Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 241 - 264 of 264

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Shortening Power And Related Properties Of Lard As Affected By Substitution Of Elaidinized Lipid, Judith Ellen Klouda Jun 1969

Shortening Power And Related Properties Of Lard As Affected By Substitution Of Elaidinized Lipid, Judith Ellen Klouda

Masters Theses

Shortening power and related properties of lard as affected by substitution of elaidinized lipid were investigated. Pastry wafers were prepared with shortenings of 0, 40, 60 and 80 percent levels of substitution of elaidinized lipid for lard. The shortenings were analyzed by gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography. Penetrability of the worked fats and melting points were determined. Breaking strength of the wafers was measured on a Bailey Shortometer and indexes to flakiness and flavor. Extent of oxidation was estimated with a thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test.

The major component of the four shortenings was C18:1 fatty acid, ranging in concentration from ...


Effect Of Cis-Trans Isomers And Related Physical Properties Of Monounsaturated Lipids On Shortening Power, Aneta Joyce Ostrander Aug 1968

Effect Of Cis-Trans Isomers And Related Physical Properties Of Monounsaturated Lipids On Shortening Power, Aneta Joyce Ostrander

Doctoral Dissertations

The effect of cis-trans isomers on the shortening power of lipids was investigated. Lipid samples studied included: a commercial vegetable oil (control), oleic acid, elaidinized triolein, two samples in which elaidinized oleic acid was substituted at different levels for oleic acid, and two samples in which elaidinized triolein was substituted at different levels for triolein. Breaking strengths of plain pastry wafers were used for estimating the shortening power. Melting point, surface tension, interfacial tension and viscosity measurements were made on the lipid samples. Lipid composition analyses included gas-liquid and thin-layer chromatography.

Except at the 100 percent level of substitution, wafers ...


Response Of Small And Large Rib And Round Beef Roasts Of Two Degrees Of Finish To Two Rates Of Heat Application, Barbara Hammer Bayne Aug 1968

Response Of Small And Large Rib And Round Beef Roasts Of Two Degrees Of Finish To Two Rates Of Heat Application, Barbara Hammer Bayne

Masters Theses

Eighty roasts consisting of paired small and large, bone-in rib and boneless top-round cuts from five low-finish and five high-finish Hereford steers were studied. One cut from each pair was roasted at 200oF and the other at 300oF to end points of 152o and 158oF respectively, according to a balanced-lattice design. Tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were evaluated by a trained taste panel. An objective measurement of tenderness was obtained with the Warner-Bratzler Shear. Cooking loss and cooking time were determined also.

Cuts roasted at 200oF had lower total cooking losses, longer ...


Yield, Cost, And Acceptability Of Beef Sirloin Roasted By Forced Convection At Two Oven Temperatures, Marilyn Mccammon Davenport Mar 1968

Yield, Cost, And Acceptability Of Beef Sirloin Roasted By Forced Convection At Two Oven Temperatures, Marilyn Mccammon Davenport

Masters Theses

(From the Introduction)

The relationship of numerous factors to yield and palatability of meat has been under investigation for many years. Since meat is the most costly menu item for institutional food, establishments, factors which affect yield, cost, and palatability are of primary concern to food service managers.

With the development of forced convection ovens a relatively new approach to meat cookery was introduced to the food service industry. Borsenik and Newcomer (1959) pioneered in the development of forced convection cookery by installing a blower in a conventional oven. They found that cooking time was reduced and fuel consumption was ...


The Effects Of End Point And Oven Temperatures On Histological Characteristics Of Beef Longissimus Dorsi, Mary Linda Bley Mar 1968

The Effects Of End Point And Oven Temperatures On Histological Characteristics Of Beef Longissimus Dorsi, Mary Linda Bley

Masters Theses

(From the Summary): The effects of heating beef rib roasts to end points of 140, 158, and 170°F at 225 and 325°F on histological characteristics of longissimus dorsi were investigated.

Muscle fiber diameter was greater for raw than for cooked tissue. Generally, fiber diameter decreased at both oven temperatures as end points increased from 140 to 158°F. Raw and/or cooked samples contained straight, accordion pleated, and waved fibers. The predominance of straight fibers tended to decrease as wavy and accordion pleated fibers increased. End point and oven temperatures appeared to be unrelated to the occurrence of ...


Effect Of Oven And End-Point Temperatures On The Sensory Properties Of Beef Rib Roast, Nancy Elizabeth Fugate Aug 1967

Effect Of Oven And End-Point Temperatures On The Sensory Properties Of Beef Rib Roast, Nancy Elizabeth Fugate

Masters Theses

(Conclusions) Reducing the cooking temperature 100°F. below the currently recommended temperature for roasting beef rib yielded meat that was more tender when cooked to 158 or 170°F. These roasts also resulted in lower cooking losses with only slightly higher energy consumption. Flavor of beef cooked to the well-done stage tended to be preferred by the panel. All of these factors need to be considered when deciding on the temperature combinations for roasting beef rib cuts.

Chemical and/or histological studies are recommended to help explain the tenderizing effect of the reduced rate of heating.


Effect Of Oven Roasting At 200 And 300 ° F. On The Microbiology Of Beef Roasts, Marilyn Sue Williams Mar 1967

Effect Of Oven Roasting At 200 And 300 ° F. On The Microbiology Of Beef Roasts, Marilyn Sue Williams

Masters Theses

Abbreviated Summary

I. SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oven roasting at 200 and 3000 F. on the microbiology of high and low finish rib and top-round beef roasts. Rib roasts averaged 10.2 and 6.7 pounds and top-round roasts averaged 6.3 and 5.5 pounds for high and low finish respectively. Roasts cooked at 2000 F. were heated to an end point of 1520 F. and roasts cooked at 3000 F. to 1580 F. Samples taken aseptically from the middle of a center ...


Retention Of Vitamin B6 In Oven-Braised Semimembranosus Muscle Of Beef, Lois Ann Wodarski Mar 1967

Retention Of Vitamin B6 In Oven-Braised Semimembranosus Muscle Of Beef, Lois Ann Wodarski

Masters Theses

Introduction [Abbreviated]:

The present study involved six tests conducted to determine the effects of oven-braising, a moist-heat method, on vitamin-B6 retention of beef. Paired roasts from the semimembranosus muscle of three grain-finished and three grass-finished steers were used in the study. The right side roast of each pair was cooked by oven-braising. The cooked roasts and the drip were analyzed for total vitamin-B6 content by the yeast microbiological method of Atkin et al. (1943); the left side roasts were analyzed raw. Total cooking retentions of vitamin B6 were calculated as the sum of that retained in the ...


Relation Of Phospolipids To Dna In Breast And Thigh Muscle Tissue Of Chicken, Sarah Alice Smitherman Mar 1967

Relation Of Phospolipids To Dna In Breast And Thigh Muscle Tissue Of Chicken, Sarah Alice Smitherman

Masters Theses

(From the Summary): Abbreviated The content of phospholipids per unit of DNA and the distribution of cephalins, lecithins, and sphingomyelin in the breast and thigh muscle tissues of eight chickens were studied. Nucleic acids were extracted from the muscle tissues with hot trichloroacetic acid and the content of desoxyribose, determined colorimetrically by the Dische diphenylamine reaction, was used as an index to the DNA concentration. Thin layer chromatography was used to separate the triglycerides from the phospholipids and to fractionate the latter compounds. Phosphorus analysis was used to estimate the quantity of phospholipids and of each phospholipid class.

The amounts ...


The Effect Of Cooking On The Phospholipid Content Of Lean Ground Beef, Kitty Lee Roberts Aug 1966

The Effect Of Cooking On The Phospholipid Content Of Lean Ground Beef, Kitty Lee Roberts

Masters Theses

Introduction [Abbreviated]:

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate further the effect of cooking on the phospholipid content of ground beef. The possibility that a partitioning of phospholipids between meat and drip occurs during cooking was of particular interest.


The Retention Of Vitamin B6 In Roasts From The Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Of Beef When Cooked By Dry Heat, Jeanne Rebecca Vannoy Aug 1965

The Retention Of Vitamin B6 In Roasts From The Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Of Beef When Cooked By Dry Heat, Jeanne Rebecca Vannoy

Masters Theses

Summary: The average amount of vitamin B6 retained in the longissimus dorsi roasts after cooking to the medium-done stage was 78.8 per cent. On average, 16.6 per cent of the vitamin B6 was transferred to the drippings giving a total average retention of vitamin B6 in roasted beef of 93.4 per cent. This retention is somewhat higher than that which had been reported previously, but is consistent with what is known concerning the stability of vitamin B6 in the presence of heat.


Tenderness Of Beef Round Roasted At Two Oven Temperatures In Relation To Cooking Losses, Cooking Time, Power Consumption, And Other Sensory Properties, Robin Dalrymple Simmers Aug 1965

Tenderness Of Beef Round Roasted At Two Oven Temperatures In Relation To Cooking Losses, Cooking Time, Power Consumption, And Other Sensory Properties, Robin Dalrymple Simmers

Masters Theses

From the Introduction): Abbreviated

The present study was designed to compare the tenderness and quality of adjacent top-round roasts cooked at 300oF. and 200oF. oven temperatures.


The Effect Of Ammonia On Frozen Foods, Abdel-Hamid A. Kassem Mar 1965

The Effect Of Ammonia On Frozen Foods, Abdel-Hamid A. Kassem

Masters Theses

On March 3, 1962, a liquid-ammonia line broke in the frozen food storage room at the University of Tennessee Food Technology Department, and exposed the foods in the 0° F storage room to ammonia. Customers of the Department complained that the flavor and odor of the foods had been ruined.

In January 1964, the same type of accident occurred on a commercial scale. A liquid-ammonia line broke in the 0° F storage room at a commercial company in Knoxville, Tennessee. The room was 30 by 60 by 15 feet (approximately 2700 cubic feet), and the amount of ammonia liberated was ...


Comparison Of Two Fractionation Methods In The Study Of Muscle Lipids From Grain- And Grass-Finished Beef, Laura Elizabeth Taylor Dec 1964

Comparison Of Two Fractionation Methods In The Study Of Muscle Lipids From Grain- And Grass-Finished Beef, Laura Elizabeth Taylor

Masters Theses

Possible differences in composition of fat from grain- and grass-finished beef have been of interest at the University of Tennessee since Meyer et al. (1960) reported the fat of grain-finished beef to be superior in flavor to that of grass-finished beef. In later work the fat from animals of these two types of finish differed chiefly in the proportion of phospholipids and in the degree of saturation of the phospholipids (Cook, 1963; Nutt, 1963).

Observations of other workers also have focused attention on lipid fractions. Early studies showed a correlation between muscle activity and phospholipid content (Bloor, 1927; Bloor and ...


Effect Of Finish And Aging Time On The Phospholipid Constituents Of Beef, Sarah Margaret Nutt Aug 1963

Effect Of Finish And Aging Time On The Phospholipid Constituents Of Beef, Sarah Margaret Nutt

Masters Theses

Recent advances in micro-techniques have made possible more extensive and thorough study of lipids and related compounds than was possible previously. Two of the most outstanding developments have been gas-liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Gas-liquid chromatography has contributed a quantitative method for fatty acid determinations while thin layer chromatography has produced an accurate and rapid method for separating various classes of lipids. A combination of these methods has opened the door to investigations which had been deferred because of inaccurate and time consuming methodology.

The role of lipids in meat flavors has been of interest for many years. Studies ...


Anthocyanidin Pigments Of Southern Peas, Vigna Sinensis, Jerry L. Graham Aug 1963

Anthocyanidin Pigments Of Southern Peas, Vigna Sinensis, Jerry L. Graham

Masters Theses

Southern peas are an important vegetable crop in the Southeastern states. They constitute 11 percent of the total vegetables packed in this area and are exceeded in volume only by green beans and tomatoes (39).

Southern peas are not widely distributed by retailers throughout the United States. Discoloration during processing is believed to be the major reason preventing wide distribution (13). Also, color is a major factor of quality grade, and deterioration of color in these products results in considerable economic loss to the processor.

With respect to freezing of southern peas, the discoloration occurs during blanching. The water soluble ...


Tenderness Of Pork From Selected Hogs As Affected By The Application Of A Meat Tenderizer, Maria Delfina Rivera Aug 1963

Tenderness Of Pork From Selected Hogs As Affected By The Application Of A Meat Tenderizer, Maria Delfina Rivera

Masters Theses

(From the Summary)

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an unseasoned tenderizer on the flavor, juiciness, and tenderness of boneless pork chops from the longissimus dorsi muscle. The chops were obtained from the loins of 24 Duroc hogs which had been finished under four regimes: full-feed on concrete; limited-feed on concrete; full-feed on pasture; and limited-feed on pasture. The tenderizer contained papain in powdered form. The secondary purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of management and feeding regime of the hogs on tenderness, juiciness, and flavor of pork chops.



A Comparison Of Open-Pan And Foil-Wrap Methods Of Roasting Yearling Turkey, Betty Louise Boyd Jun 1963

A Comparison Of Open-Pan And Foil-Wrap Methods Of Roasting Yearling Turkey, Betty Louise Boyd

Masters Theses

(Introduction) Frequently yearling turkeys are available in the retail market during the spring and summer and often may be obtained at a reasonable price. According to the Poultry Division of the Agricultural Marketing Service (Hauver and Kilpatrick, 1961), yearling turkeys are fully matured when slaughtered, "usually under 15 months of age" and are "reasonably tender-meated" and have "reasonably smooth-textured skin." Theoretically, yearling birds have more connective tissue than younger turkeys, and this raises the question as to whether ordinary dry-heat roasting is appropriate or whether a method which is more conducive to tenderization should be used. A great deal of ...


The Effect Of Method Of Finishing And Length Of Time Of Aging On The Liplds Of Cooked And Uncooked Beef, Anne Looney Cook Mar 1963

The Effect Of Method Of Finishing And Length Of Time Of Aging On The Liplds Of Cooked And Uncooked Beef, Anne Looney Cook

Masters Theses

(From the Introduction): Abbreviated

The purpose of this study was to compare the composition of the muscle tissue lipids of beef steers finished on different feeding regimens. The fatty acid content of phospholipids and non-phosphorous-containing lipids of ground beef samples from grain-finished and grass-finished steers subjected to varying amounts of carcass aging was investigated.


The Effect Of Re-Use Of Two Frying Fats On The Fatty Acid Content Of French-Fried Potatoes, Mary Ann Harvey Aug 1962

The Effect Of Re-Use Of Two Frying Fats On The Fatty Acid Content Of French-Fried Potatoes, Mary Ann Harvey

Masters Theses

The effect of re-use of two frying fats--cottonseed oil and hydrogenated cottonseed oil--on the fatty acid content of French-fried potatoes was studied.


A Comparison Of Roasting Turkey By An Open-Pan And A Foil-Wrap Method, Agnes June Reese Majhor Jun 1962

A Comparison Of Roasting Turkey By An Open-Pan And A Foil-Wrap Method, Agnes June Reese Majhor

Masters Theses

Introduction: There has been limited research on methods of cooking poultry in recent years. In the same time, vast strides have been made in breeding, feeding, processing, and marketing of poultry. Improvements have brought about increased production at lower cost. These changes, along with better refrigeration have made poultry available the year around. It is reasonable to assume that certain procedures may be better than others in preparing poultry for the table.

A check of several cook books, material from the Poultry and Egg National Board, and other sources indicates that the method most frequently recommended for roasting poultry is ...


Thiamine Retention In Pork After Home Canning, Sermsii Gongsakdi Aug 1961

Thiamine Retention In Pork After Home Canning, Sermsii Gongsakdi

Masters Theses

Pork has long been recognized as contributing important quantities of thiamine in human nutrition. It has been shown to be a richer source of this food factor than beef or poultry meat.

Pork serves as a principal source of animal protein in Thai food according to Chandrapanond (1959). Besides contributing high quality protein, lean pork muscle is said to be the chief source of thiamine in Thailand.

In order to have pork available all year round, it is the aim of the Thai government to introduce methods of home food preservation to their people. Canning is a method of preservation ...


Effects Of Roasting, Braising, And Stewing On The Cesium-134 Content Of Beef From Orally Dosed Steers, Joan Forrester Dec 1960

Effects Of Roasting, Braising, And Stewing On The Cesium-134 Content Of Beef From Orally Dosed Steers, Joan Forrester

Masters Theses

(From the Summary): Abbreviated

In this study the effect of cooking on the cesium-134 content of beef from orally dosed steers was investigated. The chief purpose of the investigation was to determine if radioactivity of beef muscle tissue could be reduced by appropriate cooking procedures .


Tenderness Of Beef As Affected By Variations In Time And Temperature Of Application Of A Meat Tenderizer, Eleanor Marguerite Pratt Jun 1960

Tenderness Of Beef As Affected By Variations In Time And Temperature Of Application Of A Meat Tenderizer, Eleanor Marguerite Pratt

Masters Theses

(Summary)

In this study 3 meat tenderizers, containing the proteolytic enzyme papa in powdered f'orm, which were available in the Knoxville retail market were tested. The effect of these tenderizers on flavor, juiciness, and tenderness of steaks and roasts cooked by dry-heat methods was compared. One of the 3 meat tenderizers was then used to study the effect of increases in length of the precooking holding-period and of variations in temperature of the precooking holding-period on flavor, juiciness, and tenderness.

Sensory-difference tests were used to evaluate the flavor, juiciness, and tenderness of the steaks and roasts.