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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Absorption And Utilization Of Choline And Vitamin B12 In Lactating Dairy Cows Using Different Delivery Methods, Virginia Maria Artegoitia Etcheverry Dec 2014

Absorption And Utilization Of Choline And Vitamin B12 In Lactating Dairy Cows Using Different Delivery Methods, Virginia Maria Artegoitia Etcheverry

Doctoral Dissertations

Choline and vitamin B12 are essential nutrients for growth and performances of production animals. However, both nutrients are extensively degraded during digestion in the rumen. This thesis comprised three experiments. First, four cows equipped with a rumen cannula and catheters in the portal vein and a mesenteric artery received a post-ruminal bolus of: 1) cyanocobalamin (CN-CBL) alone (0.1 g) [gram], 2) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + casein (10 g) or 3) CN-CBL (0.1 g) + whey proteins (10 g). After the bolus, blood samples were taken until 24 h [hour] post-bolus. The intestinal absorption of CN-CBL was greater when the ...


An Epidemiological Study Of Campylobacter Populations Reveals A Selective Pressure By Roxarsone, Sean Jeffery Pendleton Dec 2014

An Epidemiological Study Of Campylobacter Populations Reveals A Selective Pressure By Roxarsone, Sean Jeffery Pendleton

Doctoral Dissertations

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is the most discriminatory of typing methods and can provide additional information including virulence, antigen targets for vaccine development, and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The first part of this study aimed to determine the application of WGS as a genotyping method for Campylobacter by comparing WGS to two commonly used genotyping methods, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flaA typing. Five Campylobacter strains isolated from conventional and organic poultry, and five additional isolates with published genomes were compared using the three methods. A total of 8 PFGE patterns and 8 flaA alleles were identified from the 10 strains ...


Control Of Emerging Foodborne Viruses Using Cranberry Extracts And Chemical Sanitizers, Snigdha Nitin Sewlikar Dec 2014

Control Of Emerging Foodborne Viruses Using Cranberry Extracts And Chemical Sanitizers, Snigdha Nitin Sewlikar

Masters Theses

Human norovirus (HNoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Aichi virus (AiV) outbreaks that cause severe foodborne disease are on the rise globally. Strategies to prevent and mitigate the spread of these viral infections need to be investigated. HNoV, HAV and AiV are known to be resistant to most of the conventionally used chemical inactivation methods. Cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (C-PAC) have demonstrated antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. CJ and C-PAC have been shown to exhibit antiviral activities against HNoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at room temperature. Hence, the objectives of this research were (1) To ...


The Effect Of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide On Crystallization Behavior Of Lactose, Xueqian Shi Dec 2014

The Effect Of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharide On Crystallization Behavior Of Lactose, Xueqian Shi

Masters Theses

Lactose can be recovered from cheese whey permeate concentrate by crystallization, and improving the recovery efficiency and purity of lactose crystals is significant to the profitability of the dairy industry. Lactose is also the major component in spray-dried dairy ingredients such as milk and whey powder. Lactose in spray-dried powder is amorphous and causes quality problems such as caking due to the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage. Technologies are thus needed to improve the crystallinity of spray-dried lactose. In this study, soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) was studied for the effects on lactose crystallization in aqueous solutions and during spray ...


Fabrication Of Zein Nanoparticle-Biopolymer Complexes To Deliver Essential Oils In Aqueous Dispersions, Huaiqiong Chen Aug 2014

Fabrication Of Zein Nanoparticle-Biopolymer Complexes To Deliver Essential Oils In Aqueous Dispersions, Huaiqiong Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

Zein, alcohol-soluble corn proteins, easily precipitate as nanoparticles after dispersing a stock zein solution with a polar solvent into water. The process can be used to nanoencapsulate essential oils (EOs). However, the stability of hydrophobic zein nanoparticles is a challenge for their application in aqueous food systems. The goal of this dissertation reseach was to stabilize zein nanoparticles in aqueous dispersions by forming complexes with water-soluble biopolymers. The stabilization of zein nanoparticles was first studied using sodium caseinate by dispersing hot 50% aqueous ethanol solution with both polymers in water. The nanoparticles contained κ-casein and zein, and the spray-dried nanoparticles ...


Casein Micelles And Their Properties: Polydispersity, Association With Vitamin A And Effect Of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization, Maneesha Sheenu Mohan Aug 2014

Casein Micelles And Their Properties: Polydispersity, Association With Vitamin A And Effect Of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization, Maneesha Sheenu Mohan

Doctoral Dissertations

The internal structure of casein micelles is not fully understood. In the present work, we explore some of the basic questions about casein micelles in bovine milk including its size distribution, native binding properties and effect of ultra-high pressure homogenization (ultra-HPH) on technological properties of casein micelles. The size distribution of casein micelles was studied by cryo-TEM using skim milk from four cows. The degree of variation in casein micelle sizes (polydispersity) ranged between 0.39 and 0.47 for a size distribution ranging from 10 to 693 nm. These results indicated high polydispersity of casein micelles in milk from ...


Comparison Of Triangle And Tetrad Discrimination Methodology In Applied, Industrial Manner, Sara Lyn Carlisle Aug 2014

Comparison Of Triangle And Tetrad Discrimination Methodology In Applied, Industrial Manner, Sara Lyn Carlisle

Masters Theses

The triangle method has been widely used in the food industry for many years when conducting sensory discrimination testing. Recently, however, another discrimination testing method, the tetrad, has begun to gain popularity. Based on currently published research, the tetrad method possesses statistical advantages over the triangle and would require fewer panelists, reduce testing time, and use less sample material. More testing is needed to confirm these advantages in an applied, industrial approach on a wider range of products. Over thirty triangles and thirty tetrads with untrained panelists have been completed in order to compare the two methods. Products tested ranged ...


Transfer And Survival Of Microorganisms To Produce From Surface Irrigation Water, Stuart Jamison Gorman Aug 2014

Transfer And Survival Of Microorganisms To Produce From Surface Irrigation Water, Stuart Jamison Gorman

Masters Theses

Surface water irrigation sources are widely used for fruit and vegetable crop production in the United States. Surface water is inherently prone to direct and indirect contamination with animal fecal material. Hence, the microbial quality of surface water sources can be highly variable. Water used for irrigation is considered a common source for produce contamination. In addition to this, fruits and vegetables are commonly consumed fresh or minimally processed, thus emphasizing the need for preventative measures in production of fresh produce. This study will examine transfer from naturally contaminated irrigation water to cantaloupes using drip and overhead spray irrigation methods ...


Thermal Inactivation Of Human Norovirus Surrogates And Hepatitis A Virus In Foods, Hayriye Bozkurt Cekmer May 2014

Thermal Inactivation Of Human Norovirus Surrogates And Hepatitis A Virus In Foods, Hayriye Bozkurt Cekmer

Doctoral Dissertations

Foodborne enteric viruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans. In particular, human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the most important foodborne viral pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected. Therefore, studies are needed to bridge existing data gaps and determine appropriate parameters for thermal inactivation methods for human norovirus and hepatitis A virus. Due to the absence of appropriate cell culture systems to propagate these viruses, cultivable surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9 and murine norovirus, MNV-1) are commonly used based on the assumption that they can mimic the viruses they represent. The objectives ...


Inactivation Of Sporeforming Spoilage Bacteria In Milk And Juice Using Ultra High Pressure Homogenization, Julie Michelle Gidley May 2014

Inactivation Of Sporeforming Spoilage Bacteria In Milk And Juice Using Ultra High Pressure Homogenization, Julie Michelle Gidley

Masters Theses

Inactivation of spores is essential for extending the shelf life of fluid milk and other food products. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) on spores from three spore forming bacteria. The first experiment studied UHPH effects on Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Paenibacillus lautus, and Bacillus licheniformis in fluid milk. Homogenization pressures of 100 - 500 MPa were applied to spore-inoculated samples, and spore viability was determined by plating onto agar media. Heat shock treatments (80°C, 10 min) were applied to a portion of each sample prior to UHPH. UHPH treatment significantly reduced spore populations on ...


Influence Of Aba On Calcium Binding In Tomato Fruit And Its Impact On Fruit Texture, Kendall Cressman May 2014

Influence Of Aba On Calcium Binding In Tomato Fruit And Its Impact On Fruit Texture, Kendall Cressman

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Antimicrobial Activity Of Cinnamic Acid, Citric Acid, Cinnamaldehyde, And Levulinic Acid Against Foodborne Pathogens, Savannah G. Hawkins May 2014

Antimicrobial Activity Of Cinnamic Acid, Citric Acid, Cinnamaldehyde, And Levulinic Acid Against Foodborne Pathogens, Savannah G. Hawkins

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.