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Food Science

University of Nebraska - Lincoln

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Stunting And Infectious Disease In Ethiopian And Zambian Children, Alyssa Arndt Apr 2020

Stunting And Infectious Disease In Ethiopian And Zambian Children, Alyssa Arndt

NUTR/GLST 498b: Global Research Experiences in Nutrition & Health

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether children who are malnourished/stunted are more likely to have experienced infectious disease.

METHODS: 6th and 7th students (n=546) were interviewed about health history and assessed using anthropometry.

RESULTS: Children who are short for their age also have higher rates of stunting. Malaria is the most experienced infectious disease.

CONCLUSIONS: Given that malaria was the most common infectious disease experience listed among middle school children, and that those who have experienced disease are more likely to be stunted, increased malaria prevention methods may improve the long-term health of Ethiopian and Zambian schoolchildren.


Association Between Sulfur-Metabolizing Bacterial Communities In Stool And Risk Of Distal Colorectal Cancer In Men, Long H. Nguyen, Wenjie Ma, Dong D. Wang, Yin Cao, Himel Mallick, Teklu K. Gerbaba, Jason Lloyd-Price, Galeb Abu-Ali, A. Brantley Hall, Daniel Sikavi, David A. Drew, Raaj S. Mehta, Cesar Arze, Amit D. Joshi, Yan Yan, Tobyn Branck, Casey Dulong, Kerry L. Ivey, Shuji Ogino, Eric B. Rimm, Mingyang Song, Wendy S. Garrett, Jacques Izard, Cutis Huttenhower, Andrew T. Chan Apr 2020

Association Between Sulfur-Metabolizing Bacterial Communities In Stool And Risk Of Distal Colorectal Cancer In Men, Long H. Nguyen, Wenjie Ma, Dong D. Wang, Yin Cao, Himel Mallick, Teklu K. Gerbaba, Jason Lloyd-Price, Galeb Abu-Ali, A. Brantley Hall, Daniel Sikavi, David A. Drew, Raaj S. Mehta, Cesar Arze, Amit D. Joshi, Yan Yan, Tobyn Branck, Casey Dulong, Kerry L. Ivey, Shuji Ogino, Eric B. Rimm, Mingyang Song, Wendy S. Garrett, Jacques Izard, Cutis Huttenhower, Andrew T. Chan

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Background & Aims: Sulfur-metabolizing microbes, which convert dietary sources of sulfur into genotoxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), have been associated with development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We identified a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and then investigated its association with risk of incident CRC using data from a large prospective study of men.

Methods: We collected data from 51,529 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study since 1986 to determine the association between sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and risk of CRC over 26 years of follow-up. First, in a subcohort of 307 healthy men, we profiled serial stool metagenomes and metatranscriptomes and assessed diet using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires to identify food groups associated with 43 bacterial species involved in sulfur metabolism. We used these data to develop a sulfur microbial dietary score. We then used Cox proportional hazards modeling to evaluate adherence to this pattern among eligible individuals (n = 48,246) from 1986 through 2012 with risk for incident CRC.

Results: Foods associated with higher sulfur microbial diet scores included increased consumption of processed meats and low-calorie drinks and lower consumption of vegetables and legumes. Increased sulfur microbial diet scores were associated with risk of distal colon and rectal cancers, after adjusting for other risk factors (multivariable relative risk, highest vs lowest quartile, 1.43; 95% confidence interval 1.14–1.81; P-trend = .002). In contrast, sulfur microbial diet scores were not associated with risk of proximal colon cancer (multivariable relative risk 0.86; 95% CI 0.65–1.14; P-trend = .31).

Conclusions: In an analysis of participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we found that long-term adherence to a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool was associated with an increased risk of distal CRC. Further studies are needed to determine how sulfur-metabolizing bacteria might contribute to CRC pathogenesis.


Growing Torula Yeast (Candida Utilis) For Food Grade Fatty Acids, Zachary Christman Feb 2020

Growing Torula Yeast (Candida Utilis) For Food Grade Fatty Acids, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The focus of this article is the cultivation of a food grade yeast for the production of fatty acids without the restrictions of climate or growing season. Torula yeast (Candida utilis) was selected since it can grow on a wide variety of culture media and has over 60 years of use in the food industry. The fatty acid composition of Candida utilis grown on two different media are presented in this article; the first example using completely synthetic media and another using distiller’s vinasse. Also, the effect of different culturing conditions on the percentage of various fatty acids will ...


Dental Health Factors Among Primary School Children In Southern Regions Of Ethiopia And Zambia, Gisselle Hernandez Jan 2020

Dental Health Factors Among Primary School Children In Southern Regions Of Ethiopia And Zambia, Gisselle Hernandez

NUTR/GLST 498b: Global Research Experiences in Nutrition & Health

Purpose: Assess oral health status, and factors affecting oral health, among primary schoolchildren in southern Ethiopia and Zambia. Methods: Visual dental assessments, anthropometric measurements, and questionnaires used to collect data among 6th and 7th grade students. Results: Although stunting rates were nearly equal, decay rates were not; 17.51% of Zambian students and 47.27% of Ethiopian students had one or more decayed teeth. Ethiopian students with dental fluorosis (74.55%) had higher rates of decay than those without the condition (p < .05). There were also significant differences between Ethiopians and Zambians regarding use of dental hygiene tools: Ethiopians were more likely to use dental sticks, while Zambians employed toothbrushes for cleaning. Conclusions: Dental health and hygiene education, focused on unique socioecological settings, could improve the oral health status of Ethiopian and Zambian children.

PowerPoint file attached below


Antimicrobial Peptide Identification Using Multi-Scale Convolutional Network, Xin Su, Jing Xu, Yanbin Yin, Xiongwen Quan, Han Zhang Dec 2019

Antimicrobial Peptide Identification Using Multi-Scale Convolutional Network, Xin Su, Jing Xu, Yanbin Yin, Xiongwen Quan, Han Zhang

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Background: Antibiotic resistance has become an increasingly serious problem in the past decades. As an alternative choice, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted lots of attention. To identify new AMPs, machine learning methods have been commonly used. More recently, some deep learning methods have also been applied to this problem.

Results: In this paper, we designed a deep learning model to identify AMP sequences. We employed the embedding layer and the multi-scale convolutional network in our model. The multi-scale convolutional network, which contains multiple convolutional layers of varying filter lengths, could utilize all latent features captured by the multiple convolutional layers ...


A Novel And Green Nanoparticle Formation Approach To Forming Low-Crystallinity Curcumin Nanoparticles To Improve Curcumin’S Bioaccessibility, Ali Ubeyitogullari, Ozan Ciftci Dec 2019

A Novel And Green Nanoparticle Formation Approach To Forming Low-Crystallinity Curcumin Nanoparticles To Improve Curcumin’S Bioaccessibility, Ali Ubeyitogullari, Ozan Ciftci

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Health-promoting effects of curcumin are well-known; however, curcumin has a very low bioavailability due to its crystalline structure. The main objective of this study was to develop a novel green nanoparticle formation method to generate low-crystallinity curcumin nanoparticles to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin. Nanoporous starch aerogels (NSAs) (surface area of 60 m2/g, pore size of 20 nm, density of 0.11 g/cm3, and porosity of 93%) were employed as a mold to produce curcumin nanoparticles with the help of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The average particle size of the curcumin nanoparticles was 66 nm. Impregnation into NSAs ...


Evaluating The Efficacy Of Whole Cooked Enriched Egg In Modulating Health-Beneficial Biological Activities, Emerson Nolasco Dec 2019

Evaluating The Efficacy Of Whole Cooked Enriched Egg In Modulating Health-Beneficial Biological Activities, Emerson Nolasco

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The whole egg is known as nutritious food in the human diet with a wide reach due to its accessibility. It’s highly bioavailable proteins and dietary compounds, and their health-beneficial properties make the egg a potential functional food. Still, little is known about how the production and processing methods can modulate its potential health-beneficial properties. To attend the knowledge gaps, the study established objectives look to evaluate the effect of the hen breed, egg enrichment, and cooking methods. The hen breed and egg enrichment maintained overall the egg quality. Confirming the capacity of the egg industry of improving the ...


Keeping Allergen Names Clear And Defined, Sanny K. Chan, Anna Pomés, Christiane Hilger, Janet M. Davies, Geoffrey Mueller, Annette Kuehn, Andreas L. Lopata, Gabriele Gadermaier, Marianne Van Hage, Monika Raulf, Richard E. Goodman Nov 2019

Keeping Allergen Names Clear And Defined, Sanny K. Chan, Anna Pomés, Christiane Hilger, Janet M. Davies, Geoffrey Mueller, Annette Kuehn, Andreas L. Lopata, Gabriele Gadermaier, Marianne Van Hage, Monika Raulf, Richard E. Goodman

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies (WHO/IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee was established in 1986 by leading allergists to standardize names given to proteins that cause IgE-mediated reactions in humans. The Sub-Committee’s objective is to assign unique names to allergens based on a critical analysis of confidentially submitted biochemical and clinical data from researchers, often prior to publication to preserve consistency. The Sub-Committee maintains and revises the database as the understanding of allergens evolves. This report summarizes recent developments that led to updates in classification of cockroach group 1 and 5 allergens to animal as well ...


Gene Expression Value Prediction Based On Xgboost Algorithm, Wei Li, Yanbin Yin, Xiongwen Quan, Han Zhang Nov 2019

Gene Expression Value Prediction Based On Xgboost Algorithm, Wei Li, Yanbin Yin, Xiongwen Quan, Han Zhang

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cell status to reflect the health of the body, to diagnose genetic diseases, etc. In recent years, although the cost of genome-wide expression profiling is gradually decreasing, the cost of collecting expression profiles for thousands of genes is still very high. Considering gene expressions are usually highly correlated in humans, the expression values of the remaining target genes can be predicted by analyzing the values of 943 landmark genes. Hence, we designed an algorithm for predicting gene expression values based on XGBoost, which integrates multiple tree models and has stronger interpretability ...


Prophylactic Effects Of Isomaltodextrin In A Balb/C Mouse Model Of Egg Allergy, Yoshinori Mine, Yan Jin, Hua Zhang, Prithy Rupa, Kaustav Majumder, Takeo Sakurai, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Ryodai Takagaki, Hikaru Watanabe, Hitoshi Mitsuzumi Nov 2019

Prophylactic Effects Of Isomaltodextrin In A Balb/C Mouse Model Of Egg Allergy, Yoshinori Mine, Yan Jin, Hua Zhang, Prithy Rupa, Kaustav Majumder, Takeo Sakurai, Yoshifumi Taniguchi, Ryodai Takagaki, Hikaru Watanabe, Hitoshi Mitsuzumi

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of isomaltodextrin (IMD), a dietary saccharide polymer derived from enzymatically produced from starch, on the ability to alter immune response (IR) bias to hen egg ovalbumin (Ova) induced allergic inflammation in mice. Groups of Balb/c mice were pre-treated with various doses of IMD in drinking water (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0% w/v) for 6 weeks and subsequently sensitized to the Ova together with continuous administration of IMD. To evaluate changes in immune response bias, immunoglobulin isotype-associated antibody activity, concentrations of type 1 and 2 cytokines ...


Effect Of Processing On Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates In Whole Grains, Caroline Smith Nov 2019

Effect Of Processing On Microbiota Accessible Carbohydrates In Whole Grains, Caroline Smith

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

There is potential to increase microbiota accessible carbohydrates (MAC) in whole grains through food processing. Therefore, different processing conditions for boiling and extrusion of whole wheat flour were studied for their effect on MAC. Processing conditions had a minimal effect on fermentation response using 2 fecal samples of disparate composition. However, the processing method had an impact on the fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates and subsequent short chain fatty acids production, but only for a microbiome with high diversity and a predominance of microbes associated with dietary fiber intake. Subsequently, five processing methods: boiling, extrusion, unleavened bread, yeast bread, and sourdough ...


Formation Of Low Density And Free-Flowing Hollow Microparticles From Non-Hydrogenated Oils And Preparation Of Pastries With Shortening Fat Composed Of The Microparticles, Joshua Gudeman Oct 2019

Formation Of Low Density And Free-Flowing Hollow Microparticles From Non-Hydrogenated Oils And Preparation Of Pastries With Shortening Fat Composed Of The Microparticles, Joshua Gudeman

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Solid fats provide critical functionality in the structuring, shortening, and stabilizing of many foods. However, their use as an ingredient is foods can present a number of challenges. The physical properties of solid fat can make them difficult to apply to or incorporate into foods consistently. On an industrial food production scale, handling of solid fats can difficult because they are often packed in heavy cubes or totes, and production delays and inefficiencies may be caused by the need to remelt the oils before use. Oils as a macronutrient also contribute a relatively high number of calories at 9 calories ...


Role Of Dietary Flavonoid Compounds In Driving Patterns Of Microbial Community Assembly, Kerry L. Ivey, Andrew T. Chan, Jacques Izard, Aedin Cassidy, Geraint B. Rogers, Eric B. Rimm Sep 2019

Role Of Dietary Flavonoid Compounds In Driving Patterns Of Microbial Community Assembly, Kerry L. Ivey, Andrew T. Chan, Jacques Izard, Aedin Cassidy, Geraint B. Rogers, Eric B. Rimm

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic dietary compounds found in many different plant-based foods. There is increasing evidence that higher flavonoid intake may be causally linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. The bioactivity and bioavailability of many dietary flavonoids can be influenced by gastrointestinal microbiome metabolism. However, the role that habitual flavonoid intake plays in shaping the human gut microbiome is poorly understood. We describe an application of an ecosystem-based analytic approach to nutritional, microbiome, and questionnaire data from a cohort of more than 240 generally healthy adult males to assess the role of ...


Bioinformatics Identification Of Anti-Crispr Loci By Using Homology, Guilt-By-Association, And Crispr Self-Targeting Spacer Approaches, Yanbin Yin, Bowen Yang, Sarah Entwistle Sep 2019

Bioinformatics Identification Of Anti-Crispr Loci By Using Homology, Guilt-By-Association, And Crispr Self-Targeting Spacer Approaches, Yanbin Yin, Bowen Yang, Sarah Entwistle

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Anti-CRISPR (Acr) loci/operons encode Acr proteins and Acr-associated (Aca) proteins. Forty-five Acr families have been experimentally characterized inhibiting seven subtypes of CRISPR-Cas systems. We have developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify genomic loci containing Acr homologs and/or Aca homologs by combining three computational approaches: homology, guilt-by-association, and self-targeting spacers. Homology search found thousands of Acr homologs in bacterial and viral genomes, but most are homologous to AcrIIA7 and AcrIIA9. Investigating the gene neighborhood of these Acr homologs revealed that only a small percentage (23.0% in bacteria and 8.2% in viruses) of them have neighboring Aca homologs ...


High Pressure Thawing Of Raw Poultry Meats, Ali Alqaraghuli Jul 2019

High Pressure Thawing Of Raw Poultry Meats, Ali Alqaraghuli

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The melting temperature of water reaches its minimum when pressurized from 0 °C at atmospheric pressure down to -22 °C at 220 MPa, showing that frozen products at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) can be thawed rapidly by simply increasing the pressure to 210-250 MPa. High pressure thawing (HPT) of poultry meats (ground chicken, chicken breast, thigh, liver, gizzard, and heart) commonly used in the raw pet food industry was evaluated at 240 MPa, two processing fluid temperatures (refrigerated, 0-10 °C and room, 20-30 °C), and four holding times (1, 180, 360, and 540 s). Changes in color via * * * measurements ...


Experimental Evidence For Adaptation To Species-Specific Gut Microbiota In House Mice, Andrew H. Moeller, João C. Gomes-Neto, Sara Mantz, Hatem Kittana, Rafael R. Segura Munoz, Robert J. Schmaltz, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael W. Nachman Jul 2019

Experimental Evidence For Adaptation To Species-Specific Gut Microbiota In House Mice, Andrew H. Moeller, João C. Gomes-Neto, Sara Mantz, Hatem Kittana, Rafael R. Segura Munoz, Robert J. Schmaltz, Amanda E. Ramer-Tait, Michael W. Nachman

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The gut microbial communities of mammals have codiversified with host species, and changes in the gut microbiota can have profound effects on host fitness. Therefore, the gut microbiota may drive adaptation in mammalian species, but this possibility is underexplored. Here, we show that the gut microbiota has codiversified with mice in the genus Mus over the past 6 million years, and we present experimental evidence that the gut microbiota has driven adaptive evolution of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus. Phylogenetic analyses of metagenomeassembled bacterial genomic sequences revealed that gut bacterial lineages have been retained within and diversified alongside Mus ...


Sustainability Assessment Of U.S. Beef Processing And Its Antimicrobial Systems, Shaobin Li Jul 2019

Sustainability Assessment Of U.S. Beef Processing And Its Antimicrobial Systems, Shaobin Li

Civil and Environmental Engineering Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

With the increasing meat demand and awareness of sustainability, concerns have been raised regarding the sustainability of beef production and processing. However, scarce data and inadequate sustainability assessment frameworks for the U.S. beef processing industry limit the ability to develop new technologies and policies comprehensively without shifting sustainability burdens. To fill those gaps, various assessments of the U.S. beef processing industry were conducted from multiple perspectives regarding the environmental, economic, microbial effectiveness of its antimicrobial systems, and human health impacts from foodborne illness, occupational hazards, and environmental pollution.

First, process-level water and energy usage at a typical large-size ...


Candida Albicans Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Modulates Staphyloxanthin Production And Activates The Thiol-Based Oxidative-Stress Response In Staphylococcus Aureus, Taissa Vila, Eric F. Kong, Ahmed Ibrahim, Kurt Piepenbrink, Amol C. Shetty, Carrie Mccracken, Vincent Bruno, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk Jun 2019

Candida Albicans Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Modulates Staphyloxanthin Production And Activates The Thiol-Based Oxidative-Stress Response In Staphylococcus Aureus, Taissa Vila, Eric F. Kong, Ahmed Ibrahim, Kurt Piepenbrink, Amol C. Shetty, Carrie Mccracken, Vincent Bruno, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Microbial species utilize secreted-signaling molecules to coordinate their behavior. Our previous investigations demonstrated a key role for the Candida albicans-secreted quorum-sensing molecule farnesol in modulating Staphylococcus aureus response to antimicrobials in mixed biofilms. In this study, we aimed to provide mechanistic insights into the impact of farnesol on S. aureus within the context of inter-species interactions. To mimic biofilm dynamics, farnesol-sensitized S. aureus cells were generated via sequential farnesol exposure. The sensitized phenotype exhibited dramatic loss of the typical pigment, which we identified as staphyloxanthin, an important virulence factor synthesized by the Crt operon in S. aureus. Additionally, farnesol exposure ...


Cell Wall Enzymes In Zygnema Circumcarinatum Utex 1559 Respond To Osmotic Stress In A Plant-Like Fashion, Elisabeth Fitzek, Lauren Orton, Sarah Entwistle, W. Scott Grayburn, Catherine Ausland, Melvin R. Duvall, Yanbin Yin Jun 2019

Cell Wall Enzymes In Zygnema Circumcarinatum Utex 1559 Respond To Osmotic Stress In A Plant-Like Fashion, Elisabeth Fitzek, Lauren Orton, Sarah Entwistle, W. Scott Grayburn, Catherine Ausland, Melvin R. Duvall, Yanbin Yin

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Previous analysis of charophyte green algal (CGA) genomes and transcriptomes for specific protein families revealed that numerous land plant characteristics had already evolved in CGA. In this study, we have sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of Zygnema circumcarinatum UTEX 1559, and combined its predicted protein sequences with those of 13 additional species [five embryophytes (Emb), eight charophytes (Cha), and two chlorophytes (Chl) as the outgroup] for a comprehensive comparative genomics analysis. In total 25,485 orthologous gene clusters (OGCs, equivalent to protein families) of the 14 species were classified into nine OGC groups. For example, the ChaCEmb group contains 4 ...


Nitrogen, Cobalt Co-Doped Fluorescent Magnetic Carbon Dots As Ratiometric Fluorescent Probes For Cholesterol And Uric Acid In Human Blood Serum, Shan Huang, Erli Yang, Jiandong Yao, Xu Chu, Yi Liu, Yue Zhang, Qi Xiao May 2019

Nitrogen, Cobalt Co-Doped Fluorescent Magnetic Carbon Dots As Ratiometric Fluorescent Probes For Cholesterol And Uric Acid In Human Blood Serum, Shan Huang, Erli Yang, Jiandong Yao, Xu Chu, Yi Liu, Yue Zhang, Qi Xiao

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Detection of cholesterol and uric acid biomarkers is of great importance for clinical diagnosis of several serious diseases correlated with their variations in human blood serum. In this study, a new kind of well selective and highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescent probe for cholesterol and uric acid determination in human blood serum was innovatively developed on the basis of the inner filter effect (IFE) process of nitrogen, cobalt co-doped carbon dots (N,Co-CDs) with 2,3-diaminophenazine (DAP). DAP was the oxidative product during the oxidation reaction between ophenylenediamine and H2O2. Fluorescent magnetic N,Co-CDs possessing blue emission and magnetic property were ...


Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman May 2019

Introduction To Sorghum Paper Production, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Sorghum is a tall grass used for many commercial products such as fodder and syrup. The 10 to 15 feet stalk of the plant has lower lignin than wood and provides a fiber length of 2.31 mm in the outer covering and 1.38 mm for the leaf. Sorghum fiber makes a high quality, strong paper suitable for printing, packaging and paperboard.


Characterization And Evaluation Of The Probiotic Properties Of The Sporeforming Bacteria, Bacillus Coagulans Unique Is-2, Amy Garrison May 2019

Characterization And Evaluation Of The Probiotic Properties Of The Sporeforming Bacteria, Bacillus Coagulans Unique Is-2, Amy Garrison

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Probiotics are live organisms, that when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. To achieve probiotic status, each potential strain’s functional properties and their safety to the consumer must be comprehensively evaluated. Probiotic effects have been observed to be strain specific, therefore each new strain of interest must be characterized according to their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. There is a list of characteristics that potential probiotic strains should have to be considered as a probiotic. Potential probiotic strains should be evaluated for their acid and bile salt resistance, antimicrobial activity and adherence and colonization to ...


Encapsulation Of Astaxanthin-Enriched Camelina Seed Oil Obtained By Ethanol-Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction, Liyang Xie Apr 2019

Encapsulation Of Astaxanthin-Enriched Camelina Seed Oil Obtained By Ethanol-Modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction, Liyang Xie

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Astaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid widely used in the food, feed, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Natural sources of astaxanthin are preferable to synthetic sources. However, current sources of natural astaxanthin are limited and fall short of global demand. In addition, effective extraction and stabilization strategies are needed before the utilization of natural astaxanthin in food applications. This work investigated 1) the feasibility of ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of astaxanthin from engineered camelina seed, a potential source of natural astaxanthin, and 2) the potential of an emulsion-based system to protect astaxanthin after extraction. The physical properties of the emulsion ...


Long-Term Use Of Antibiotics And Risk Of Colorectal Adenoma, Yin Cao, Kana Wu, Raaj Mehta, David A. Drew, Mingyang Song, Paul Lochhead, Long H. Nguyen, Jacques Izard, Charles S. Fuchs, Wendy S. Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Shuji Ogino, Edward L. Giovannucci, Andrew T. Chan Apr 2019

Long-Term Use Of Antibiotics And Risk Of Colorectal Adenoma, Yin Cao, Kana Wu, Raaj Mehta, David A. Drew, Mingyang Song, Paul Lochhead, Long H. Nguyen, Jacques Izard, Charles S. Fuchs, Wendy S. Garrett, Curtis Huttenhower, Shuji Ogino, Edward L. Giovannucci, Andrew T. Chan

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Objective—Recent evidence suggests that antibiotic use, which alters the gut microbiome, is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, the association between antibiotic use and risk of colorectal adenoma, the precursor for the majority of colorectal cancers, has not been investigated.

Design—We prospectively evaluated the association between antibiotic use at age 20–39 and 40–59 (assessed in 2004) and recent antibiotic use (assessed in 2008) with risk of subsequent colorectal adenoma among 16,642 women aged ≥60 enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study who underwent at least one colonoscopy through 2010. We used multivariate logistic ...


Corrigendum: Use Of Uv Treated Milk Powder To Increase Vaccine Efficacy In The Elderly, Sara Schaefer, Kasper Arthur Hettinga, James Cullor, J. Bruce German, Bethany M. Henrick Mar 2019

Corrigendum: Use Of Uv Treated Milk Powder To Increase Vaccine Efficacy In The Elderly, Sara Schaefer, Kasper Arthur Hettinga, James Cullor, J. Bruce German, Bethany M. Henrick

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

“Peripheral blood samples were collected at the time of enrollment (week 0) and serum was stored at −80◦C until subsequent analysis. Participants were then randomized into two groups and provided with equal concentration and quantity of either dairy or soy supplement provided in powdered form in coded, single-serving bags. Both participants and researchers were blinded to the type of protein received. Participants were asked to consume two servings of protein powder (6 grams/packet) with 4 ounces of water or applesauce twice per day, with meals, for a total of 8 weeks. At week 4, participants were vaccinated with ...


Tlr10 Senses Hiv-1 Proteins And Significantly Enhances Hiv-1 Infection, Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Muhammad Atif Zahoor, Alash’Le Abimiku, Sophia Osawe, Kenneth L. Rosenthal Mar 2019

Tlr10 Senses Hiv-1 Proteins And Significantly Enhances Hiv-1 Infection, Bethany M. Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Muhammad Atif Zahoor, Alash’Le Abimiku, Sophia Osawe, Kenneth L. Rosenthal

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immunity and provide a first line of host defense against invading pathogens. Of the identified human TLRs, TLR10 remains an orphan receptor whose ligands and functions are poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the level of TLR10 expression in breastmilk (BM) and explore its potential function in the context of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated HIV-1-infected (Nigerian: n = 40) and uninfected (Nigerian: n = 27; Canadian: n = 15) BM samples for TLR expression (i.e., TLR10, TLR2, and TLR1) and report here that HIV-1-infected BM from Nigerian women showed ...


No More, Monsanto. A Comprehensive Review Of The Most Hated Agriculture/Biotechnology/Chemical/Confectionery/Pharmaceutical Company In America., Gabrielle Robbins Mar 2019

No More, Monsanto. A Comprehensive Review Of The Most Hated Agriculture/Biotechnology/Chemical/Confectionery/Pharmaceutical Company In America., Gabrielle Robbins

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Since 1901, Monsanto's roots have held strong to its grip as a conglomerate in chemical, agriculture, and biotechnology industries. This creative project will deconstruct, investigate and strategically interpret the brand's history, logo, social responsibility and so much more of the good, bad and the ugly.


Hydrodistillation Extraction Kinetics Regression Models For Essential Oil Yield And Composition In Juniperus Virginiana, J. Excelsa, And J. Sabina, Ivanka B. Semerdjieva, Santosh Shiwakoti, Charles L. Cantrell, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Vicki L. Schlegel, Tzenka Radoukova Mar 2019

Hydrodistillation Extraction Kinetics Regression Models For Essential Oil Yield And Composition In Juniperus Virginiana, J. Excelsa, And J. Sabina, Ivanka B. Semerdjieva, Santosh Shiwakoti, Charles L. Cantrell, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Vicki L. Schlegel, Tzenka Radoukova

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The chemical profile and antioxidant capacity of Juniperus virginiana, J. excelsa, and J. sabina essential oil (EO) fractions as a function of time was the subject of this study. The hypothesis was that, capturing EO in sequential timeframes during hydrodistillation would generate fractions containing unique compositions and antioxidant capacity. In J. virginiana, the highest limonene (43%) was found in the 0–5 min oil fraction, with safrole (37%) being highest in the 10–20 and 20–40 min fractions, and elemol (34%) being highest in the 160–240 min fraction. In J. excelsa, α-pinene (34-36%) was the highest in the ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Fermentation Capabilities Of Various Bifidobacterium Strains, Ella Oney Mar 2019

A Comparative Analysis Of The Fermentation Capabilities Of Various Bifidobacterium Strains, Ella Oney

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Bifidobacterium is a genus of anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found to inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of many members of the animal kingdom. These microorganisms are adapted to obtain their carbon from the breakdown of complex carbohydrates. Marmosets, a mammal whose gut microbiome is inhabited by high levels of Bifidobacteria, consume gum Arabic as a major part of their diet. The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether Bifidobacterium strains isolated from the guts of marmosets are able to degrade and ferment this complex carbohydrate or one of its main constituents, arabinose. This was accomplished by inoculating isolates of ...


Orphan Genes Shared By Pathogenic Genomes Are More Associated With Bacterial Pathogenicity, Sarah Entwistle, Yanbin Yin Feb 2019

Orphan Genes Shared By Pathogenic Genomes Are More Associated With Bacterial Pathogenicity, Sarah Entwistle, Yanbin Yin

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Orphan genes (also known as ORFans [i.e., orphan open reading frames]) are new genes that enable an organism to adapt to its specific living environment. Our focus in this study is to compare ORFans between pathogens (P) and nonpathogens (NP) of the same genus. Using the pangenome idea, we have identified 130,169 ORFans in nine bacterial genera (505 genomes) and classified these ORFans into four groups: (i) SS-ORFans (P), which are only found in a single pathogenic genome; (ii) SS-ORFans (NP), which are only found in a single nonpathogenic genome; (iii) PS-ORFans (P), which are found in multiple ...