal waste. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify 84 VOCs, including many that are toxic, e.g., derivatives of benzene or toluene. The highest emissions were measured for nonanal, octanal, and heptanal. The top 10 most emitted VOCs contributed to almost 65% of the total emissions. The VOC mixture emitted from torrefied CRDF differed from that emitted by other types ...


Metagenomic Insights Into The Degradation Of Resistant Starch By Human Gut Microbiota, Marius Vital, Adina Howe, Nathalie Bergeron, Ronald M. Krauss, Janet K. Jansson, James M. Tiedje Dec 2018

Metagenomic Insights Into The Degradation Of Resistant Starch By Human Gut Microbiota, Marius Vital, Adina Howe, Nathalie Bergeron, Ronald M. Krauss, Janet K. Jansson, James M. Tiedje

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Several studies monitoring alterations in the community structure upon resistant starch (RS) interventions are available, although comprehensive function-based analyses are lacking. Recently, a multiomics approach based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metaproteomics, and metabolomics on fecal samples from individuals subjected to high and low doses of type 2 RS (RS2; 48 g and 3 g/2,500 kcal, respectively, daily for 2 weeks) in a crossover intervention experiment was performed. In the present study, we did pathway-based metagenomic analyses on samples from a subset of individuals (n = 12) from that study to obtain additional detailed insights into the functional structure ...


Nutritional Value And Flavor Of Turbot (Scophthalmus Maximus) Muscle As Affected By Cooking Methods, Xiu-Ping Dong, De-Yang Li, Ying Huang, Qiong Wu, Wen-Tao Liu, Lei Qin, Da-Yong Zhou, Sangeeta Prakash, Chenxu Yu Aug 2018

Nutritional Value And Flavor Of Turbot (Scophthalmus Maximus) Muscle As Affected By Cooking Methods, Xiu-Ping Dong, De-Yang Li, Ying Huang, Qiong Wu, Wen-Tao Liu, Lei Qin, Da-Yong Zhou, Sangeeta Prakash, Chenxu Yu

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this study, the effects of five cooking methods on nutritional value and flavor of turbot muscle were evaluated. Chemical compositions of samples were determined using AOAC methods, and the fatty-acid composition was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Flavors of samples cooked using different methods were characterized by electronic nose. Volatile compounds were determined using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas GC–MS. All the samples were investigated before/after cooking. The results showed that the fatty acids found in abundance in the raw sample were C22:6n-3, C16:0, C18:1n-7, and C20:5n-3. All of ...


Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2018

Integrating Environmental And Social Sustainability Into Performance Evaluation: A Balanced Scorecard-Based Grey-Danp Approach For The Food Industry, Gazi M. Duman, Murat Taskaynatan, Elif Kongar, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In addition to retaining high levels of customer satisfaction, sustainability of businesses is also heavily reliant on the efficiency of their internal and external processes. Continuous performance evaluations using key performance metrics to leverage operations are essential in maintaining a sustainable business while achieving growth objectives for revenue and profitability. Traditionally, companies have considered various financial criteria, quality characteristics, and targeted levels of service as their primary factors for performance evaluation. However, increasing environmental and social awareness and accompanying governmental legislations are now requiring companies to integrate these two aspects into their performance evaluations. With this motivation, this study proposes ...


Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jul 2018

Techno-Economic Analysis (Tea) Of Extruded Aquafeeds, Rashid Suleiman, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The worldwide decline and overexploitation of ocean fisheries stocks had provided an incentive for the rapid growth of aquaculture. The aquaculture industry has been recognized as the fastest-growing food production system globally, with a 10% increase in production per year and is one of the most reliable and sustainable growth markets for manufactured feeds. Extrusion technology has been extensively used in the modern aquatic feed manufacturing, due to nutritional, physical properties improvements and cost effectiveness of feeds. Cost related to aquatic feed remains the biggest challenge, especially for small-scale producers. In order to understand costs and potential breakeven points, a ...


Effect Of Fluorescent Vs. Poultry-Specific Light-Emitting Diode Lights On Production Performance And Egg Quality Of W-36 Laying Hens, Kai Liu, Hongwei Xin, Jasreen Sekhon, Tong Wang Mar 2018

Effect Of Fluorescent Vs. Poultry-Specific Light-Emitting Diode Lights On Production Performance And Egg Quality Of W-36 Laying Hens, Kai Liu, Hongwei Xin, Jasreen Sekhon, Tong Wang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

More energy-efficient, durable, affordable, and dimmable light-emitting diode (LED) lights are finding applications in poultry production. However, data are lacking on controlled comparative studies concerning the impact of such lights during the pullet rearing and subsequent laying phase. This study evaluated two types of poultry-specific LED light (PS-LED) vs. fluorescent light (FL) with regards to their effects on hen laying performance. A total of 432 Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were tested in two batches using four environmental chambers (nine cages per chamber and 6 birds per cage) from 17 to 41 weeks of age (WOA). Dim-to-red PS-LED and warm-white FL ...


Salmonella And Fecal Indicator Bacteria Survival In Soils Amended With Poultry Manure, Claire E. Hruby, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar Feb 2018

Salmonella And Fecal Indicator Bacteria Survival In Soils Amended With Poultry Manure, Claire E. Hruby, Michelle L. Soupir, Thomas B. Moorman, Carl H. Pederson, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Minimizing the risks associated with manure-borne pathogenic microorganisms requires an understanding of microbial survival under realistic field conditions. The objective of this 3-year study was to assess the fate of Salmonella (SALM) and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), E. coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT), in glacial till-derived soils, after application of poultry manure (PM) to cornfields under chisel-plowed (CP) or no-till (NT) management. From 2010 to 2012, soil samples were obtained each spring at 0–15- and 15–30-cm depths, to determine whether over-wintering of target bacteria had occurred. Sampling was followed by application of PM at low (PM1) and high ...


Development Of Gluten-Free Egg Pasta Based On Amaranth, Maize And Sorghum, Laura Paux, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2018

Development Of Gluten-Free Egg Pasta Based On Amaranth, Maize And Sorghum, Laura Paux, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Due to increase of the population affected by Coeliac disease and awareness of consumers about the relationship between food and health, the production of cereal products from raw materials other than wheat is of interest. The aim of the work was to produce good quality gluten-free spaghettis, based on sorghum, amaranth and maize flour. Response surface methodology was applied to determine optimal formulation for the production of pasta. The resulting products of the experimental design were characterized regarding humidity, color, density, water activity, texture (firmness and elasticity), optimal cooking time, cooking weight, and cooking loss. The main trials were compared ...


Method For Sampling And Analysis Of Volatile Biomarkers In Process Gas From Aerobic Digestion Of Poultry Carcasses Using Time-Weighted Average Spme And Gc–Ms, Jacek A. Koziel, Lam T. Nguyen, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen Oct 2017

Method For Sampling And Analysis Of Volatile Biomarkers In Process Gas From Aerobic Digestion Of Poultry Carcasses Using Time-Weighted Average Spme And Gc–Ms, Jacek A. Koziel, Lam T. Nguyen, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Timothy S. Frana, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A passive sampling method, using retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) – gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and time-weighted averaging, was developed and validated for tracking marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during aerobic digestion of biohazardous animal tissue. The retracted SPME configuration protects the fragile fiber from buffeting by the process gas stream, and it requires less equipment and is potentially more biosecure than conventional active sampling methods. VOC concentrations predicted via a model based on Fick’s first law of diffusion were within 6.6–12.3% of experimentally controlled values after accounting for VOC adsorption to the SPME fiber housing. Method ...


Development Of An Automated Method For Selected Aromas Of Red Wines From Cold-Hardy Grapes Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari Jul 2017

Development Of An Automated Method For Selected Aromas Of Red Wines From Cold-Hardy Grapes Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Lingshuang Cai, Somchai Rice, Jacek A. Koziel, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The aroma profile of red wine is complex and research focusing on aroma compounds and their links to viticultural and enological practices is needed. Current research is limited to wines made from cold-hardy cultivars (interspecific hybrids of vinifera and native N. American grapes). The objective of this research was to develop a fully automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method, using tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-olfactometry for the simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis of volatile/semi-volatile compounds and aroma in cold-hardy red wines. Specifically, the effects of SPME coating selection, extraction time, extraction temperature, incubation time, sample volume, desorption time ...


Understanding Postharvest Practices, Knowledge, And Actual Mycotoxin Levels In Maize In Three Agro-Ecological Zones In Tanzania, R. A. Suleiman, K. A. Rosentrater, B. Chove Jul 2017

Understanding Postharvest Practices, Knowledge, And Actual Mycotoxin Levels In Maize In Three Agro-Ecological Zones In Tanzania, R. A. Suleiman, K. A. Rosentrater, B. Chove

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Maize is a major cereal crop in Tanzania and it is grown in diverse agro-ecological zones. Like other sub-Saharan countries, postharvest losses of maize during storage in Tanzania remain significantly high, especially for smallholder farmers. Unpredictable weather and poor postharvest practice contribute to rapid deterioration of grain and mold contamination, and subsequent production of mycotoxins. The purpose of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge regarding mycotoxin contamination in maize grain in three agro-ecological zones (Eastern, Central, and Northern) of Tanzania between November 2015 and February 2016. A survey using questionnaires was administered to farmers, traders, and consumers of ...


Seafood Flavourings Characterization As Prepared From The Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Undaria Pinnatifida Sporophyll By-Product, Hang Qi, Zhe Xu, Yu-Bo Li, Xiao-Lin Ji, Xiu-Fang Dong, Chenxu Yu Mar 2017

Seafood Flavourings Characterization As Prepared From The Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Undaria Pinnatifida Sporophyll By-Product, Hang Qi, Zhe Xu, Yu-Bo Li, Xiao-Lin Ji, Xiu-Fang Dong, Chenxu Yu

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Protein by-products from Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida) sporophyll processing (i.e., after polysaccharide extraction) were hydrolysed using flavourzyme (enzyme activity = 7592 U/g). Optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined using response surface analysis (i.e., 7% flavourzyme for 18 h); a hydrolysate yield of 32.52 ± 0.46 g/100 g dry-solids was achieved with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) at 5.63 ± 0.27 g α-amino nitrogen/100 g total nitrogen. Five free amino acids (FAAs), alanine, glumatic acid, aspartic acid, proline, and glycine, were abundant in the best hydrolysate. Eighteen volatile flavour compounds were identified using gas chromatography/mass ...


Textural And Biochemical Changes Of Scallop Patinopecten Yessoensis Adductor Muscle During Low-Temperature Long-Time (Ltlt) Processing, Xiufang Dong, Hui Fu, Sijia Chang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Hao Sun, Baoyu He, Di Jiang, Chenxu Yu, Hang Qi Jan 2017

Textural And Biochemical Changes Of Scallop Patinopecten Yessoensis Adductor Muscle During Low-Temperature Long-Time (Ltlt) Processing, Xiufang Dong, Hui Fu, Sijia Chang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Hao Sun, Baoyu He, Di Jiang, Chenxu Yu, Hang Qi

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this study, the effects of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) processing on the quality of Patinopecten yessoensis adductor muscle (PYAM) were investigated at 55°C. The texture of processed PYAM was characterized by textural profile analysis (TPA), and significant increases of cook loss, hardness, and shear force with time during LTLT processing were observed. The degradation of structural proteins was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and fragments with molecular weights of 208 kDa (myosin heavy chain, MHC), 97 kDa (paramyosin) and 35–40 kDa, respectively, were among the main products. Chemical characterization revealed elevated levels of activity ...


Development And Testing Of Gluten-Free Pasta Based On Rice, Quinoa And Amaranth Flours, Sarah Makdoud, Kurt A. Rosentrater Jan 2017

Development And Testing Of Gluten-Free Pasta Based On Rice, Quinoa And Amaranth Flours, Sarah Makdoud, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The goal of this study was to make high quality gluten-free pasta using amaranth, quinoa and rice flours, water and eggs using extrusion processing, and to compare these with gluten-free pasta already commercialized. The difficulty was to reproduce the texture provided by the gluten network without using gluten. To do that, an experimental design was created in order to make samples with different quantities of each grain, egg whites and water. Samples were manufactured and various tests (e.g., color analysis, water activity, cooking loss, texture, etc.) were carried out in order to find the best formulation, namely the formulation ...


Reduction Of Particulate Matter And Ammonia By Spraying Acidic Electrolyzed Water Onto Litter Of Aviary Hen Houses: A Lab-Scale Study, Lilong Chai, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Tong Wang, Atilgan Atilgan, Michelle Soupir, Kai Liu Jan 2017

Reduction Of Particulate Matter And Ammonia By Spraying Acidic Electrolyzed Water Onto Litter Of Aviary Hen Houses: A Lab-Scale Study, Lilong Chai, Yang Zhao, Hongwei Xin, Tong Wang, Atilgan Atilgan, Michelle Soupir, Kai Liu

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Particulate matter (PM) concentrations are high in cage-free aviary hen houses due to accumulation of litter on the floor and hen activities. The use of a spraying agent such as acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) to mitigate PM levels and disinfect houses has been reported, and high spray dosages will reduce PM to a low level. However, spraying a high dose of AEW may generate high levels of ammonia (NH3) due to an increase in litter moisture content (LMC). Lab-scale experiments were conducted to assess the effect of AEW spray dosage and pH on PM and NH3 emissions from ...


Soil Ozonation For Nematode Disinfestation As An Alternative To Methyl Bromide And Nematicides, Nahed Msayleb, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Huaiqing Wu, Johannes Van Leeuwen Jan 2017

Soil Ozonation For Nematode Disinfestation As An Alternative To Methyl Bromide And Nematicides, Nahed Msayleb, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Huaiqing Wu, Johannes Van Leeuwen

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Phytoparasitic nematodes are important pests that cause severe crop yield losses. In the past, methyl bromide and other proprietary nematicides have been used as management practices, but these practices are unsustainable and lead to atmospheric pollution and ozone layer destruction. Ozonation was studied as an alternative management practice since it is highly effective against microorganisms and degenerates quickly to oxygen. Soil samples that were naturally infested with nematodes were treated with different levels of gaseous ozone at 21 ºC and 5 ºC. Regression analysis results show that a medium level of ozonation (2.1 g O3 kg-1 for 15 min ...