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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Improving Access To Clean Water Through Service Learning, Rachel E. Gehr, Tolu Odimayomi, Carolina Tornesi Mackinnon Mar 2019

Improving Access To Clean Water Through Service Learning, Rachel E. Gehr, Tolu Odimayomi, Carolina Tornesi Mackinnon

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit

No abstract provided.


A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak Feb 2019

A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

The realization of Internet of Underground Things (IOUT) relies on the establishment of reliable communication links, where the antenna becomes a major design component due to the significant impacts of soil. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to capture the impacts of change of soil moisture on the return loss, resonant frequency, and bandwidth of a buried dipole antenna. Experiments are conducted in silty clay loam, sandy, and silt loam soil, to characterize the effects of soil, in an indoor testbed and field testbeds. It is shown that at subsurface burial depths (0.1-0.4m), change in soil ...


Community-Scale Water Treatment Systems In The Dominican Republic, Jonathan Racey, Annabelle Papai, Elise Fischer, Becca Johnson Dec 2018

Community-Scale Water Treatment Systems In The Dominican Republic, Jonathan Racey, Annabelle Papai, Elise Fischer, Becca Johnson

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit

Engagement and Service-Learning Summit: Reciprocal and Sustainable Partnerships


Food Insecurity: Rudimentary Education For Local Youth (Firefly), Nam-Anh Nguyen, Quynh P. Nguyen, Jane E. Krause Oct 2017

Food Insecurity: Rudimentary Education For Local Youth (Firefly), Nam-Anh Nguyen, Quynh P. Nguyen, Jane E. Krause

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

As service-learning becomes recognized as a significant teaching-learning tool for college students, the authors of this article came together to apply for the Purdue University Service-Learning Sustainability Projects Grant. Upon receiving the grant, with the encouragement of Professor Jane Krause and Food Finders Food Bank, the student authors created a project focused on food insecurity education in West Lafayette, Indiana. The main objective was to develop and teach a series of lessons on food insecurity and sustainability to middle school students using interactive activities. A team of Purdue students from various backgrounds was recruited to assist in planning and to ...


Water Supply In Developing Countries: Student Experiences In The Dominican Republic, Albert Alwang, Margaret Busse, Audrey Caprio, Marieke Fenton, Jason Hawes, Andrew Kanach, Autumn Mcelfresh-Sutton Oct 2017

Water Supply In Developing Countries: Student Experiences In The Dominican Republic, Albert Alwang, Margaret Busse, Audrey Caprio, Marieke Fenton, Jason Hawes, Andrew Kanach, Autumn Mcelfresh-Sutton

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

In 2010, the United Nations established access to safe drinking water as a basic human right; however, many areas around the globe still lack access. The interdisciplinary service-learning course “Water Supply in Developing Countries” was established at Purdue in 2012 to address the complex issue of water insecurity around the world. Over the past five years, the course has produced teams involving students from nursing, engineering, agricultural economics, biology, and food science working together to develop sustainable, community-scale drinking water treatment systems. In partnership with Aqua Clara International, the student team in 2017 established a drinking water treatment system at ...


Investigation Of Low Cost Solar Drying Of Apricots For Tajikistan, Huimin Wang, Richard L. Stroshine Dr. Aug 2017

Investigation Of Low Cost Solar Drying Of Apricots For Tajikistan, Huimin Wang, Richard L. Stroshine Dr.

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Dried apricots are one of Tajikistan’s major export products. The country wants to expand its production in the southern region. However, the producers don’t have the expertise needed to produce dried apricots that meet the quality requirements of the European Union and other potential export markets. Local producers in southern Tajikistan would benefit from improvements in methods of applying sulfur and drying the apricots. This would allow them to gain a share of global markets. Methods that were studied include sulfur treatment prior to drying and approaches for rapidly drying the apricots while preventing contamination. Because the project ...


Analysis Of The Flow Behaviors Of Corn Meal During Extrusion, Daniel N. Hauersperger, Martin R. Okos, Troy Tonner Aug 2017

Analysis Of The Flow Behaviors Of Corn Meal During Extrusion, Daniel N. Hauersperger, Martin R. Okos, Troy Tonner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Food extrusion can be used to make many products we consume today, including pasta, cereals and more. The ability to predict the characteristics of the final product from an extruder using raw material characteristics and operating conditions is vital to the extrusion process. In order to answer this need, the flow behavior of corn meal was measured in a lab viscometer (off-line) and compared to the flow behaviors from an extruder (in-line) at three different moisture contents (32.5%, 35%, 37.5% wet basis). The extruder and product are heated through the friction of the corn meal passing through the ...


The Effects Of Compaction On Reconstitution Characteristics Of Dairy Powder, Michelle P. Dixon, Rose Prabin Kingsly Ambrose, Dhananjay Ashok Pai Aug 2017

The Effects Of Compaction On Reconstitution Characteristics Of Dairy Powder, Michelle P. Dixon, Rose Prabin Kingsly Ambrose, Dhananjay Ashok Pai

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Milk powders are becoming more ubiquitous within the food industry, and they offer consumers a convenient form for direct intake of dairy. The costs associated with dairy are reduced when products are converted to powder, which markedly increases shelf life at ambient temperatures. Creating compacts from powders further improves cost efficiency by reducing volume. However, milk powders typically possess poor rehydration properties, such as a slow dispersion rate and low solubility, and powder compaction additionally prolongs rehydration time, reducing consumer acceptability. Previous studies have shown that modifying dairy products before or during the drying process can improve rehydration properties, but ...


Effect Of Particle Interactions On Powder Flow Behavior, Ivana A. Penagos, Carolina P. Mora, Teresa Carvajal Aug 2017

Effect Of Particle Interactions On Powder Flow Behavior, Ivana A. Penagos, Carolina P. Mora, Teresa Carvajal

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The study of powder flow behavior is essential for the development of processing technologies in many industries. In fact, powders have a major function in diverse types of manufacturing, such as pharmaceuticals, foods, chemicals, materials, minerals and cosmetics. This leads to an increasing demand for the development of reliable methods to assess powder flow problems in industry. This research intends to provide a general insight into how surface interactions and particle properties may alter powder flowability. The materials used for this study were lactose, starch, milk powder, cocoa and chocolate. These vary in their interparticle forces as well as on ...


Genomic And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Biofilm Formation In Persistent And Transient L. Monocytogenes, Clara Assisi Dec 2016

Genomic And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Biofilm Formation In Persistent And Transient L. Monocytogenes, Clara Assisi

Open Access Theses

The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been popularized and aid in the advancement of many fields of science. The other field of science that is being revolutionized is food science and technology, especially food safety. NGS application in food safety, especially the whole genome sequencing analysis (WGS), has been widely used for tracing back the source of outbreaks. The other application of NGS that is also being developed is the analysis of global transcriptomic or RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). In this research, we utilize NGS (Ilumina MiSeq Sequencing platform) to perform sequence comparison and identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and observe the ...


Prevalence And Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns Of Salmonella Isolated From Poultry Farms, Carmen G. Velasquez Moreno Dec 2016

Prevalence And Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns Of Salmonella Isolated From Poultry Farms, Carmen G. Velasquez Moreno

Open Access Theses

Antimicrobial agents are used in human medicine to treat infections by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The same or similar drugs are used in in food-producing animals for therapeutic and sub-therapeutic purposes. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria that develop on farms are a public health risk as these organisms may contribute to treatment failures in infected humans. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella isolated from poultry farms in two different seasons to evaluate the effect of recommended biosecurity practices. Specifically, we identified Salmonella serotypes, measured antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and characterized AMR patterns. We hypothesized that ...


A Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Radiant And Immersion Frying Using Hash Brown Patties As A Model Food Matrix, Kaitlin R. Kaczay Dec 2016

A Comparison Of The Efficacy Of Radiant And Immersion Frying Using Hash Brown Patties As A Model Food Matrix, Kaitlin R. Kaczay

Open Access Theses

Radiant frying is an alternative technique to traditional immersion frying. While enjoyed by consumers, immersion fried foods are typically high in fat. Radiant frying uses infrared energy to produce finished products with similar sensory characteristics to traditional frying, but with significantly less fat. This research compared the efficacy of radiant and immersion frying using hash brown patties as a model food matrix by measuring temperature profiles, heat flux profiles, moisture and oil contents, peak shear force, color, mottling, and crust thickness as well as executing semi-trained and untrained sensory evaluations. The FryLess 100K Radiant Fryer was used for all experimentation ...


Impact Of Microwave-Assisted Heating And Enzymatic Treatment On Functional And Antioxidant Properties Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By-Product Hydrolysates, Elizabeth Bich Hang Nguyen Dec 2016

Impact Of Microwave-Assisted Heating And Enzymatic Treatment On Functional And Antioxidant Properties Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By-Product Hydrolysates, Elizabeth Bich Hang Nguyen

Open Access Theses

Fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) have been widely used as a mean to better utilize fishery by-products through the use of proteolytic enzymes to produce a wide range of functional peptides that can be used as food ingredients. Studies have shown that these functional peptides have enhanced interface-stabilizing properties (e.g. functionality) and antioxidant activity. FPH production can be accelerated by using rapid heating methods (e.g. microwave) compared to slower conventional heating (CH). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of microwave heating (MW) during enzymatic hydrolysis on functionality and antioxidant properties of FPH. Treatments consisted of ...


Antibacterial Activity Of Essential Oil Encapsulated Sodium Iota-Carrageenan Fibers, Carlos D. Carter Dec 2016

Antibacterial Activity Of Essential Oil Encapsulated Sodium Iota-Carrageenan Fibers, Carlos D. Carter

Open Access Theses

Spoilage microorganisms cause food waste and loss of quality. While the foodborne pathogen outbreaks lead to thousands of hospitalizations and deaths. Essential oils (EOs), plant extracts, possess the required antimicrobial activities and thus their usage stands out as a feasible approach for controlling the undesirable bacterial growth in food systems. However, EOs are highly volatile and lose their activity upon exposure to environmental conditions. In this regard, their encapsulation in Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) matrices such as food grade polysaccharides especially iota-carrageenan could be one of the viable alternatives. Iota-carrageenan, sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae, is being used in ...


Evaluation Of Thermal Process Lethality In Meat For Non-Pathogenic Escherichia Coli As A Surrogate For Salmonella, Morgan Alyse Redemann Dec 2016

Evaluation Of Thermal Process Lethality In Meat For Non-Pathogenic Escherichia Coli As A Surrogate For Salmonella, Morgan Alyse Redemann

Open Access Theses

Non-typhoidal Salmonella is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, resulting in about 20,000 hospitalizations and nearly 380 deaths annually. The meat processing industry has been especially plagued by Salmonella, from meat-inherent sources and more alarmingly, cross-contamination. For ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products specifically, this can cause significant problems in processing facilities ensuring safe product for consumption, resulting in foodborne illness.

The development of standard lethality compliance guidelines by the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) within Appendix A assists processors in confirming that Salmonella is inactivated in RTE beef and poultry ...


Modeling For Thermal Resistance Of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli In Ground Beef, Jagpinder S. Brar Dec 2016

Modeling For Thermal Resistance Of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli In Ground Beef, Jagpinder S. Brar

Open Access Dissertations

Predictive models in microbiology are used for estimating the growth or survival of microorganism in a set of environmental conditions. A validated predictive model provides an alternative to extensive survival and shelf life studies. In this study, a predictive inactivation model for non-O157 shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in ground beef was developed. Six strains of non-O157 STEC; E. coli O26:H1, E. coli O45:H2, E. coli O103:H2, E. coli O111:H8, E. coli O121:H9, and E. coli O145: nonmotile, has similar pathogenicity as E. coli O157:H7 and can cause serious food borne illnesses. These ...


Complex Glycan Utilization Preferences Of Human Gut Bacteria, Yunus Emre Tuncil Dec 2016

Complex Glycan Utilization Preferences Of Human Gut Bacteria, Yunus Emre Tuncil

Open Access Dissertations

Complex glycans, making up dietary fiber, have gained significance in recent years as they are the main energy source for the colonic microbiota which are physiologically important for the host health. Understanding glycan utilization strategies of the members of this community is essential to maximize beneficial health outcomes obtained from them. In order to investigate how the members of our gut microbiota utilize glycans and activate their respective polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs), we performed a series of time-course assays in which two model organisms, Bacteroides thetaiotamicron (Bt) and B. ovatus (Bo), were individually grown in a medium containing carbohydrates utilized ...


Coffee Powder Wettability, Flowability And Characterization Thereof, Natalia Atuesta, Afolawemi Afolabi, Teresa M. Carvajal Aug 2016

Coffee Powder Wettability, Flowability And Characterization Thereof, Natalia Atuesta, Afolawemi Afolabi, Teresa M. Carvajal

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The production efficiency and high-quality results in industrial processes usually rely on how well product characteristics are understood as well as how well processes are controlled in order to obtain specific results. Therefore, in a billion-dollar industry as is the case of the instant coffee market, understanding the properties of the compounds produced using different techniques is a very important tool to enhance performance and delivery of high-quality coffee powders. The aim of the present study is to provide a framework of some powder properties such as particle size, shape, diameter, circularity, convexity, aspect ratio and surface energy among others ...


Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase, A Novel Immunogenic Surface Protein On Listeria Species, Mercelo L. Mendonça, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia Moreira, Fabrício Fabrício Conceição, Michael Hust, Karla Sequeira Mendonça, Ângela Nunes Moreira, Rodrigo Correa Orrea França, Wladimir Padilha Da Silva, Arun K. Bhunia, José Antônio Guimarães Uimarães Aleixo Aug 2016

Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase, A Novel Immunogenic Surface Protein On Listeria Species, Mercelo L. Mendonça, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia Moreira, Fabrício Fabrício Conceição, Michael Hust, Karla Sequeira Mendonça, Ângela Nunes Moreira, Rodrigo Correa Orrea França, Wladimir Padilha Da Silva, Arun K. Bhunia, José Antônio Guimarães Uimarães Aleixo

Department of Food Science Faculty Publications

Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous food-borne pathogen, and its presence in food or production facilities highlights the importance of surveillance. Increased understanding of the surface exposed antigens on Listeria would provide potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. In the present work, using mass spectrometry and genetic cloning, we show that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) class II in Listeria species is the antigen target of the previously described mAb-3F8. Western and dot blot assays confirmed that the mAb-3F8 could distinguish all tested Listeria species from close-related bacteria. Localization studies indicated that FBA is present in every fraction of Listeria cells, including supernatant ...


Mitigating Prevalence And Persistence Of L. Monocytogenes Using Novel Sanitation Strategies In Delis, Susan Rose Hammons Aug 2016

Mitigating Prevalence And Persistence Of L. Monocytogenes Using Novel Sanitation Strategies In Delis, Susan Rose Hammons

Open Access Dissertations

Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats sliced at retail are predicted to cause 83% of deli meat-associated listeriosis cases annually. While L. monocytogenes is commonly found in delis (55-90%), environmental prevalence varies by store (0-40%). Study 1 evaluated efficacy of 10 standardized SSOPs by testing 28 food and non-food contact surfaces for L. monocytogenes over 6 months in 30 retail delis. Intervention strategies employed in this study significantly decreased L. monocytogenesprevalence on FCS and NFCS in stores with moderate prevalence (0.5%, 0.8% reduction). However, we found that L. monocytogenes could persist despite implementation of SSOP control strategies. Study 2 ...


Influence Of Dietary Polyphenols On Carbohydrate Intestinal Digestion And Absorption, Sydney E. Moser Aug 2016

Influence Of Dietary Polyphenols On Carbohydrate Intestinal Digestion And Absorption, Sydney E. Moser

Open Access Dissertations

Both epidemiological and clinical evidence support the notion that polyphenol rich foods and beverages may modify glycemic response, glucose homeostasis and subsequent risk of Type-2 diabetes. In vitro evidence typically derived from experiments with pure phenolics and phenolic rich extracts have pointed to this benefit being associated with two potential mechanisms: (1) the ability of specific polyphenolics to inhibit carbohydrate digestion (amylase and glucosidase) and (2) polyphenolic inhibition of intestinal glucose transport. While the high potential of these activities is evident, little is actually known regarding the extent to which these benefits are extendable to the actual food matrix these ...


Dawn Or Doom: The Risks And Rewards Of Emerging Technologies, Diana Hancock, Steve Tally, Gerry Mccartney, Michele Arthur May 2016

Dawn Or Doom: The Risks And Rewards Of Emerging Technologies, Diana Hancock, Steve Tally, Gerry Mccartney, Michele Arthur

Purdue P-12 Networking Summit & Poster Session

Dawn or Doom is a free and open to the public conference at Purdue where we focus on benefits and risks surrounding some of the technologies that are both the most disruptive to current practices and being adopted the fastest. A collection of Purdue faculty experts and some outside speakers showcase their many perspectives related to this technology explosion, explore conditions that will foster innovation and investment into the next generation, and address the big-picture issues where both optimism and pessimism are warranted.


Food Processing In Haiti, Maggie R. Del Ponte Mar 2016

Food Processing In Haiti, Maggie R. Del Ponte

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit

No abstract provided.


Hunger Doesn't Take A Spring Break, Jessica Isaacs Mar 2016

Hunger Doesn't Take A Spring Break, Jessica Isaacs

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit

The rates of food insecurity amongst Hoosier children is slightly above the national average. For many of these children, school lunches are their primary source of nutrition. During school breaks, these children are at risk of going hungry. While Purdue Nutrition Society wishes that we could help all Hoosier children stay fed with nutritious meals, for now we are focusing on helping 20 local elementary students most at risk of going hungry over spring break. Working with Glen Acres Elementary in Lafayette, Indiana, a school where in 2014, over 71% of the students qualified for free or reduced lunches, we ...


Automatic Food Expiration Notification System, Nikolas-Viktor P. Doukas, Ozan Celebi, Lindsey E. Colgrove, Michael D. Werner, Tre Commings, Christopher M. Zatek, Daniel E. Odihi Mar 2016

Automatic Food Expiration Notification System, Nikolas-Viktor P. Doukas, Ozan Celebi, Lindsey E. Colgrove, Michael D. Werner, Tre Commings, Christopher M. Zatek, Daniel E. Odihi

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Aging Time And Retail Displaying Period With A Short-Term Temperature Abuse On Color Stability Of Two Beef Muscles, Derico Setyabrata, Hyun-Wook Kim, Yuan H. Brad Kim Aug 2015

Effect Of Aging Time And Retail Displaying Period With A Short-Term Temperature Abuse On Color Stability Of Two Beef Muscles, Derico Setyabrata, Hyun-Wook Kim, Yuan H. Brad Kim

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Meat color and tenderness are two most important quality factors affecting consumers’ decision on meat purchasing. Post-mortem meat aging has been widely practiced to improve palatability attributes, but could be adversely related to meat color. In particular, temperature abuse during aging or retail display can negatively affect the color stability of aged meat. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging time and short-term temperature abuse during display on color stability of two beef muscles (M. longissimus dorsi, LD and semitendinosus, ST). LD and ST muscles were separated from three beef carcasses, vacuum-packaged and assigned into ...


Optical Emission Spectroscopy Diagnostics Of Cold Plasmas For Food Sterilization, Abhijit Jassem, Michael Lauria, Russell Brayfield Ii, Kevin M. Keener, Allen L. Garner Aug 2015

Optical Emission Spectroscopy Diagnostics Of Cold Plasmas For Food Sterilization, Abhijit Jassem, Michael Lauria, Russell Brayfield Ii, Kevin M. Keener, Allen L. Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

There is a growing need for economical, effective, and safe methods of sterilizing fresh produce. The most common method is a chlorine wash, which is expensive and may introduce carcinogens. High voltage cold atmospheric pressure plasmas are a promising solution that has demonstrated a germicidal effect; however, the responsible chemical mechanisms and reaction pathways are not fully understood. To elucidate this chemistry, we used optical emission spectroscopy to measure the species produced in the plasma generated by a 60 Hz pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in a plastic box containing various fill gases (He, N2, CO2, dry air, or ...


Processing Methods And Storage Conditions On Chocolate And Coffee Powder Flow Properties, Sunland L. Gong, Andrea Della Bella, Teresa M. Carvajal Aug 2015

Processing Methods And Storage Conditions On Chocolate And Coffee Powder Flow Properties, Sunland L. Gong, Andrea Della Bella, Teresa M. Carvajal

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Powders are widely used in a countless number of industries, and are crucial to the quality control of products in areas such as pharmaceuticals and food. Particle physicochemical properties (morphology, solid state – crystalline, amorphous or both) are important factors for powder flow, which in turn can have significant impact on the stability, performance, and presentation of powders. Different processing methods as well as storage conditions such as relative humidity (RH) can drastically affect powder flow. Due to the widespread use of chocolate and coffee powder around the world, and their importance to the food industry, this work investigates two and ...


Influence And Characterization Of Microbial Contaminants Associated With The Fda Bam Method Used To Detect Listeria Monocytogenes From Romaine Lettuce, Christopher E. Bach Apr 2015

Influence And Characterization Of Microbial Contaminants Associated With The Fda Bam Method Used To Detect Listeria Monocytogenes From Romaine Lettuce, Christopher E. Bach

Open Access Theses

Over the past few decades in the US, fresh produce commodities have become increasingly prevalent vehicles for the attribution of foodborne illness. Recent outbreaks of the bacterial foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes linked to fresh produce highlight this immediate issue facing food safety. The most widely used method to screen L. monocytogenes from food matrices in the US is the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) developed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Detection of this pathogen from all foods is primarily accomplished by using four FDA approved Listeria selective media: Oxford (OXA), modified Oxford (MOX), Lithium chloride-phenylethanol-moxalactam fortified with esculin and ...


Persistence And Internalization Of Listeria Monocytogenes In Romaine Lettuce, Lactuca Sativa Var. Longifolia, Archana G. Shenoy Apr 2015

Persistence And Internalization Of Listeria Monocytogenes In Romaine Lettuce, Lactuca Sativa Var. Longifolia, Archana G. Shenoy

Open Access Theses

Listeria monocytogenes, has been implicated in a number of outbreaks involving fresh produce. While no L. monocytogenes outbreaks have been linked to romaine lettuce, the number of lettuce recalls specific to L. monocytogenes is increasing. Understanding the potential of persistence and internalization of L. monocytogenes on and within romaine lettuce will aid in determining food safety risk. Persistence of three L. monocytogenes strains on three romaine lettuce cultivars was assessed independently by inoculating seeds in 25 ml of 8 log CFU/ml for 30 minutes. Seeds were grown on two soil types (i.e. standard potting mix, Indiana top soil ...